четверг, 2 января 2020 г.

Weird Atmospheric Sounds: Cosmic Ray with Audible Ping

81 views   8 likes   0 dislikes  

Channel: Frankie Lucena  

Instead of connecting a microphone to my PC sound card, I connected a 500 foot long unused telephone line in series with a 560pf capacitor and an 8.2 meg ohm resistor from the input to ground. Watec cameras are known for getting cosmic ray hits but I didn't know they can cause enough of a disturbance in the atmosphere to create an audible ping.

Video length: 0:09
Category: Science & Technology
0 comments

UFO moves through skies over France

918 views   27 likes   0 dislikes  

Channel: Terry's Theories  

UFO in France on July 2, 2014
Source Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDePzMoBz0w

Video length: 2:08
Category: Science & Technology
5 comments

Reconstruction of Forteviot Bronze Age Tomb, Perth Museum and Gallery, Perth, Scotland, 28.12.19.

Reconstruction of Forteviot Bronze Age Tomb, Perth Museum and Gallery, Perth, Scotland, 28.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

UFO OR NOT UFO THAT IS THE QUESTION?

142362 views   74 likes   16 dislikes  

Channel: Terry's Theories  

UFO OR JET ETHER ONE PUTTING OUT A SERIOUS CHEM-TRAIL OR HAVING ENGINE TROUBLE. VIDEO WAS TAKEN FROM AN AIRPLANE OVER MEXICO.Me personally I believe this is an airplane.Hey guys please subscribe i'm going to put out more great content that we can try to debunk, confirm or discuss.
Source video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOhHqJBVfO0&list=WL&index=30&t=0s

Video length: 2:46
Category: Science & Technology
58 comments

Snake like UFO

3979 views   24 likes   2 dislikes  

Channel: Terry's Theories  

Five videos spanding ten years of the same sighting of a snake like UFO stretching from America to Ireland.

Source video 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2aSOupjBftA&t=28s

Source video 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OoQ1mv5aEE0&t=25s

Source video 3https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAnilmhdGUQ

Source video 4https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgDFjiDFE7w&t=34s

Source video 5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3JHAQ7yEIs&t=82s

Video length: 3:06
Category: Science & Technology
33 comments

New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum


More than 220 new terracotta warriors with five different official titles, including senior military ranks, have been unearthed during the third excavation at the Mausoleum of the Emperor Qinshihuang.

New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
Credit: Emperor Qin Shi Emperor's Mausoleum


A new military rank, dubbed "lower than the lowest," was found by archaeologists at the site, according to a report of Shaanxi TV station based in Xi'an, capital of Northwest China's Shaanxi Province.

New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
Credit: Emperor Qin Shi Emperor's Mausoleum
"The terracotta warriors in the mausoleum are lined up the same way as real soldiers thousands of years ago in the Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC) and so that archaeologists can research real military systems of the dynasty with these excavated warriors," Liu Zheng, a member of the China Cultural Relics Academy, told the Global Times.

New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
Credit: Emperor Qin Shi Emperor's Mausoleum


The third excavation for Pit One of the mausoleum has been underway for 10 years, according to Liu. This round of excavation covered some 400 square metres, the Beijing Youth reported, citing sources with the mausoleum.

New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
Credit: Emperor Qin Shi Emperor's Mausoleum
Senior military officers in the Qin Dynasty stood at the front with swords in their hands, Liu explained. Their hair accessories are different from subordinates, he said.

New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
Credit: Emperor Qin Shi Emperor's Mausoleum


Twelve horses and weapons were also found during this round of excavation. The colours were well preserved, Liu noted.

New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
Credit: Emperor Qin Shi Emperor's Mausoleum
"When these pottery figurines were first excavated, they were mostly coloured, with red belts and dark armour, but we lacked preservation skills and the colours faded," he said.

New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
New terracotta warriors uncovered at emperor’s mausoleum
Credit: Emperor Qin Shi Emperor's Mausoleum
"But this time improved technologies are enabling the newly found figurines to retain their vivid colours."


