суббота, 30 мая 2020 г.

Насекомое неопознанное



Насекомое неопознанное. Unidentified Insect. Предположил, что оса, так как птицы очень часто охотятся за осами в огороде.
I thought it was a wasp, as birds very often hunt wasps in the garden.

Кот и пёс



 Мой пёсик очень любит гонять котов и кошек, коты подыгрывают, словно люди, а домовой ёжик, пока ещё осматривается, привыкает.

Мой пёсик очень любит гонять котов и кошек, коты подыгрывают, словно люди, а домовой ёжик, пока ещё осматривается, привыкает.  My dog loves to drive cats, they play along like a people, the hedgehog, while still looking around, gets used to.

My dog loves to drive cats, they play along like a people, the hedgehog, while still looking around, gets used to.

вторник, 26 мая 2020 г.

В северо-западном Китае ведутся работы по восстановлению гор Сумишан.

Hidden megalithic structures, connections with aliens and geoglyphs in China.


This is the  third film, which shows thousands of buildings and hidden geoglyphs. Hidden pyramids hundreds of meters in height, the remains of an ancient people, giants and their civilization. Introduction-assimilation of alien technologies, contacts up to the highest governmental level. Today in China, the restoration and application of technology of ancient aliens is in full swing. In the film, the most interesting places that can be seen from the satellite are found.

В северо-западном Китае ведутся работы по восстановлению гор Сумишан.
https://www.xissufotoday.space/2020/05/restoration-of-xumishan-grottoes.html
Cultural relics experts from across China have begun a restoration project on murals in the Xumishan Grottoes dating back to over 1,500 years ago in northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.

Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China

Chinese UFO base, secret aircraft on anti-gravity.


Near to one of the usual military airfields and one ordinary cosmodrome, there is an unusual pyramidal structure with entrances for land transport and a platform on top for unidentified aircraft.
On the pictures of different years. on the runway of the pyramid, two different unidentified objects were discovered.

Secret Base Cosmodrome for UFOs in the Chinese Desert

When viewing this place in Google maps, one of the objects turned out to be a secret military base with a space aerodrome for a UFO-shaped disk. Air Force Base with many residential, research and military buildings.
Another similar military training ground is also located in hundreds of kilometers in the Gobi Desert, China. https://rumble.com/v328or-a-secret-base-with-ufos-in-china-area-51-look-at-google-earth.html

 Китайские мегалиты и тайны древних пришельцев Вкратце про города с множеством много вековых сооружений технического предназначения.
 

Chinese megaliths and secrets of ancient aliens Dubbing in Russian, free music from the YouTube library. The megalithic complex officially named the Yongshan plate

In the east of China in Jiangsu Province 江苏, near the city of Nanjing 南京 is the famous cultural center 明 文化 村 - Mingwen Huacun. There are megaliths here, each of which consists of hundreds of cubic meters of solid rock, and weighs thousands of tons. Most have traces of highly technological processing, the whole history of stones is shrouded in mystery.

понедельник, 25 мая 2020 г.

Иран Накш-э Ростам Древние мегалитические монументы в Иране


Геополимерные технологичные монументы в пустыне Ирана, датированные до нашей эры, более двух тысяч лет назад.
Ancient megalithic monuments in Iran
Geo-polymer technological monuments in the desert of Iran, dated before our era, more than two thousand years ago.

Восстановление королевского конного рельефа Ирана близится к завершению. Реставрационные работы на конном рельефе Хормизда II, царя Сасанидов (ок. 303 до н.э. - 309), будут завершены в течение следующей недели. Барельеф - это одно из тех высеченных в скалах изображений, усеянных под массивными высеченными в скалах гробницами в Накш-э Ростам, некрополе Ахеменидов, расположенном недалеко от Персеполя, зарегистрированного ЮНЕСКО на юге Ирана.


Restoration of Iran’s royal equestrian relief nears completion

Накс-и Рустам, Рельеф Ормизда II до реставрационных работ [Фото Jona Lendering / Vici.org]

«Реставрация барельефа осуществляется с защитным подходом и основана на теоретических принципах реставрации, и для этой цели были использованы новые материалы для реставрации камня», - цитирует ЧТН Мостафа Рахшандехоу, который руководит проектом реставрации. в понедельник. Проект восстановления начался в декабре 2019 года и завершится к 4 мая, сказал он. Одно из чудес древнего мира, Накш-э Ростам, охватывает четыре гробницы, где похоронены персидские цари Ахеменидов, которые, как полагают, принадлежат Дарию II, Артаксерку I, Дарию I и Ксерксу I (слева направо лицом к скале). ), хотя некоторые историки все еще обсуждают это.
  https://www.xissufotoday.space/2020/05/restoration-of-irans-royal-equestrian.html

