среда, 15 января 2020 г.

Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire


Exciting discoveries from the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: ten new rock reliefs showing the Assyrian king and the gods of Assyria sculpted along a large rock-cut irrigation canal. These are the results of the “Kurdish-Italian Faida Archaeological Project”, co-directed by Prof Daniele Morandi Bonacossi (University of Udine – Italy) and Assis. Prof Dr Hasan Ahmed Qasim (Directorate of Antiquities of Duhok – Kurdistan Region of Iraq), a joint archaeological project working in the Duhok area of the northern Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 4, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
In September-October 2019, the joint Italian-Kurdish team made an extraordinary discovery in the archaeological site of Faida (20 km south of Duhok). Ten unique Assyrian rock reliefs of the eighth-seventh century BC were excavated on the eastern side of an approximately 7-km long canal dug into the bedrock.


The Faida canal, which rounds the western spur of Mount Ciya Daka, cuts through the limestone of the hill range and was fed by a series of karst springs – in part still active today – situated in several small wadis along the mountain’s northern flank. The canal had an average width of 4 m and today is buried under deposits eroded from the mountain. From the primary canal, several offtakes diverted water into secondary canals to irrigate the neighbouring fields and thus improve the agricultural production of the countryside in the hinterland of Nineveh, the last capital of the Assyrian Empire.

Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 4, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 4, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 4, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 4, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
The canal was possibly planned by the Assyrian king Sargon (720-705 BC) and along its east bank the king had panels – almost 5 m high and 2 m wide – sculpted, showing the ruler on both sides of a line of deities mounted on their sacred animals. Before the excavation, only the upper parts of the sculpted panel frames emerged from the colluvial deposits and in some cases it was possible to recognize the crowns of the deities depicted on the buried panels.

In 1973, the British archaeologist Julian Reade identified three of these panels buried along the canal, but was not able to investigate them further due to the unstable political and military situation present in the region during the conflict between the Kurdish Peshmerga and the army of the Baathist regime. The Faida reliefs were recorded in the Iraqi Official Journal under entry 2269 (14 August 1983).

Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Reliefs Nos. 6-7 during excavation, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 7 during excavation, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Reliefs Nos. 6-7, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Reliefs Nos. 6-7, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 6, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, UAV photogrammetric survey of Reliefs Nos. 6-7, 8th-7th cent. BC 
[Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Forty years later, in August 2012, during archaeological survey work in the Duhok region, the Italian Archaeological Mission to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq of Udine University directed by Daniele Morandi Bonacossi visited the site and identified six new rock reliefs. In 2019, thanks to cooperation between the Directorate of Antiquities of Duhok and the University of Udine, and the support of the Italian Consulate in Erbil, the Assyrian rock reliefs of Faida were finally brought to light.


Assyrian rock reliefs are extremely rare monuments. With the sole exception of the Mila Mergi stela, the last reliefs discovered in Iraq were made know to international scholarship almost two centuries ago – in 1845 – by the French Consul in Mosul Simon Rouet, who identified the reliefs in Khinis and Maltai.

Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 8, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 8, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 8, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 8, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 8, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 8, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 8, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 8, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
The Faida reliefs portray a procession of statues of seven of the main Assyrian deities standing on podia in the shape of striding animals in the presence of the king – who is depicted twice, at both the left and right ends of each panel. The figures are shown in profile facing left and thus looking in the same direction as the current flowing in the channel.


The deities can be identified as Ashur, the main Assyrian god, on a dragon and a horned lion, his wife Mullissu sitting on a decorated throne supported by a lion, the moon god Sin on a horned lion, the god of wisdom Nabu (?) on a dragon, the sun god Shamash on a horse, the weather god Adad on a horned lion and a bull, and Ishtar, the goddess of love and war, on a lion.

Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Reliefs Nos. 5-10-6-7 during excavation, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Reliefs Nos. 2-3 during excavation, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Reliefs Nos. 5-10, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 9, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Isabella Finzi Contini, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, Relief No. 9, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Isabella Finzi Contini, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Khinis, Assyrian rock art complex, 7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Khinis, the Large Panel, 7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Khinis, the Large Panel, 7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Today this remarkable rock art complex is part of a still post-war scenario, strongly threatened by vandalism, illegal excavations and the expansion of the nearby village and its productive activities that have already seriously damaged it. Moreover, in the years between the birth of the Islamic State as a self-proclaimed state entity in 2014 and its defeat in 2016, the Faida reliefs were located only 25 km from the front line.


Due to these threats, the joint Italian-Kurdish project is a salvage operation, which aims not only to bring to light and study these extraordinarily important Assyrian reliefs (ten have already been excavated, but many others are still waiting to be identified and unearthed), but also to record them using new technologies, to conserve them – and above all to protect this unique and exceptional archaeological site. During the 2019 field season, the canal and the reliefs have been excavated and cleaned, where necessary consolidated, and recorded by means of UAV technology, laser scanning, and digital photogrammetry.

Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Bandawai, Assyrian canal, 7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Bandawai, Assyrian canal, 7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Faida, the Assyrian canal, 8th-7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
View of the Mosul Dam Lake from Faida [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Jerwan, stone aqueduct, 7th cent. BC [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Aerial photograph of the Mosul Dam Lake [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Italian and Kurdish archaeologists on the trail of the Assyrian Empire
Aerial photograph of the Mosul Dam Lake [Credit: Alberto Savioli, LoNAP]
Prof Jason Ur (Harvard University) provided invaluable support in the UAV mapping of the canal with his senseFly eBee mapping drone, which made it possible to capture high-resolution aerial photos of the entire canal that were later transformed into accurate orthomosaics and 3D models. Finally, the state of conservation of all reliefs was assessed, rock samples were taken for minero-petrographic and physical characterization and mineralogical, chemical, and biological characterization of the deterioration products. Goal of these preliminary analyses is to plan targeted conservation treatment of the Faida reliefs.

At the end of the excavation and conservation work, which will continue in the next years, in cooperation with the Duhok Directorate of Antiquities an archaeological park of the Faida Assyrian reliefs will be established. This will allow the canal and its rock reliefs to be opened to sustainable local and international tourism, thus allowing widespread dissemination of knowledge about them, and their adequate protection.


The Faida canal with its extraordinary reliefs will thus join the other Assyrian canals, aqueducts and rock reliefs existing in the Duhok region (Khinis, Maltai and Shiru Maliktha reliefs, and Jerwan aqueduct). This complex monumental hydraulic system built by the Assyrian king Sennacherib has been studied and documented by the Italian Archaeological Mission to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq of Udine University since 2012.


A project for the creation of an archaeological-environmental park of Sennacherib’s irrigation network in the Duhok region, a conservation project regarding the Maltai and Khinis rock reliefs, and a dossier proposing the inscription of this hydraulic system in the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List have been drafted and recently published in the first volume of the new monograph series “Italian Archaeological Mission to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Monographs”.


The joint Italian-Kurdish Faida Archaeological Project of Udine University and the Duhok Directorate of Antiquities is supported by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG – Iraq), the Directorate General of Antiquities of the KRG, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, the Friuli Venezia Giulia Regional Government, the Friuli Banking Foundation, ArchaeoCrowd Ltd, and the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation.

Source: QuiUniud/Universita Degli Studi di Udine [January 14, 2020]



* This article was originally published here

Gladiator chamber found at the Roman amphitheatre in Cartagena


As excavation continues at the Roman amphitheatre in Cartagena, a large part of which lies beneath the 19 century bullring, archaeologists have found various fragments of ceramics and an ossuary ground during their dig prior to work to shore up the exterior walls.