"Exhibition, excavation and conservation of the mausoleum are proceeding at the same time," Liu said.

Комментариев нет:

2020 January 2 The Fainting of Betelgeuse Image Credit &...



2020 January 2

The Fainting of Betelgeuse
Image Credit & Copyright: Jimmy Westlake (Colorado Mountain College)

Explanation: Begirt with many a blazing star, Orion the Hunter is one of the most recognizable constellations. In this night skyscape the Hunter’s stars rise in the northern hemisphere’s winter sky on December 30, 2019, tangled in bare trees near Newnan, Georgia, USA. Red super giant star Betelgeuse stands out in yellowish hues at Orion’s shoulder left of center, but it no longer so strongly rivals the blue supergiant star Rigel at the Hunter’s foot. In fact, skygazers around planet Earth can see a strikingly fainter Betelgeuse now, its brightness fading by more than half in the final months of 2019. Betelgeuse has long been known to be a variable star, changing its brightness in multiple cycles with approximate short and long term periods of hundreds of days to many years. The star is now close to its faintest since photometric measurements in 1926/27, likely due in part to a near coincidence in the minimum of short and long term cycles. Betelgeuse is also recognized as a nearby red supergiant star that will end its life in a core collapse supernova explosion sometime in the next 1,000 years, though that cosmic cataclysm will take place a safe 700 light-years or so from our fair planet.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap200102.html



* This article was originally published here

Dod Law Iron Age Hill Fort, Scottish Borders, 29.12.19.

Dod Law Iron Age Hill Fort, Scottish Borders, 29.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Remains of 4,000-year-old Egyptian Guide to the Underworld discovered


When it comes to difficult travel, no journey outside New York City’s subway system rivals the ones described in “The Book of Two Ways,” a mystical road map to the ancient Egyptian afterlife.

Remains of 4,000-year-old Egyptian Guide to the Underworld discovered
A detail from the floor of a coffin of Gua, physician of Djehutyhotep, a nomarch of Deir el-Bersha, Egypt, during
the Middle Kingdom, with markings showing the “two ways” of the ancient Egyptian afterlife. Researchers
recently unearthed the remains of an even older “Book of Two Ways” [Credit: Werner Forman/
Universal Images Group, via Getty Images]
This users’ guide, a precursor to the corpus of Egyptian funerary texts known as “The Book of the Dead,” depicted two zigzagging paths by which, scholars long ago concluded, the soul, having left the body of the departed, could navigate the spiritual obstacle course of the Underworld and reach Rostau — the realm of Osiris, the god of death, who was himself dead. If you were lucky enough to get the go-ahead from Osiris’ divine tribunal, you would become an immortal god.

“The ancient Egyptians were obsessed with life in all its forms,” Rita Lucarelli, an Egyptology curator at the University of California, Berkeley, said. “Death for them was a new life.”The two journeys were a kind of purgatorial odyssey reminiscent of Dungeons & Dragons: extraordinarily arduous, and so fraught with peril that they necessitated mortuary guidebooks like “The Book of Two Ways” to accompany a person’s spirit and ensure its safe passage. (The “two ways” refer to the options a soul had for navigating the Underworld: one by land, the other by water.)


Among other annoyances, the deceased had to contend with demons, scorching fire and armed doorkeepers, who protected the dead body of Osiris against gods bent on preventing his rebirth, according to Harco Willems, an Egyptologist at the University of Leuven in Belgium. Success in the afterlife required an aptitude for arcane theology, a command of potent resurrection spells and incantations, and a knowledge of the names not just of Underworld doorkeepers but also of door bolts and floorboards.