Restoration of Iran’s royal equestrian relief nears completion

Над камерами гробницы есть великолепные барельефные изображения, похожие на изображения в Персеполе, с королями, стоящими на тронах, подкрепленными фигурами, представляющими подопечные страны ниже. Там также две подобные могилы, расположенные в помещениях Персеполя, вероятно, принадлежат Артаксерксу II и Артаксерксу III. Под погребальными камерами усеяны семь сасанидских барельефов эпохи (224–651), вырезанных в скале, на которых изображены яркие сцены имперских завоеваний и королевских церемоний; Вывески под каждым рельефом дают подробное описание на английском языке. Источник: Tehran Times [29 апреля 2020 года] * Tehran Times [April 29, 2020] 
* This article was originally published here
Эта статья была первоначально опубликована здесь

Древний город Персеполь в Иране Город Персеполь – столица древнего Ирана


На протяжении 36-ти лет правил Персией «царь царей» Дарий I из династии Ахеменидов. В 500-х г. до н. э. его власть достигла апогея. Около 515 г. до н. э. по велению Дария на плоскогорье Мерв-Дашт, у подножия горы Кух-и Рахмат («Гора Милосердия») была заложена новая столица страны – Парса, или, как ее называли греки, Персеполь – «город персов», символ мощи и блеска громадной державы Ахеменидов. The ancient city of Persepolis in Iran The city of Persepolis - the capital of ancient Iran For 36 years, Persia ruled the "king of kings" Darius I from the Achaemenid dynasty. In the 500's BC. e. his power reached its apogee. Around 515 BC. e. at the foot of Mount Kuh-i Rahmat ("Mountain of Mercy"), the new capital of the country, Parsa, was founded, or, as it was called by the Greeks, Persepolis, "the city of the Persians", a symbol of the power and brilliance of a huge power Achaemenides.

четверг, 21 мая 2020 г.

Ежики или новая семья «домовых».




Ёжики или новая семья «домовых». Недавно, у меня в доме поселилась семейство ежей. Самый смелый, очевидно хозяин глава семейства, вышел познакомится. Ёжик «домовой» изменил свои природные обыденные привычки (обычно они охотятся ночью) и вышел на охоту днём, нашел что-то съедобное в траве.
Ёжики или новая семья «домовых». Недавно, у меня в доме поселилась семейство ежей. Самый смелый, очевидно хозяин глава семейства, вышел познакомится. Ёжик «домовой» изменил свои природные обыденные привычки (обычно они охотятся ночью) и вышел на охоту днём, нашел что-то съедобное в траве.
Ежик, живущий в огороде
Hedgehogs or a new family of «Urchin». Recently, a family of hedgehogs settled in my house. The most daring, obviously the owner, the head of the family came out to meet. Hedgehog living in the garden. May 9, 2020. The hedgehog «Urchin» changed his everyday habits and went hunting in the afternoon, found something edible in the grass.

Шлифовка Вогнутая линза.



Вогнутая линза черновая отделка ( предварительная) перед закалкой.
Knife grinding
Concave lens rough finish (preliminary) before hardening. 




Лента для контактного шлифовального колеса.



Лента для контактного шлифовального колеса.
Для долгосрочной работы колеса, нужна качественная лента, на склеенная вручную. «Вручную» рвётся быстро, травмирует руки. Лента на 610 миллиметров, продаётся в магазине, но лучше брать в специализированных магазинах. «Ленты для обработки ножевых сталей». Лента для контактного шлифовального колеса. Belt for contact grinding wheel Лента стоит не дорого, окупается в десятки раз. Ленты в магазине «MSMSHOP Товары для ножеделов» https://msmshop.ru/ Важно, чтобы место склейки был в стык, чтобы не было «Трамплина». Трамплин – это когда лента накладывается друг на друга, то есть когда она склеена, в нахлёст.

Лента для контактного шлифовального колеса.   Для долгосрочной работы колеса, нужна качественная лента, на склеенная вручную. «Вручную» рвётся быстро, травмирует руки.  Лента на 610 миллиметров, продаётся в магазине, но лучше брать в специализированных магазинах. «Ленты для обработки ножевых сталей». Лента для контактного шлифовального колеса. Belt for contact grinding wheel Лента стоит не дорого, окупается в десятки раз. Ленты в магазине «MSMSHOP Товары для ножеделов»  Важно, чтобы место склейки был в стык, чтобы не было «Трамплина». Трамплин – это когда лента накладывается друг на друга, то есть когда она склеена, в нахлёст.


Контактное Шлифовальное колесо.



 Контактное Шлифовальное колесо. Contact grinding wheel.
Контактное колесо заказывали у наших мастеров в России. Для долгосрочной работы колеса, нужна качественная лента, на склеенная вручную. «Вручную» рвётся быстро, травмирует руки. Лента на 610 миллиметров, продаётся в магазине, но лучше брать в специализированных магазинах. «Ленты для обработки ножевых сталей». Лента стоит не дорого, окупается в десятки раз. Ленты в магазине «MSMSHOP Товары для ножеделов» Важно, чтобы место склейки был в стык, чтобы не было «Трамплина». Трамплин – это когда лента накладывается друг на друга, то есть когда она склеена, в нахлёст. Belt for contact grinding wheel. The contact wheel was ordered from our masters in Russia. For long-term operation of the wheel, you need a high-quality tape, glued by hand. «Manually» breaks quickly, injures his hands. Tape 610 millimeters, sold in a store, but better to take in specialized stores. «Tapes for processing knife steels.»The tape is not expensive, it pays off dozens of times. I purchase ribbons at the MSMSHOP knifemaker shop It is important that the gluing place is in the joint, so that there is no “Springboard”. A springboard is when the tape is laid on top of each other, that is, when it is glued together, in the overlap.

