понедельник, 23 декабря 2019 г.

4-Ancestors Oracle at GEDmatch


The Jtest and EUtest at GEDmatch now include a new tool called the 4-Ancestors Oracle (aka. Oracle-4), as well as the 3D PCAs I promised earlier. Oracle-4 will attempt to pinpoint your ethnic group of origin, and then also work out the most likely combinations of two, three and four ancestral populations which make up your genome. However, this doesn't mean the results will actually show your ethnic group, or those of your parents (in dual mode) or grandparents (4-way mode). They might for many people, but for others they'll reflect the best possible outcomes from the reference samples available.

GEDmatch Ad-Mix Utilities

Enjoy, and feel free to give feedback to John at GEDmatch if you think it might be useful (but please don't spam his account).




* This article was originally published here

Scientists uncover world's oldest forest


Scientists have discovered remnants of the world's oldest fossil forest in a sandstone quarry in Cairo, New York.

Scientists uncover world's oldest forest
The rooting system of the ancient tree Archaeopteris at the Cairo fossil Forest site
 [Credit: Charles Ver Straeten]
It is believed the extensive network of trees, which would have spread from New York all the way into Pennsylvania and beyond, is around 386 million years old.

This makes the Cairo forest around 2 or 3 million years older than what was thought to be the world's oldest forest at Gilboa, also in New York State and around 40 km away from the Cairo site.


The new findings, which have been published in the journal Current Biology, have thrown new light on the evolution of trees and the transformative role they played in shaping the world we live in today.

A team led by scientists at Binghamton University, New York State Museum and Cardiff University have mapped over 3,000 square meters of the forest at the abandoned quarry in the foothills of the Catskill Mountains in the Hudson Valley.

Scientists uncover world's oldest forest
Researchers cleaning the surface of the fossil forest at Cairo, New York 
[Credit: William Stein]
Their investigations showed that the forest was home to at least two types of trees: cladoxylopsids, primitive tree-fern-like plants, which lacked flat green leaves, and which also grew in vast numbers at Gilboa; and Archaeopteris, which had a conifer-like woody trunk and frond-like branches which had green flattened leaves.

A single example of a third type of tree was also uncovered, which remained unidentified but could possibly have been a lycopod. All these trees reproduced using only spores rather than seeds.


The team also reported a 'spectacular' and extensive network of roots which were more than eleven meters in length in some places which belonged to the Archaeopteris trees.

It is these long-lived woody roots, with multiple levels of branching and small, short-lived perpendicular feeder roots, that transformed the interactions of plants and soils and were therefore pivotal to the co-evolution of forests and the atmosphere, the researchers state.

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Hubble’s Close-Up of Spiral’s Disk, Bulge

IC 2051
Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, P. Erwin et al.

This image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows IC 2051, a galaxy in the southern constellation of Mensa (the Table Mountain) lying about 85 million light-years away. It is a spiral galaxy, as evidenced by its characteristic whirling, pinwheeling arms, and it has a bar of stars slicing through its center.

This galaxy was observed for a Hubble study on galactic bulges, the bright round central regions of spiral galaxies. Spiral galaxies like IC 2051 are shaped a bit like flying saucers when seen from the side; they comprise a thin, flat disk, with a bulky bulge of stars in the center that extends above and below the disk. These bulges are thought to play a key role in how galaxies evolve, and to influence the growth of the supermassive black holes lurking at the centers of most spirals. While more observations are needed in this area, studies suggest that some, or even most, galactic bulges may be complex composite structures rather than simple ones, with a mix of spherical, disk-like, or boxy components, potentially leading to a wide array of bulge morphologies in the universe.

This image comprises data from Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 at visible and infrared wavelengths.

Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency)

Editor: Rob Garner

Source: NASA/Hubble




* This article was originally published here

Ancient Roman culinary preferences revealed in Ashkelon excavation


Archaeological excavations conducted by the IAA near Ashkelon uncovered an ancient industrial area with winepresses and rarely discovered installations for producing a popular fish sauce, the preparation of which involved strong odours.

Ancient Roman culinary preferences revealed in Ashkelon excavation
The Ashkelon first century garum-production site
[Credit: Asaf Peretz, IAA]


Vats used to produce fish sauce (garum) that are among the few known in the Eastern Mediterranean, were recently uncovered by the Israel AntiquitiesAuthority  in Ashkelon. The excavation, underwritten by the Municipality of Ashkelon and the Ashkelon Economic Co. in preparation for the establishment of the Eco-Sport Park, has revealed evidence of 2000-year old Roman and Byzantine culinary preferences. Youths of the Kibbutz Movement from Kibbutz Yad Mordecai and pupils from the Makif Vav middle school located next to the project participated in the excavation.