In a new study published in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Willems detailed how a team of researchers under his direction unearthed the remains of a 4,000-year-old “Book of Two Ways” — the earliest known copy of the first illustrated book. In 2012 they reopened a long-abandoned burial shaft in the cliffside necropolis of Deir el-Bersha, a Coptic village midway between Cairo and Luxor on the eastern side of the Nile. The site was the main cemetery for the region’s governors, or nomarchs, during Egypt’s Middle Kingdom, roughly 2055 to 1650 B.C., and boasts many elaborately decorated tombs.

The shaft that Willems investigated was one of five in the tomb complex of the nomarch Ahanakht. Twenty feet down, the researchers found the remains of a sarcophagus neglected by previous generations of archaeologists. Most of its contents had been looted or destroyed by fungi, but two rotting cedar panels turned out to be etched with images and hieroglyphs. To Willems’ amazement, the fragments of text were from a copy of “The Book of Two Ways.” Inscriptions found nearby referred to the reign of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II, who ruled until 2010 B.C. These suggest that the manual is some four decades older than any of the two dozen extant copies.

Remains of 4,000-year-old Egyptian Guide to the Underworld discovered
In a photo from Harco Willems, fragments from a "booy of Two Ways" discovered recently by Willems, an Egyptologist
at the University of Leuven in Belgium. Archaeologists unearthed the remains of a 4,000-year-old “Book of Two Ways”
— a guide to the Egyptian underworld, and the earliest copy of the first illustrated book
[Credit: Harco Willems via The New York Times]
The 63-year-old Willems grew up in the Netherlands. His entry into the ancient Egyptian netherworld began at age 12, when he read Hans Baumann’s “The World of The Pharoahs,” an exploration of Egyptian antiquity from the point of view of a modern child. After majoring in Egyptology at Leiden University, Willems earned a Ph.D. at the University of Groningen, studying Middle Kingdom coffins. He has directed the dig at Deir el-Bersha since 2001; before that, the last time the tomb had been excavated was 86 years earlier, when it was explored by George Reisner, an American Egyptologist supported by Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

The Reisner expedition is mostly remembered for the discovery of the tomb of the provincial governor Djehutynakht, the predecessor of Ahanakht. Among the treasures unearthed: a mummified head; a headless, limbless torso; and a chapel whose portico harbored two palm-columns, a rectangular inner hall and a deep chamber. Alas, in a secondary shaft, labeled Tomb 17K85/1B, Reisner came up empty. Scanning the scattered debris — yellowing newspapers, cigarette butts — he concluded that the chamber had been thoroughly ransacked by looters. He abandoned his search after only a few feet.

Aided by Reisner’s excavation diary, Willems set out to document Tomb 17K85/1B in greater detail.


Suitably gloomy, dank and eerie, the shaft was like the remains of a dark forest, with hundreds of bits of cedar coffin planks spread about as if deposited by a flash flood. Given the brittleness of the 4,000-year-old wood, the excavators carefully packed up the shards for conservation back at the university in Belgium.

Wooden sarcophagi of the Middle Kingdom’s grandees were primarily painted on the inside. “These ‘Coffin Texts’ tend to situate the deceased in the world of the gods,” Willems said. “Sometimes they are combined with drawings. At Deir el-Bersha, one frequently encounters ‘Books of Two Ways.’”

The images were only applied in paint, but the hieratic texts were written in black or red ink and later traced, coarsely, with a knife. Although almost all color on the planks had disappeared and only the scratches remained, Willems managed to decipher many of the faint engravings using high-resolution images and DStretch, a software tool for digital enhancement of rock art.

Remains of 4,000-year-old Egyptian Guide to the Underworld discovered
In a photo from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Pharoah Mentuhotep II, from a block recovered from
 Deir el-Bahri in Egypt. Archaeologists unearthed the remains of a 4,000-year-old “Book of Two Ways”
— a guide to the Egyptian underworld, and the earliest copy of the first illustrated book
[Credit: Metropolitan Museum of Art via The New York Times]
Since some of the planks were etched with the name Djehutynakht, Willems at first assumed the coffin had contained that governor’s body. But closer inspection revealed that its occupant was actually a woman named Ankh, who appeared to have been related to an elite provincial official. Indeed, the jumble of bones found in the shaft may be hers, even though the Book refers to Ankh as “he.”