Шлифовка Сталь 95 Х 18

Можно шлифовать заготовки металла. Точить стамески. Обрабатывать металл любой твердости.

  Шлифовка Сталь 95 Х 18    Можно шлифовать заготовки металла. Точить стамески. Обрабатывать металл любой твердости.

 



Шлифовка Сталь 95 Х 18    Можно шлифовать заготовки металла. Точить стамески. Обрабатывать металл любой твердости.

пятница, 15 мая 2020 г.

Early humans in China innovated technology to adapt to climate change 1-million years ago


To assess the degree to which early stone tool using hominins modified their tool manufacturing behaviours in Eastern Asia, Shixia Yang and colleagues examined three well-known archaeological sites from the Nihewan Basin in North China. Stone tool comparisons between the archaeological sites of Xiaochangliang, Cenjiawan and Donggutuo indicate that technological skills increase at ca. 1.1-1.0 million years ago. The stone tools at Cenjiawan and Donggutuo show increasing levels of control in manufacturing procedures and some degree of planning in the tool-making process to produce desired end-products.

Early humans in China innovated technology to adapt to climate change 1-million years ago
Ecological, biological and stone tool information from 2.2 million years ago to the present (the light red horizontal bar
 shows increased climate variability) (a) Global climate change. (b) Vegetation history of the North China Plain
based on pollen analysis. (c) Hominin brain size estimates for Africa and Eurasia. (d1) Stone tool changes
 through time in the Nihewan Basin, China, showing the frequency of artefacts across different
time periods (dark green bars). (¬d2) Key stone tool changes across China
[Credit: Science China Press]


The technological innovations at ca. 1.1-1.0 million years ago in the Nihewan Basin correspond with a major climate transition which occurred between 1.2 million years ago to 700,000 years ago (called the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition). A series of global and regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental changes occurred during this period, such as increases in aridity and monsoonal intensity and decreases in sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic.


At 1.1 million years ago the early human inhabitants of the Nihewan Basin lived under a changeable and unstable environment, experiencing strengthened aridification. As climatic variability produced ecological changes, including landscape alterations and mammalian extinctions, novel technological innovations likely provided benefits to early hominin populations in the Nihewan Basin. 

The unstable environmental conditions at the onset of this period provides a good example of the adaptive versatility of hominins in China, contrasting with the notion of long-lasting conservative behaviours described by other archaeologists. Yet, the increasingly harsh and oscillating climatic conditions of this period likely undermined sustained population in North China, illustrating that technological and cultural solutions did not always overcome environmental challenges.

The study is published in the National Science Review.




* This article was originally published here

среда, 13 мая 2020 г.

Researchers trace evolution of self-control


Human self-control evolved in our early ancestors, becoming particularly evident around 500,000 years ago when they developed the skills to make sophisticated tools, a new study suggests.

Researchers trace evolution of self-control
A handaxe unearthed in Boxgrove [Credit: University of York]

While early hominins such as Homo erectus could craft basic handaxes as early as 1.8 million years ago, our hominin ancestors began to create more elaborate and carefully designed versions of these tools sometime before 500,000 years ago.

The authors of the study, from the University of York, say these advances in craftsmanship suggest individuals at this time possessed characteristics which demonstrate significant self-control, such as concentration and frustration tolerance.

The study highlights a collection of 500,000 year-old flint axes unearthed from a gravel quarry in the village of Boxgrove in West Sussex. The axes are highly symmetrical suggesting careful workmanship and the forgoing of immediate needs for longer term aims.

Senior author of the study, Dr Penny Spikins, from the Department of Archaeology said: "More sophisticated tools like the Boxgrove handaxes start to appear around the same time as our hominin ancestors were developing much bigger brains.


"The axes demonstrate characteristics that can be related to self-control such as the investment of time and energy in something that does not produce an immediate reward, forward planning and a level of frustration tolerance for completing a painstaking task.

"In the present day our capacity for self-control has become particularly important. Without the advanced levels of self-control we possess as a species, lockdown would be impossible. It takes self-control to put the needs of the community first rather than focus on our own immediate ends. Our study offers some clues as to where in human history this ability originated."

The researchers also point to evidence that the production of highly symmetrical and elaborate axes would have required knowledge and skill accumulated over a life time.

In one study, it took people trying to replicate the axes discovered at Boxgrove 16 hours of practice to even produce a recognisable handaxe.


Lead author of the study, James Green, a PhD student in the Department of archaeology at the University of York, added: "By deciphering the mental and physical processes involved in the production of prehistoric artefacts, we can gain valuable insights into the abilities of the individuals who made them.