Ancient Roman culinary preferences revealed in Ashkelon excavation
The Byzantine wine-producing kilns
[Credit: : Asaf Peretz, IAA]
According to Dr. Tali Erickson-Gini from the Israel Antiquities Authority, “Long before pasta and pizza, the ancient Roman diet was based largely on fish sauce. Historical sources refer to the production of special fish sauce, that was used as a basic condiment for food in the Roman and Byzantine eras throughout the Mediterranean basin. They report that the accompanying strong odors during its production required its being distanced from urban areas and this was found to be the case since the installations were discovered approximately 2 km. from ancient Ashkelon.”

Ancient Roman culinary preferences revealed in Ashkelon excavation
Byzantine-era winepresses at the Ashkelon site
[Credit: Asaf Peretz, IAA]


Dr. Erickson-Gini adds: “This is a rare find in our region and very few installations of this kind have been found in the Eastern Mediterranean. Ancient sources even refer to the production of Jewish garum. The discovery of this kind of installation in Ashkelon evinces that the Roman tastes that spread throughout the empire were not confined to dress but also included dietary habits.”

Ancient Roman culinary preferences revealed in Ashkelon excavation
Marble fragments from decoration of the Byzantine church near Ashkelon
[Credit: Anat Rasiuk, IAA]
The Roman site was eventually abandoned but the conditions that favored viticulture remained and in the Byzantine period in the 5th c. CE a monastic community began to thrive there, making a living from wine production: three winepresses were built next to an elaborately decorated church. Little of the church has survived but architectural fragments found at the site show that it was decorated with impressive marble and mosaics. A large kiln complex was located nearby that produced wine jars. These appear to have been used for exporting wine, which was the primary income for the monastery. 

Ancient Roman culinary preferences revealed in Ashkelon excavation
Work in the Ashkelon excavation
[Credit: Anat Rasiuk, IAA]
Dr Erickson-Gini: “The site, which served as an industrial area over several periods, was again abandoned sometime after the Islamic conquest of the region in 7th c. CE and later nomadic families, probably residing in tents, dismantled the structures and sold the different parts for building material elsewhere.”


Evidence of this activity was found in the vats of the winepresses, which were turned into refuse pits containing the bones of large pack animals, such as donkeys and camels.


The excavation, underwritten by the Ashkelon Economic Co., was conducted to facilitate the establishment of the large Eco-Sport Park that will include an artificial lake, an athletic stadium and other facilities for the residents of Ashkelon.

Ashkelon mayor Tomer Glam said, “Ashkelon is one of the most ancient cities in the world and from time to time we find additional proof of that. The recent excavation in one of its beautiful new neighborhoods produces a combination of the city’s rich past, its present development and its future progress.”

Source: Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs [December 17, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Солнечное затмение 26 декабря 2019 года


SE2019Dec26A.png
Солнечное затмение 26 декабря 2019 года

Коридор затмений – это встреча Земли, Солнца и Луны. Образ «коридор» был выбран не случайно. Так называют период между несколькими затмениями, даты которых находятся близко друг к другу. Он продлится 16 дней с 26 декабря 2019 года по 10 января 2020 года.

Начнется коридор с кольцеобразного солнечного затмения.  26 декабря Луна полностью закроет Солнце. Видимым останется лишь край светила, через который будут пробиваться лучи.

Солнечное затмение 26 декабря 2019 года считается самым интересным и важным астрономическим явлением. Наблюдать его можно будет почти во всей Азии, на большей части Северного Кавказа, в Поволжье, на юге Сибири и Дальнем Востоке, а также в Челябинской области. Максимальную фазу затмения увидит население Аравийского полуострова, Индии и Индонезии.

Солнечное затмение 26 декабря 2019 года    Коридор затмений – это встреча Земли, Солнца и Луны. Слово «коридор» было выбрано не случайно. Так называют период между несколькими затмениями, даты которых находятся близко друг к другу. В этот раз он продлится 16 дней: с 26 декабря 2019 года по 10 января 2020 года.    Начнется коридор с кольцеобразного солнечного затмения.  26 декабря Луна полностью закроет Солнце. Видимым останется лишь край светила, через который будут пробиваться лучи.    Солнечное затмение 26 декабря 2019 года считается самым интересным и важным астрономическим явлением. Наблюдать его можно будет почти во всей Азии, на большей части Северного Кавказа, в Поволжье, на юге Сибири и Дальнем Востоке, а также в Челябинской области. Максимальную фазу затмения увидит население Аравийского полуострова, Индии и Индонезии.