“To me, what’s funny is the idea that how you survive in the netherworld is expressed in male terms,” Willems said.


To the ancient Egyptians, creation and regeneration were solely the province of male gods. “Goddesses were believed to be protective vessels,” Kara Cooney, a professor of Egyptian art and architecture at the University of California, Los Angeles, said. In the engraving, “the pronoun ‘he’ was essential even for female deceased people because they needed to be like Osiris.”

Generally, each individual’s Book differed in length and lavishness depending on its owner’s wealth or status.

“This one begins with a text encircled by a red line designated as ‘ring of fire,’” Willems said. “The text is about the sun god passing this protective fiery ring to reach Osiris.” Gates feature prominently, as do two looping lines indicating the separate roads to the afterlife, surrounded by malignant spirits and other supernatural beings. The final image shows a barque dragged on a sledge — “Spell 1128,” Willems said — and follows the final text (“Spell 1130”), which yokes the dead person’s identity forever to the sun god, Ra, the creator. Assuming Ankh casts her spells properly, she has become a god.

Author: Franz Lidz | Source: New York Times News Service [December 31, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Shape shifting UFO in Greensboro NC.

797 views   25 likes   1 dislikes  

Channel: Terry's Theories  

Daniel Grier recorded a UFO in Greensboro North Carolina.As he watched this object for sometime he noticed it changing shapes from a small black circular dot to a large black square. So what are we witnessing here leave a comment and like always like and subscribe Terry out.
Source video 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6YwoPbIABc4&t=80s
Source video 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3L8Im1a5lI

Video length: 3:44
Category: Science & Technology
24 comments

Bronze Age Carpow Logboat (3000 years old) found in Loch Tay, Perth Museum and Gallery, Perth,...

Bronze Age Carpow Logboat (3000 years old) found in Loch Tay, Perth Museum and Gallery, Perth, Scotland, 28.12.19.

One of the oldest logboats found in Scotland and the best preserved.



* This article was originally published here

Locations of prehistoric sites in Cyprus reassessed after Troodos discovery


The Department of Antiquities, Ministry of Transport, Communications and Works, has announced the completion of the second part of the 2019 archaeological campaign of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUT) in the Troodos mountains. The team, under the direction of Prof. Nikos Efstratiou, in collaboration with educator/archaeologist Demetris Kyriakou, concentrated on further investigating the prehistoric site at Agios Ioannis/Vretsia- Upper Rhoudias, situated on a terrace of the valley of the Xeros River in the Troodos mountains. The investigations have been especially revealing and they highlight the important role of the mountainous areas of the island during prehistory.

Locations of prehistoric sites in Cyprus reassessed after Troodos discovery
Credit: Dept. of Antiquities Cyprus
The identification and the gradual revealing of a 7th millennium BC site in a mountainous area of Cyprus came as a surprise to researchers who considered that, the developments in prehistory –especially in relation to the Aceramic Neolithic period – concerned coastal areas and sites, such as Choirokoitia-Vouni, Kalavasos-Tenta and Apostolos Andreas-Kastros.


The above picture has changed as a result of the discovery of the site that is being investigated by the team from the AUT. This year’s finds are especially revealing concerning the nature of the site and the period in general. As such, some of the questions and thoughts that had been expressed from the very beginning of the team’s research in the area, remain relevant.

Locations of prehistoric sites in Cyprus reassessed after Troodos discovery
Credit: Dept. of Antiquities Cyprus
The investigations, which took place in November 2019, were more intense than other seasons and revealed a very large part of an impressive circular building that had already been identified in 2018. The building’s architecture has now become clearer and at the same time, a new series of questions have arisen concerning the building’s character and use, as well as its size and the possible extent of the Upper Rhoudias site.