Gladiator chamber found at the Roman amphitheatre in Cartagena
Credit: Ayuntamiento de Cartagena
This preliminary campaign has now ended and the next phase will be to reinforce the bull ring and the amphitheatre, a project which is co-financed by the Town Hall and the national Ministry of Development.


The campaign began in December and has included the full documentation of all of the structures of the amphitheatre, during which another 'carcer' or service room has come to light: these rooms were used to hold gladiators and animals captive before they were released to do battle in the arena itself.

Gladiator chamber found at the Roman amphitheatre in Cartagena
Gladiator chamber found at the Roman amphitheatre in Cartagena
Credit: Ayuntamiento de Cartagena
In addition, ceramics dating from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD have been recovered, as has an 18 century ossuary or charnel house containing bones which are thought to have been discarded after use by students at the nearby Hospital de Marina.


The Roman amphitheatre of Cartagena is one of only eighteen which are known about in the Iberian Peninsula, and only seven of those have been the subject of in-depth archaeological investigation. Six of them can be considered monumental remains, and with the latest discovery the one in Cartagena is on its way to becoming one of the most important in Spain, or indeed anywhere outside Italy.


In addition, Cartagena is one of only four cities in Spain to have both a theatre and an amphitheatre built by the Romans, and when the amphitheatre is eventually opened on a permanent basis to visitors it will be a significant addition to the already impressive range of Roman monuments which attract tourists to the city.

Source: Murcia Today [January 13, 2020]



* This article was originally published here

TR3B THE BLACK TRIANGLE IN THE SKY!

1336 views   23 likes   0 dislikes  

Channel: Terry's Theories  

TRSB TRIANGLE SHAPED UFO.THE TRSB MADE THE SEEN IN 1989. IT HAS BEEN SEEN MOSTLY IN ENGLAND AND THE USA.VIDEO PROVIDED BY SECURETEAM10 AND MUFON .LOCATION OF SIGHTINGS FIRST CLIP SIGHTING IS IN SOUTHAMPTON ON 1/6/8 SECOND CLIP WAS CAPTURED BY A BUS DRIVER SOMEWHERE IN ENGLAND. THE LAST CLIP WAS FILMED IN SPRING DALE OHIO.

Video length: 9:16
Category: Science & Technology
13 comments

Explosion or collapse? Experiment sheds light on fate of intermediate-mass stars


A group of scientists, among them several from GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung and from Technical University of Darmstadt, succeeded to experimentally determine characteristics of nuclear processes in matter ten million times denser and 25 times hotter than the centre of our Sun. A result of the measurement is that intermediate-mass stars are very likely to explode, and not, as assumed until now, collapse. The findings are now published in the scientific magazine Physical Review Letters. They stress the fascinating opportunities offered by future accelerator facilities like FAIR in understanding the processes defining the evolution of the Universe.

Explosion or collapse? Experiment sheds light on fate of intermediate-mass stars
Light from the stellar explosion that created this energized cosmic cloud was first seen on planet Earth in October 1604,
 a mere 400 years ago. The supernova produced a bright new star in early 17th century skies within the constellation
Ophiuchus. It was studied by astronomer Johannes Kepler and his contemporaries. Recent data has shown relative
elemental abundances typical of a Type Ia supernova, and further indicated that the progenitor was a white dwarf star
that exploded when it accreted too much material from a companion. The explosions discussed in the publication
would produce a remnant that looks like Kepler but with the presence of an oxygen-neon-iron white dwarf
at the center [Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/NCSU/M. Burkey et al.; Optical: DSS]
Stars have different evolutionary paths depending on their mass. Low-mass stars such as the Sun will eventually become white dwarfs. Massive stars, on the other hand, finish with a spectacular explosion known as a supernova, leaving either a neutron star or a black hole behind. The fate of both low- and high-mass stars is well understood but the situation for intermediate-mass stars, which weigh between seven and eleven times as much as the Sun, has remained unclear. This is surprising since intermediate-mass stars are prevalent in our Galaxy.