Полоса кольцеобразной фазы начнётся на территории Саудовской Аравии вблизи побережья Персидского залива в точке с координатами примерно 48º восточной долготы и 25º северной широты. Оттуда полоса пойдёт на юго-восток через территории Объединённых Арабских Эмиратов и Омана, затем по акватории Аравийского моря, далее по югу Индии и северной оконечности Шри-Ланки, а затем через Суматру, Сингапур и Калимантан. Наибольшая фаза затмения наступит недалеко от Сингапура в точке с координатами 1º северной широты и 102,3º восточной долготы. После Калимантана полоса кольцеобразной фазы, следуя уже на северо-восток, пройдёт по южной оконечности Филиппинских островов и выйдет в акваторию Тихого океана, где и закончится в точке с координатами примерно 160º восточной долготы и 19º северной широты. 
Частные фазы затмения будут видны почти во всей зарубежной Азии (кроме западной части Турции), в бывшем СССР (Закавказье, Средняя Азия, Казахстан, большая часть Северного Кавказа, Нижнее Поволжье, Южный Урал, юг Сибири и Дальнего Востока), на крайнем востоке Африки, в северной и западной частях Австралии, в северной части Индийского и западной части Тихого океана. 

Максимальная фаза

Величина0,9701
Длительность3 минуты 40 секунд
Ширина тени118 км
ТерриторияИндонезия
Время5:18:53
Координаты1°00′00″ с. ш. 102°18′00″ в. д.HGЯO

File:SE2019Dec26A.gif


Прохождение лунной тени

Начало3:34
Окончание7:01
Солнечное затмение 26 декабря 2019 года. Максимальная фаза этого Солнечного затмения ожидается на 5:18 по Гринвичу и 8:18 по Московскому времени.  Кольцевое Солнечное затмение произойдет в знаке Козерога. Частные фазы затмения будут видны почти во всей зарубежной Азии (кроме западной части Турции), в бывшем СССР (Закавказье, Средняя Азия, Казахстан, большая часть Северного Кавказа, Нижнее Поволжье, Южный Урал, юг Сибири и Дальнего Востока), на крайнем востоке Африки, в северной и западной частях Австралии, в северной части Индийского и западной части Тихого океана. 


Карта затмения в 16 дней
Annular Solar Eclipse of 2019 Dec 26 (англ.)NASA 22 декабря 2019.


Населённый пунктВремя UTCΗДлительность
Эль-Хуфуф Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg03:36:061,4°2 м 55 с
Мангалур Flag of India.svg03:55:1731,9°2 м 30 с
Каннур Flag of India.svg03:56:2133,1°3 м 2 с
Кожикоде Flag of India.svg03:57:1334,0°1 м 22 с
Коимбатур Flag of India.svg03:59:1635,5°3 м 4 с
Диндуккал Flag of India.svg04:01:2037,0°2 м 55 с
Тируччираппалли Flag of India.svg04:02:3037,5°1 м 58 с
Джафна Flag of Sri Lanka.svg04:05:3239,8°3 м 12 с
Тринкомали Flag of Sri Lanka.svg04:08:2941,9°2 м 52 с
Сингапур Flag of Singapore.svg05:23:4464,9°2 м 7 с
Батам Flag of Indonesia.svg05:24:3065,0°3 м 6 с
Синкаванг Flag of Indonesia.svg05:42:5461,9°3 м 38 с
Сериан Flag of Malaysia.svg05:48:2860,1°3 м 28 с





2,400-year-old female warrior graves unearthed in Russia


As the ancient Scythians roamed through Europe and Asia, leaving behind a trail of burial mounds for subsequent archaeologists to discover, it was assumed that those buried with weapons were men. Only with the advent of modern scientific analysis was it revealed that women warriors were a common sight among the fearsome Scythians.

2,400-year-old female warrior graves unearthed in Russia
Credit: Institute of Archaeology RAS 
A burial site of a Scythian Amazon containing precious metal adornments dating to the second half of the 4th century BC has been discovered by a team of archaeologists of the Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences on an expedition to the river Don.