Of special interest is the circular building’s monumental character since its diameter exceeds 7m and its walls are comprised of two series of stones (a characteristic known from other contemporaneous sites on the island). There is also evidence of other features in the interior of the building (possible rectangular pillars). Although the building has not yet been revealed completely it seems that, where the top soil layer is thin, the remains have not survived, although this will be confirmed with the completion of investigations.

Locations of prehistoric sites in Cyprus reassessed after Troodos discovery
Credit: Dept. of Antiquities Cyprus
However, the circular building and especially its location, lead researchers to a series of interesting questions concerning the nature of the Cypriot Aceramic period (i.e. geographical distribution of sites, economy, exchanges etc.), as well as more specific ones concerning the various types of buildings and their use (cultivation, seasonality, special use etc.).


A question arising is why would such a monumental and well-built structure be constructed at a mountainous locality, unless it had a special function. However, it is possible that our current perceptions of such locations as marginal, are completely wrong. All these questions will remain open issues, until the investigations are completed.

Locations of prehistoric sites in Cyprus reassessed after Troodos discovery
Credit: Dept. of Antiquities Cyprus
Another question is whether this circular building is the only one at the site or, whether it was one of more other similar or constructions. Although once more, the answer to this question will be given through future investigations, other built features have already been noted, such as a stone-built wall which possibly surrounded the site.

In conclusion, the archaeological investigations conducted by the team of the AUT at the two neighbouring sites on the Rhoudias terrace (Agios Ioannis/Vretsia-Rhoudias (9th millennium BC) and Agios Ioannis/Vretsia –Upper Rhoudias (7th millennium BC.) – have successfully highlighted a completely different aspect of the prehistory of Cyprus, that of the island’s mountainous hinterland. The new discoveries have greatly enriched our knowledge on the island’s early prehistory with new sites and finds.

Source: Department of Antiquities Cyprus [December 31, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Several Saucer Shaped Objects Found Near The Sun.

2774 views   30 likes   0 dislikes  

Channel: Terry's Theories  

Hey guys please consider donating to help me with my ufo research @ https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US
Using The Helioviewer I Found What Looks Like Several Saucer Shaped UFOs.What Do You Think These Objects Could Be? Are We Looking At A Camera Malfunction Or Debris. Could This Be Proof That We Aren't Alone? Or Are These The Same Objects That NASA Recorded On The Famed Tether Incident. Do Any Of You Have The Answer To These Questions? Please Leave A Comment Or A Suggestion On What We Are Observing And Please Like And Subscribe.If you find my channel interesting and your able to please donate https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US thank you.
Source : Helioviewer https://helioviewer.org/
Source : Jhelioviewer you will have to download https://www.jhelioviewer.org/download.html
NASA tether incident... I want you to check this out these objects or UFOs UAPs, debris or even alien entities how ever you want to labile this. They look the same. https://youtu.be/dlIF0P9j0cM

Video length: 5:19
Category: Science & Technology
23 comments

Neolithic Carved Stone Balls (Grave Goods, 3200 to 2500 BCE), Perth Museum and Gallery, Perth,...

Neolithic Carved Stone Balls (Grave Goods, 3200 to 2500 BCE), Perth Museum and Gallery, Perth, Scotland, 28.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Researcher discovers earliest fossil evidence of parental behaviour


A team led by Carleton University's Hillary Maddin has discovered the earliest fossil evidence of parental care. The fossil predates the previous oldest record of this behaviour by 40 million years and is featured in an article in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

Researcher discovers earliest fossil evidence of parental behaviour
The fossilized remains of a type of lizard-like early mammal were discovered by a team led by Carleton University’s
Hillary Maddin inside a lithified tree stump on Cape Breton Island [Credit: Maddin et al. 2019]
"This is the earliest evidence of prolonged postnatal care in a vertebrate," said Maddin, professor in the Department of Earth Sciences. "The adult animal appears to be concealing and protecting a juvenile in a den. This behavior is very common in mammals today. It is interesting to see this animal, which is on the evolutionary line leading to mammals, exhibiting this behaviour so early."