"These axes demonstrate social learning and effortful activity directed at honing skills. They also provide some of the earliest evidence of something being deliberately made in a sequence from a picture in someone's mind.

"Self-control is not unique to humans, but may have played an important role in our evolution. It's key to many of the traits which define modern humans such as pro-sociality, cooperation and caring for the vulnerable."





* This article was originally published here

Of horses and men #2

Fascinating stuff courtesy of Fages et al. at the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (emphasis is mine): Abstract: The domestication of the horse and the development of new equestrian technologies have had a far-reaching impact on human history. Disentangling the respective role that horse males and females played during this process is, however, difficult based on iconography and

* This article was originally published here

понедельник, 11 мая 2020 г.

Oldest Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens in Europe found in Bulgarian Cave


Two studies report new Homo sapiens fossils from the site of Bacho Kiro Cave in Bulgaria. "The Bacho Kiro Cave site provides evidence for the first dispersal of H. sapiens across the mid-latitudes of Eurasia. Pioneer groups brought new behaviours into Europe and interacted with local Neanderthals. This early wave largely predates that which led to their final extinction in western Europe 8,000 years later", says Jean-Jacques Hublin, director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

Oldest Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens in Europe found in Bulgarian Cave
Stone artifacts from the Initial Upper Paleolithic at Bacho Kiro Cave. 1-3, 5-7: Pointed blades and fragments
 from Layer I; 4: Sandstone bead with morphology similar to bone beads; 8: The longest
 complete blade [Credit: Tsenka Tsanova, MPI-EVA Leipzig]


An international research team, led by Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tsenka Tsanova and Shannon McPherron of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and Nikolay Sirakov and Svoboda Sirakova of the National Institute of Archaeology with Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Sofia, Bulgaria, renewed excavations at Bacho Kiro Cave in 2015. The most spectacular finds come from a rich, dark layer near the base of the deposits. Here the team uncovered thousands of animal bones, stone and bone tools, beads and pendants and the remains of five human fossils.


Protein analysis

Except for one human tooth, the human fossils were too fragmented to be recognized by their appearance. Instead, they were identified by analysing their protein sequences. "Most Pleistocene bones are so fragmented that by eye, one cannot tell which species of animal they represent. However, the proteins differ slightly in their amino acid sequence from species to species. By using protein mass spectrometry, we can therefore quickly identify those bone specimens that represent otherwise unrecognizable human bones", says Frido Welker, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Copenhagen and research associate at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Oldest Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens in Europe found in Bulgarian Cave
Excavations in Initial Upper Paleolithic Layer I at Bacho Kiro Cave (Bulgaria). Four Homo sapiens bones
were recovered from this layer along with a rich stone tool assemblage, animal bones, bone tools,
and pendants [Credit: Tsenka Tsanova]


To know the age of these fossils and the deposits at Bacho Kiro Cave, the team worked closely with Lukas Wacker at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, using an accelerator mass spectrometer to produce ages with higher precision than normal and to directly date the human bones.

"The majority of animal bones we dated from this distinctive, dark layer have signs of human impacts on the bone surfaces, such as butchery marks, which, along with the direct dates of human bones, provides us with a really clear chronological picture of when Homo sapiens first occupied this cave, in the interval from 45,820 to 43,650 years ago, and potentially as early as 46,940 years ago", says Helen Fewlass of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. "The radiocarbon dates at Bacho Kiro Cave are not only the largest dataset of a single Palaeolithic site ever made by a research team, but also are the most precise in terms of error ranges", say researchers Sahra Talamo from the University of Bologna and Bernd Kromer from the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig.


DNA sequencing

Though some researchers have suggested that Homo sapiens may have already occasionally entered Europe by this time, finds of this age are typically attributed to Neanderthals. To know which group of humans were present at Bacho Kiro Cave, Mateja Hajdinjak and Matthias Meyer of the genetics team led by Svante Pääbo at the Department of Evolutionary Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology sequenced the DNA from the fragmented fossils bones.

"Given the exceptionally good DNA preservation in the molar and the hominin fragments identified by protein mass spectrometry, we were able to reconstruct full mitochondrial genomes from six out of seven specimens and attribute the recovered mitochondrial DNA sequences from all seven specimens to modern humans. Interestingly, when relating these mtDNAs to those of other ancient and modern humans, the mtDNA sequences from Layer I fall close to the base of three main macrohaplogroups of present-day people living outside of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, their genetic dates align almost perfectly with those obtained by radiocarbon", says Mateja Hajdinjak, Postdoctoral Fellow at the Francis Crick Institute in London and research associate at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Oldest Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens in Europe found in Bulgarian Cave
The molar found in the cave of Bacho Kiro are said to be around 45,000 years old
[Credit: Rosen Spasov]

The results demonstrate that Homo sapiens entered Europe and began impacting Neanderthals by around 45,000 years ago and likely even earlier. They brought into Bacho Kiro Cave high quality flint from sources up to 180 km from the site which they worked into tools like pointed blades perhaps to hunt and very likely to butcher the remains of the animals found at the site.