"The final fate of intermediate-mass stars depends on a tiny detail, namely, how readily the isotope neon-20 captures electrons in the stellar core. Depending on this electron capture rate, the star will be either disrupted in a thermonuclear explosion or it will collapse to form a neutron star," explains Professor Gabriel Martinez-Pinedo of GSI's research department Theory and the Institut fur Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt. Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of GSI and FAIR, adds: "This work started when we realized that a strongly suppressed, and hence previously ignored and experimentally unknown, transition between the ground states of neon-20 and fluorine-20 was a key piece of information needed to determine the electron capture rate in intermediate mass stars."

By a combination of precise measurements of the beta-decay of fluorine-20 and theoretical calculations, an international collaboration of physicists with participation from GSI and TU Darmstadt, has now succeeded in determining this important rate. The experiment took place under conditions far more peaceful than those found in stars, namely at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaskyla. The measurements showed a surprisingly strong transition between the ground states of neon-20 and fluorine-20 that leads to electron capture in neon-20 occurring at lower density than previously believed. For the star, this implies that, in contrast to previous assumptions, it is more likely to be disrupted by a thermonuclear explosion than to collapse into a neutron star. "It is amazing to find out that a single transition can have such a strong impact on the evolution of a big object like a star," says Dag Fahlin Stromberg, who, as a PhD student at TU Darmstadt, was responsible for large parts of project's simulations.


Since thermonuclear explosions eject much more material than those triggered by gravitational collapse, the results have implications for galactic chemical evolution. The ejected material is rich in titanium-50, chromium-54, and iron-60. Therefore, the unusual titanium and chromium isotopic ratios found in some meteorites, and the discovery of iron-60 in deep-sea sediments could be produced by intermediate-mass stars and indicate that these have exploded in our galactic neighbourhood in the distant (billions of years) and not so distant (millions of years) past.

In the light of these new findings the most probable fate of intermediate-mass stars seems to be a thermonuclear explosion, producing a subluminous type Ia supernova and a special type of white dwarf star known as an oxygen-neon-iron white dwarf. The (non-)detection of such white dwarfs in the future would provide important insights into the explosion mechanism. Another open question is the role played by convection -- the bulk movement of material in the interior of the star -- in the explosion.

At existing and future accelerator centres like the international FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) currently under construction at GSI, new not yet investigated isotopes and their properties can be investigated. Thus, scientists continue to bring the universe into the laboratory to answer the unsolved questions about our cosmos.

Source: Helmholtz Association [January 10, 2020]



* This article was originally published here

Massive UFO Seen In California!

477 views   48 likes   2 dislikes  

Channel: Terry's Theories  

Massive UFO hovering over California or is it. Tell me what you guys think. So here is the backstory. This was supposedly recorded a day or two ago and when the authorities approached this object took off wish that was on the video but its not. So tell me what we are looking at. Is this the real deal or are we looking at skydivers or some other natural event.
Source video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7f830n4DD3I

Video length: 2:41
Category: Science & Technology
40 comments

2020 January 15 Iridescent Clouds over Sweden Image Credit...



2020 January 15

Iridescent Clouds over Sweden
Image Credit & Copyright: Goran Strand

Explanation: Why would these clouds multi-colored? A relatively rare phenomenon in clouds known as iridescence can bring up unusual colors vividly or even a whole spectrum of colors simultaneously. These polar stratospheric clouds clouds, also known as nacreous and mother-of-pearl clouds, are formed of small water droplets of nearly uniform size. When the Sun is in the right position and, typically, hidden from direct view, these thin clouds can be seen significantly diffracting sunlight in a nearly coherent manner, with different colors being deflected by different amounts. Therefore, different colors will come to the observer from slightly different directions. Many clouds start with uniform regions that could show iridescence but quickly become too thick, too mixed, or too angularly far from the Sun to exhibit striking colors. The featured image and an accompanying video were taken late last year over Ostersund, Sweden.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap200115.html



* This article was originally published here

Cairnholy I Prehistoric Chambered Cairn, Creetown, Dumfries and Galloway, 12.1.20.