Maddin's team recently discovered the specimen of a varanopid synapsid inside a lithified tree stump on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The preserved articulated partial skeleton has a unique combination of features and represents a new species. The preserved remains are of a small individual close to a large individual of the same species in a position resembling a parent denning with an offspring.

The varanopid synapsid is lizard-like in appearance, but is nowhere near lizards in its evolutionary position. Once animals were able to lay eggs on land, they split into two distinct evolutionary branches, one that led to reptiles, birds and dinosaurs and the other, which included the varanopid synapsid, led to mammals.


Parental care is a behavioural strategy where parents make an investment or divert resources from themselves to increase the health and chances of survival for their offspring. While there are a variety of parental care strategies, prolonged postnatal care is amongst the most costly to a parent. This form of parental care is particularly common in mammals, as all mammalian offspring demand nourishment from their mothers. However, there is still little understanding of the evolutionary history of this behaviour.

Scientists have attempted to answer questions about the origin of parental care by studying fossils. Evidence of parenting has been generally limited to finding groups of preserved specimens of varying ages of the same species.

Author: Steven Reid | Source: Carleton University [December 24, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Weird Atmospheric Sounds: Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

134 views   7 likes   1 dislikes  

Channel: Frankie Lucena  

These sounds were recorded by connecting a 500 foot long antenna to the Mic input of my PC soundcard. This allows the soundcard to receive signals up to about 45 Khz if your soundcard is set to a 96000 hz sampling rate. Some of the sounds are from a nearby AM station and the others I'm not sure. Electrical disturbances in the air, like lightning or high voltage discharges, will also be picked up. Meteors or anything Ionizing in the upper atmosphere can also be picked up but they need to be close to the antenna.

Most of the photos seen here were taken by me. Some are the red sprites I captured over Hurricane Matthew and some are red sprites and gigantic jets over Tropical Storm Harvey. I also included some photos I found at the Gemini Observatory and the CFHT in Maunakea. I also added a couple of red sprite photos taken by the International Space Station.

Credit: Gemini Observatory/AURA (Gigantic Jets)
Credit: CFHT in Maunakea (Fireball)
Credit: NASA Johnson Space Center (ISS photos of Red Sprites)

Video length: 1:00:46
Category: Science & Technology
1 comments

Violent black hole outburst provides new insight into galaxy cluster evolution


Billions of years ago, in the center of a galaxy cluster far, far away (15 billion light-years, to be exact), a black hole spewed out jets of plasma. As the plasma rushed out of the black hole, it pushed away material, creating two large cavities 180 degrees from each other. In the same way you can calculate the energy of an asteroid impact by the size of its crater, Michael Calzadilla, a graduate student at the MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research (MKI), used the size of these cavities to figure out the power of the black hole’s outburst.

Violent black hole outburst provides new insight into galaxy cluster evolution
Giant cavities in the X-ray emitting intracluster medium (shown in blue, as observed by NASA's Chandra X-ray
Observatory) have been carved out by a black hole outburst. X-ray data are overlaid on top of optical data from
the Hubble Space Telescope (in red/orange), where the central galaxy that is likely hosting the culprit
supermassive black hole is also visible [Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology]
In a recent paper in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Calzadilla and his coauthors describe the outburst in galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ0528-5300, or SPT-0528 for short. Combining the volume and pressure of the displaced gas with the age of the two cavities, they were able to calculate the total energy of the outburst. At greater than 1054 joules of energy, a force equivalent to about 1038 nuclear bombs, this is the most powerful outburst reported in a distant galaxy cluster. Coauthors of the paper include MKI research scientist Matthew Bayliss and assistant professor of physics Michael McDonald.