"The animal remains from the site illustrate a mix of cold and warm adapted species, with bison and red deer most frequent", says palaeontologist Rosen Spasov from the New Bulgarian University. These were butchered extensively but were also used as a raw material source. "The most remarkable aspect of the faunal assemblage is the extensive collection of bone tools and personal ornaments", says zooarchaeologist Geoff Smith from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Cave bear teeth were made into pendants, some of which are strikingly similar to ornaments later made by Neanderthals in western Europe.


Homo sapiens replaced Neanderthals

Taken together, the Bacho Kiro Cave sediments document the period of time in Europe when Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals were replaced by Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens (the so-called transition period), and the first Homo sapiens assemblages are what archaeologists call the Initial Upper Paleolithic. "Up to now, the Aurignacian was thought of as the start of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe, but the Initial Upper Paleolithic of Bacho Kiro Cave adds to other sites in western Eurasia where there is an even older presence of Homo sapiens", notes Nikolay Sirakov of the National Institute of Archaeology with Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

"The Initial Upper Paleolithic in Bacho Kiro Cave is the earliest known Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. It represents a new way of making stone tools and new sets of behaviour including manufacturing personal ornaments that are a departure from what we know of Neanderthals up to this time", says Tsenka Tsanova of the Department of Human Evolution at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. "The Initial Upper Paleolithic probably has its origin in southwest Asia and soon after can be found from Bacho Kiro Cave in Bulgaria to sites in Mongolia as Homo sapiens rapidly dispersed across Eurasia and encountered, influenced, and eventually replaced existing archaic populations of Neanderthals and Denisovans."

The findings have been published in Nature and Nature Ecology & Evolution.




* This article was originally published here

воскресенье, 10 мая 2020 г.

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire


Archaeologists have uncovered the first evidence in the British Isles of a holy man being sacrificed to guide his chieftain through the afterlife. The remains of a Bronze Age leader were found in a 4,000-year-old burial mound in Gloucestershire alongside valuable rugs, a horde of goods and the the body of a shaman in a sitting position facing his master.

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire
An early Bronze Age chieftain, valuable rugs, a horde of goods and a sitting shaman (seen here) that may have been
 a human sacrifice were found inside a 4,000-year-old burial site [Credit: Foundations Archaeology]




Archaeologists made the 'unprecedented discovery' during a dig in Lechlade, Gloucestershire. The chieftain inside the 'impressive burial mound' was  surrounded by goods - including a copper dagger, an archer's wrist guard and four cow hide rugs. 

Sitting opposite him - about 6 feet away - was another man lying crouching on his side in a seated position with no goods. Archaeologists believe this was a holy man. This is the first evidence that human sacrifice was practised in the British Isles to provide leaders with spiritual guidance and ease their way through the afterlife. 

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire
Head and hoof remains from chieftain burial
[Credit: Foundations Archaeology]


The dig was carried out by Foundations Archaeology ahead of the development of the new skatepark and memorial hall - both of which are now open.

The researchers believe the two men were part of the 'Beaker culture' - named after a type of cup used during this time and a dominant culture in early Bronze Age Britain. The pair in the burial mound were likely descended from a group that arrived in Britain a couple of hundred years earlier from the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Eastern Europe.

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire
The chieftain inside the 'impressive burial mound' was surrounded by goods - including a copper dagger,
an archer's wrist guard and four cow hide rugs [Credit: Foundations Archaeology]




Andy Hood of Foundations Archaeology said cows were sometimes sacrificed to accompany the chieftain in the afterlife while mourners feasted on their flesh. He said it was unusual to discovered so many cow hides in a single grave, which suggests the chieftain was of great importance to his community. 

The chieftain in this grave is the first known to be buried with metal weapons in Britain, and had goods from hundreds of miles away, according to Mr Hood. This included a copper dagger, a whalebone pommel, an archer's wrist guard of polished green stone from the Lake District and a fire-starting kit.

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire
A sketch showing the barrow ring ditch, which is characteristic of the Beaker culture
[Credit: Foundations Archaeology]

They couldn't work out how old the leader was, but say the shaman buried sitting opposite him was in his 50s or 60s. It's the seated position that led the experts to believe he was a sacrifice as shamans have been found buried alongside leaders in similar positions in Europe and Asia. He was found upright with his legs dangling over a pit and facing the chieftain.

"In anthropological terms, the idea of having a shaman or holy man would fit with this context because this was a ceremonial and religious area for a significant part of prehistory," Mr Hood said. 

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire
The copper dagger that was found in the chieftain's burial
[Credit: Foundations Archaeology]




The Beaker community, who made the burial mound, appropriated an existing sacred site - it was built near a Stone Age 'cursus' monument from 3000BC.

"In British prehistory there is emerging evidence for periods of human sacrifices, which is a distinct possibility," said Mr Hood.  

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire
Stone wrist guard [Credit: Foundations Archaeology]

The shaman would likely have been buried at the same time or straight after the chieftain. His seated position was part of a long tradition of holy men being buried in that way - dating back to about 9500BC in Russia and Ukraine. 