Cairnholy I Prehistoric Chambered Cairn, Creetown, Dumfries and Galloway, 12.1.20.



* This article was originally published here

Astronomers Find Wandering Massive Black Holes in Dwarf Galaxies

Artist's conception of a dwarf galaxy, its shape distorted, most likely by a past interaction with another galaxy, and a massive black hole in its outskirts (pullout). The black hole is drawing in material that forms a rotating disk and generates jets of material propelled outward. Credit: Sophia Dagnello, NRAO/AUI/NSF. Hi-Res File

Artist's conception of a dwarf galaxy, its shape distorted, most likely by a past interaction with another galaxy, and a massive black hole in its outskirts (bright spot, far right; no pullout). Credit: Sophia Dagnello, NRAO/AUI/NSF. Hi-Res File

Visible-light images of galaxies that VLA observations showed to have massive black holes. Center illustration is artist's conception of the rotating disk of material falling into such a black hole, and the jets of material propelled outward. Credit: Sophia Dagnello, NRAO/AUI/NSF; DECaLS survey; CTIO. Hi-Res File

Roughly half of the newly-discovered black holes are not at the centers of their galaxies

Astronomers seeking to learn about the mechanisms that formed massive black holes in the early history of the Universe have gained important new clues with the discovery of 13 such black holes in dwarf galaxies less than a billion light-years from Earth.

These dwarf galaxies, more than 100 times less massive than our own Milky Way, are among the smallest galaxies known to host massive black holes. The scientists expect that the black holes in these smaller galaxies average about 400,000 times the mass of our Sun.

“We hope that studying them and their galaxies will give us insights into how similar black holes in the early Universe formed and then grew, through galactic mergers over billions of years, producing the supermassive black holes we see in larger galaxies today, with masses of many millions or billions of times that of the Sun,” said Amy Reines of Montana State University.

Reines and her colleagues used the National Science Foundation’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to make the discovery, which they are reporting at the American Astronomical Society’s meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Reines and her collaborators used the VLA to discover the first massive black hole in a dwarf starburst galaxy in 2011. That discovery was a surprise to astronomers and spurred a radio search for more.

The scientists started by selecting a sample of galaxies from the NASA-Sloan Atlas, a catalog of galaxies made with visible-light telescopes. They chose galaxies with stars totalling less than 3 billion times the mass of the Sun, about equal to the Large Magellanic Cloud, a small companion of the Milky Way. From this sample, they picked candidates that also appeared in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) survey, made between 1993 and 2011.

They then used the VLA to make new and more sensitive, high-resolution images of 111 of the selected galaxies.

“The new VLA observations revealed that 13 of these galaxies have strong evidence for a massive black hole that is actively consuming surrounding material. We were very surprised to find that, in roughly half of those 13 galaxies, the black hole is not at the center of the galaxy, unlike the case in larger galaxies,” Reines said

The scientists said this indicates that the galaxies likely have merged with others earlier in their history. This is consistent with computer simulations predicting that roughly half of the massive black holes in dwarf galaxies will be found wandering in the outskirts of their galaxies.

“This work has taught us that we must broaden our searches for massive black holes in dwarf galaxies beyond their centers to get a more complete understanding of the population and learn what mechanisms helped form the first massive black holes in the early Universe,” Reines said.

Reines worked with James Condon, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory; Jeremy Darling, of the University of Colorado, Boulder; and Jenny Greene, of Princeton University. The astronomers are publishing their results in the Astrophysical Journal. (Preprint )

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

Media Contact:

Dave Finley, Public Information Officer
(575) 835-7302

dfinley@nrao.edu





* This article was originally published here

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