The universe is dotted with galaxy clusters, collections of hundreds and even thousands of galaxies that are permeated with hot gas and dark matter. At the center of each cluster is a black hole, which goes through periods of feeding, where it gobbles up plasma from the cluster, followed by periods of explosive outburst, where it shoots out jets of plasma once it has reached its fill. “This is an extreme case of the outburst phase,” says Calzadilla of their observation of SPT-0528. Even though the outburst happened billions of years ago, before our solar system had even formed, it took around 6.7 billion years for light from the galaxy cluster to travel all the way to Chandra, NASA’s X-ray emissions observatory that orbits Earth.

Because galaxy clusters are full of gas, early theories about them predicted that as the gas cooled, the clusters would see high rates of star formation, which need cool gas to form. However, these clusters are not as cool as predicted and, as such, weren’t producing new stars at the expected rate. Something was preventing the gas from fully cooling. The culprits were supermassive black holes, whose outbursts of plasma keep the gas in galaxy clusters too warm for rapid star formation.

The recorded outburst in SPT-0528 has another peculiarity that sets it apart from other black hole outbursts. It’s unnecessarily large. Astronomers think of the process of gas cooling and hot gas release from black holes as an equilibrium that keeps the temperature in the galaxy cluster — which hovers around 18 million degrees Fahrenheit — stable. “It’s like a thermostat,” says McDonald. The outburst in SPT-0528, however, is not at equilibrium.


According to Calzadilla, if you look at how much power is released as gas cools onto the black hole versus how much power is contained in the outburst, the outburst is vastly overdoing it. In McDonald’s analogy, the outburst in SPT-0528 is a faulty thermostat. “It’s as if you cooled the air by 2 degrees, and thermostat’s response was to heat the room by 100 degrees,” McDonald explains.

Earlier in 2019, McDonald and colleagues released a paper looking at a different galaxy cluster, one that displays a completely opposite behavior to that of SPT-0528. Instead of an unnecessarily violent outburst, the black hole in this cluster, dubbed Phoenix, isn’t able to keep the gas from cooling. Unlike all the other known galaxy clusters, Phoenix is full of young star nurseries, which sets it apart from the majority of galaxy clusters.

“With these two galaxy clusters, we’re really looking at the boundaries of what is possible at the two extremes,” McDonald says of SPT-0528 and Phoenix. He and Calzadilla will also characterize the more normal galaxy clusters, in order to understand the evolution of galaxy clusters over cosmic time. To explore this, Calzadilla is characterizing 100 galaxy clusters.


The reason for characterizing such a large collection of galaxy clusters is because each telescope image is capturing the clusters at a specific moment in time, whereas their behaviors are happening over cosmic time. These clusters cover a range of distances and ages, allowing Calzadilla to investigate how the properties of clusters change over cosmic time. “These are timescales that are much bigger than a human timescale or what we can observe,” explains Calzadilla.

The research is similar to that of a paleontologist trying to reconstruct the evolution of an animal from a sparse fossil record. But, instead of bones, Calzadilla is studying galaxy clusters, ranging from SPT-0528 with its violent plasma outburst on one end to Phoenix with its rapid cooling on the other. “You’re looking at different snapshots in time,” says Calzadilla.  “If you build big enough samples of each of those snapshots, you can get a sense how a galaxy cluster evolves.”

Author: Fernanda Ferreira | Source: Massachusetts Institute of Technology [December 24, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

High Voltage Explosion Lights up the Night Sky: Cabo Rojo. Puerto Rico

61 views   5 likes   0 dislikes  

Channel: Frankie Lucena  

I not only captured the explosion but I also recorded the atmospheric disturbance due to the Ionization of the air. Instead of using a microphone I connected a 500 foot long wire to my PC soundcard. This allows me to pick up atmospheric sounds and frequencies up to about 45 Khz.

Video length: 0:09
Category: Science & Technology
0 comments

Featured

Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) on 13 July 2020 Live video from night vision device The recently discovered comet which is called C/2020 or NE...

Popular