People still used the site where the pair were buried for burials long after its construction - in fact there was even an Anglo-Saxon burial ground on the site suggesting it held sacred connotations for thousands of years. 

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire
Artefacts found in the chieftain's burial [Credit: Foundations Archaeology]



The chieftain and his shaman were at the peak of their power 300 years after the Beaker people first appeared in Britain (about 2500 BC). They were the most dominant group of people in the country but appeared to 'buy into' Britain's pre-beaker heritage by using ancient burial sites.

The pair were laid to rest in one of the most spiritually and ritually important places in southern Britain - a site where four rivers come together. There were three pre-Beaker ceremonial monuments on the site and a substantial ceremonial enclosure that was up to half a mile long.

Bronze Age chieftain burial discovered in Gloucestershire
Skate park excavation [Credit: Foundations Archaeology]

This trend of using the site for burials continued for thousands of years. By the time the chieftain was buried it had already been in use over 1,000 years. Some 1,200 years after his burial, four late Bronze Age people had cremated remains placed on the site, and 700 years after that three Iron age people used it as their final resting place. Angle-Saxon groups - 900 years after the Iron Age people - were also buried there. 

"Our investigation has been a rare opportunity to shed new light on a crucial period of British prehistory," Hood said. "What's more, it has allowed us to understand the extraordinary time depth of this ancient funerary monument and its use by so many different cultures from the Neolithic all the way through to the Iron Age."

There is nothing to see on the surface of the ancient site anymore due to millennia of soil erosion and centuries of ploughing - but it was the fact there was no obvious sign of a burial mound that likely protected the site from treasure hunters.




* This article was originally published here

суббота, 9 мая 2020 г.

Restoration of Iran’s royal equestrian relief nears completion


A restoration work on the equestrian relief of Hormizd II, the Sassanid king (r. 303 BC– 309), will be completed within the next week. The bas-relief is one of those rock-carved imageries dotted below massive rock-hewn tombs at Naqsh-e Rostam, the Achaemenid necropolis situated near the UNESCO-registered Persepolis in southern Iran.

Restoration of Iran’s royal equestrian relief nears completion
Naqs-e Rustam, Relief of Hormizd II prior to restoration works
[Credit: Jona Lendering/Vici.org]

“Restoration of the bas-relief is carried out with a protective approach and based on the theoretical principals of restoration, and for this purpose, new materials for stone restoration have been used,” CHTN quoted Mostafa Rakhshandekhou who leads the restoration project, as saying on Monday.
The restoration project started in December 2019 and will come to an end by May 4, he said.

One of the wonders of the ancient world, Naqsh-e Rostam embraces four tombs are where Persian Achaemenid kings are laid to rest, believed to be those of Darius II, Artaxerxes I, Darius I and Xerxes I (from left to right facing the cliff), although some historians are still debating this.

Restoration of Iran’s royal equestrian relief nears completion

There are gorgeous bas-relief carvings above the tomb chambers that are similar to those at Persepolis, with the kings standing on thrones supported by figures representing the subject nations below. There also two similar graves situated on the premises of Persepolis probably belong to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III.
Beneath the funerary chambers are dotted with seven Sassanian era (224–651) bas-reliefs cut into the cliff depict vivid scenes of imperial conquests and royal ceremonies; signboards below each relief give a detailed description in English.


* This article was originally published here


Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China


Cultural relics experts from across China have begun a restoration project on murals in the Xumishan Grottoes dating back to over 1,500 years ago in northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.

Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
Aerial photo of the Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan, northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
[Credit: Xinhua/Wang Peng]




The restoration project started in early April and is the first such project to save and restore Xumishan Grottoes murals since the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), according to the cultural relics management bureau of Xumishan Grottoes.

Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
A cultural relics expert restores a mural at the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan,
 northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Feng Kaihua]


Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
A cultural relics expert restores a mural at the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan,
 northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Feng Kaihua]


Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
Cultural relics experts discuss restoration plans at the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan,
northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Feng Kaihua]


Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
A cultural relics expert restores a mural at the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan,
northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Wang Peng]




Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
A cultural relics expert restores a mural at the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan, 
northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Wang Peng]


Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
Cultural relics experts discuss restoration plans in the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan,
northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Yang Zhisen]


Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
A cultural relics expert restores a mural at the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan,
northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Feng Kaihua]


Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
A cultural relics expert restores a mural at the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan, 
northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Feng Kaihua]



Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
Cultural relics experts discuss restoration plans in the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan,
northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Yang Zhisen]


Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
Cultural relics experts restore murals at the No. 48 grotto of Xumishan Grottoes in Guyuan, northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [Credit: Xinhua/Wang Peng]

Restoration of Xumishan Grottoes underway in NW China
Add caption




The Xumishan Grottoes, which were initially built in the late period of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534), have 162 caves and more than 1,000 statues and were listed as a key state-level cultural site in 1982.




* This article was originally published here

четверг, 7 мая 2020 г.

How gene flow between species influences the evolution of Darwin's finches


Despite the traditional view that species do not exchange genes by hybridisation, recent studies show that gene flow between closely related species is more common than previously thought. A team of scientists from Uppsala University and Princeton University now reports how gene flow between two species of Darwin's finches has affected their beak morphology. The study is published in Nature Ecology and Evolution.

How gene flow between species influences the evolution of Darwin's finches
The common cactus finch has a pointed beak adapted to feed on cactus whereas the medium ground finch has
 a blunt beak adapted to crush seeds. Their hybrid progeny have an intermediate beak morphology adaptive
under certain environmental conditions as explained in this paper [Credit: Sangeet Lamichhaney,
Rosemary and Peter Grant]




Darwin's finches on the Galapagos Islands are an example of a rapid adaptive radiation in which 18 species have evolved from a common ancestral species within a period of 1-2 million years. Some of these species have only been separated for a few hundred thousand years or less.

Rosemary and Peter Grant of Princeton University, co-authors of the new study, studied populations of Darwin's finches on the small island of Daphne Major for 40 consecutive years and observed occasional hybridisation between two distinct species, the common cactus finch and the medium ground finch. The cactus finch is slightly larger than the medium ground finch, has a more pointed beak and is specialised to feed on cactus. The medium ground finch has a blunter beak and is specialised to feed on seeds.

"Over the years, we observed occasional hybridisation between these two species and noticed a convergence in beak shape. In particular, the beak of the common cactus finch became blunter and more similar to the beak of the medium ground finch," say Rosemary and Peter Grant. "We wondered whether this evolutionary change could be explained by gene flow between the two species."

How gene flow between species influences the evolution of Darwin's finches
Medium ground finch with its blunt beak. This particular bird has been banded by Rosemary and Peter Grant during their
field studies on Daphne Major. Reproduced with permission from K. Thalia Grant, and Princeton University Press,
which first published the remaining images in 40 Years of Evolution (P. R. Grant & B. R. Grant, 2014)
[Credit: Peter R. Grant and B. Rosemary Grant]




"We have now addressed this question by sequencing groups of the two species from different time periods and with different beak morphology. We provide evidence of a substantial gene flow, in particular from the medium ground finch to the common cactus finch," explains Sangeet Lamichhaney, one of the shared first authors and currently Associate Professor at Kent State University.

"A surprising finding was that the observed gene flow was substantial on most autosomal chromosomes but negligible on the Z chromosome, one of the sex chromosomes," says Fan Han, Uppsala University, who analysed these data as part of her PhD thesis. "In birds, the sex chromosomes are ZZ in males and ZW in females, in contrast to mammals where males are XY and females are XX."

"This interesting result is in fact in excellent agreement with our field observation from the Galapagos," explain the Grants. "We noticed that most of the hybrids had a common cactus finch father and a medium ground finch mother. Furthermore, the hybrid females successfully bred with common cactus finch males and thereby transferred genes from the medium ground finch to the common cactus finch population. In contrast, male hybrids were smaller than common cactus finch males and could not compete successfully for high-quality territories and mates."

How gene flow between species influences the evolution of Darwin's finches
Common cactus finch with its pointed beak feeding on the Opuntia cactus
[Credit: Lukas Keller]




This mating pattern is explained by the fact that Darwin's finches are imprinted on the song of their fathers so that sons sing a song similar to their father's song and daughters prefer to mate with males that sing like their fathers. Furthermore, hybrid females receive their Z chromosome from their cactus finch father and their W chromosome from their ground finch mother. This explain why genes on the Z chromosome cannot flow from the medium ground finch to the cactus finch via these hybrid females, whereas genes in other parts of the genome can, because parents of the hybrid contribute equally.

"Our data show that the fitness of the hybrids between the two species is highly dependent on environmental conditions which affect food abundance," says Leif Andersson of Uppsala University and Texas A&M University. "That is, to what extent hybrids, with their combination of gene variants from both species, can successfully compete for food and territory. Therefore, the long-term outcome of the ongoing hybridisation between the two species will depend on environmental factors as well as competition."

"One scenario is that the two species will merge into a single species combining gene variants from the two species, but perhaps a more likely scenario is that they will continue to behave as two species and either continue to exchange genes occasionally or develop reproductive isolation if the hybrids at some point show reduced fitness compared with purebred progeny. The study contributes to our understanding of how biodiversity evolves," Andersson concludes.




* This article was originally published here

New findings on the Byzantine necropolis Tell es-Sin in Syria


A study published in the journal Bioarcheology of the Near East reveals the characteristics of the population that was buried in the Tell es-Sin necropolis, a Byzantine site dated between the 5th and 7th centuries that is located in Syria, on the left bank from the Euphrates River.

New findings on the Byzantine necropolis Tell es-Sin in Syria
Tell es-Sin represents one of the most important necropolis from the Fertile Crescent
 to the Near East [Credit: University of Barcelona]




The main authors of the new anthropological work on this site are researchers Laura Martinez, from the Faculty of Biology at the University of Barcelona (UB), and Ferran Estebaranz Sanchez, from the Faculty of Biosciences at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB).

Tooth Mount in Ancient Syria

The Tell es-Sin site – from the Arab, ‘Monte del Diente’ – occupies an area of ??twenty-five hectares located in the middle of a passage area for the ancient Byzantine and Persian Sassanid armies. It is divided into the acropolis, the lower city and the necropolis, which occupies seven hectares. It is located near the southeast of the current city of Deir ez-Zor – on the border between Syria and Iraq – and is considered a kastron, that is, an outpost with both administrative and military functions. The size of the site, its urban structure and its fortified nature suggest that it would be an old polis whose name is still unknown.

New findings on the Byzantine necropolis Tell es-Sin in Syria
Tell es-Sin is an archaeological site located in the middle of a transit area for the ancient Byzantine forces
and the Persian Sassanids [Credit: University of Barcelona]


Tell es-Sin is one of the most important necropolis of the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, “but very little is still known about it,” the authors note. The new work wants to deepen the knowledge of the populations of the border of the Byzantine Empire during the 6th and 7th centuries, a period of which the necropolis and skeletal remains are scarce.

A fortification in the middle of the military map of the Middle East

Mesopotamia was a strategic defensive region against both Persian and Arab incursions and invasions. In this context, Tell es-Sin could have been affected by the territorial and military reorganization carried out by Emperor Justinian, who promoted the fortification of the limes populations in the middle of the 6th century of our era, “explains Laura Martinez, professor at the Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences of the Faculty of Biology and first author of the study.


The first archaeological excavations of the Byzantine necropolis of Tell as-Sin date from 1978 and were led by Asad Mahmoud, general director of Antiquities and Museums at Deir ez-Zor at the time. In 2005, the investigative work of the first Syrian-Spanish archaeological mission – coordinated by the University of La Coruna – in the area highlighted the importance of the necropolis of the Tell es-Sin site, which was part of the Diocletianus limes in the East along with those of Tell es-Kasr and Circesium (current city of Buseira). In total, experts have identified 170 hypogea in a necropolis that could contain up to 1,000 graves.

Byzantine tombs and archaeology in Syrian territory

As Ferran Estebaranz Sanchez explains, “the samples from Tell es-Sin constitute a heterogeneous and biased set of skeletal remains that correspond to tombs looted during the course of time; Using traditional biometric methods, this anthropological study wanted to provide information on the sex, age of death, height and other morphological variables of the individuals found in the site.

New findings on the Byzantine necropolis Tell es-Sin in Syria
Samples from Tell es-Sin represent an heterogeneous and biased series of skeleton remains corresponding
 to tombs that were sacked during the years [Credit: University of Barcelona]


The sample analyzed – only a small part of the total number of Tell es-Sin burials – includes human remains from ten hypogea excavated by the Syrian-Spanish mission. In total, a total of 71 individuals have been analyzed (at least eighteen would correspond to men and twelve to women).

According to experts, no bias regarding sex or age has been observed in the remains studied, and highlights the lack of children compared to other places (they could have been buried in other niches at the entrance to the tomb). Also, there are at least one to five individuals buried within each niche (the average is three bodies per niche, including subadults and adults), according to the typical collective burial model of ancient Syria.


Despite the fragmented state of the remains, the team was able to estimate the height of most individuals. “The estimated mean height from the long bones of the upper limb was 174.5 cm for men and 159.1 cm for women. These values are very similar to those estimated from the diameter of the head of the femur: 176.1 cm for male individuals and 164.5 cm for female individuals, “comments Estebaranz Sanchez.

“In conclusion,” he continues, “the estimated height for the Byzantine population of Tell es-Sin is similar to that of other contemporary Byzantine populations.”

New findings on the Byzantine necropolis Tell es-Sin in Syria
According to the experts, they did not observe bias regarding sex or age in the studied remains
[Credit: University of Barcelona]


About 25% of the individuals presented with orbitalia screening, and 8.5%, porotic hyperostosis, alterations of the cranial bones traditionally associated with anemia or iron deficiency, rickets, infection or other inflammatory conditions.

The prevalence of degenerative joint diseases was also low, the study points out. Regarding the dental sample, only 2.8% of the teeth had cavities, a value clearly lower than that of other contemporary Byzantine sites in the region that could be related to the low sample analyzed at the Tell es-Sin site.

Tell es-Sin: the end of a settlement with the arrival of Islam

The end of the Tell es-Sin seat – in the first quarter of the 7th century AD – coincided with the wars against the Sassanid Persians and the Arab tribes of Islam. Despite the conditions of the Tell es-Sin deposit and the current situation in the region – following the occupation by ISIS – the discovery and excavation of unsacked graves in the future is crucial to deepen the knowledge of this population.

“For this reason, we are currently analyzing the pattern of oral microstriation to be able to infer the diet of the population and thus complete the biocultural model of the border populations with the great empires of antiquity,” conclude Laura Martinez and Ferran Estebaranz Sanchez.




* This article was originally published here

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