The preliminary results of a study of the finds were announced earlier this month at a meeting of the Scientific Council of the Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences by the head of the Don expedition, Valery Gulyaev.


Prior to the striking discovery, the team had been studying the burial mound Maiden V in the Ostrogozhsky district of Voronezh region.

One of the most fascinating items found in the barrow of the burial site is the first fully preserved ceremonial headdress of a Scythian woman.

2,400-year-old female warrior graves unearthed in Russia
Credit: Institute of Archaeology RAS 
Along the southern and western walls of the barrow were two well-preserved skeletons, laid on wooden beds covered with grass bedding. Under the left shoulder of one of them was a bronze mirror, two spears lay on the left, and a bracelet made of glass beads adorned the left hand.

At the feet were two vessels: a moulded incense burner and black-lacquered one-handed kanfar, dating to the second quarter of the 4th century BC.


The second skeleton was of a woman 45-50 years old. This was a respectable age for Scythian times, when the average life span of a woman was 30-35 years.

The female skeleton was wearing a ceremonial headdress – a calaf, with its floral tracery-decorated metal plates quite well preserved, and the rim festooned with pendants in the form of amphorae.

2,400-year-old female warrior graves unearthed in Russia
Credit: Institute of Archaeology RAS 
Next to the head of the older woman lay an iron knife wrapped in cloth, and iron arrowhead of a rather rare type: petiolate with a forked end.

These findings, as well as numerous details of the weapons and horse harness, suggest that the buried women were “Amazons”— fierce female warriors dating to the Scythian era among the Iranian-speaking nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes of Eastern Europe.


Such mounted women-warriors most likely stood guard over cattle, property, and homes when the menfolk set out on lengthy military campaigns.

In addition to the scattered remains, more than 30 iron arrowheads littered the burial site, besides an iron hook in the form of a bird, horse harness elements, iron hooks for hanging the reins, iron knives, fragments of moulded vessels, numerous animal bones were found in the northern half of the barrow.

2,400-year-old female warrior graves unearthed in Russia
Credit: Institute of Archaeology RAS 
Detailed tests on her remains will be conducted and the results announced later.

An earlier archaeological discovery in Armenia unearthed a burial ground dated 7th-6th centuries BC containing the remains of a local Amazon warrior.

Judging by the skeleton, she had been a skilled archer and horsewoman, had well-developed muscles and bore traces of a woman of high social status.


The warrior woman had most likely died in the battle, literally torn to pieces, as the skeleton bore traces of enemy blade and arrow impact.

Scythians were a group of ancient tribes of nomadic warriors whose culture flourished from around 900 BC to around 200 BC, by which time they had extended their influence all over Central Asia – from China to the northern Black Sea.

2,400-year-old female warrior graves unearthed in Russia
Credit: Institute of Archaeology RAS 
As archaeologist have been excavating Scythian kurgans, which are the burial mounds of these nomadic peoples, they discovered these people had horse-centred lifestyles, lived in small tribes, and they all needed to be able to defend themselves.

Archaeologists have found skeletons buried with bows and arrows and quivers and spears and horses, initially assuming that anyone buried with weapons must have been a male warrior.

But with the advent of DNA testing and other bioarchaeological scientific analysis, they found that about one-third of all Scythian women were buried with weapons and bore war injuries just like the men and were also buried with knives and daggers and tools.

Thus, scientists received overwhelming proof that there were women answering to the description of the ancient Amazons.

Author: Svetlana Ekimenko | Source: Sputnik News [December 10, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

2019 December 23 Places for OSIRIS-REx to Touch Asteroid Bennu...



2019 December 23

Places for OSIRIS-REx to Touch Asteroid Bennu
Video Credit: NASA, GSFC, U. Arizona, SVS, OSIRIS-REx

Explanation: Where is the best place to collect a surface sample from asteroid Bennu? Launched in 2016, NASA sent the robotic Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) to investigate the 500-meter-across asteroid 101955 Bennu. After mapping the near-Earth asteroid’s dark surface, OSIRIS-REx will next touch Bennu’s surface in 2020 August to collect a surface sample. The featured 23-second time-lapse video shows four candidate locations for the touch, from which NASA chose just one earlier this month. NASA chose the Nightingale near Bennu’s northern hemisphere as the primary touch-down spot because of its relative flatness, lack of boulders, and apparent abundance of fine-grained sand. Location Osprey is the backup. NASA plans to return soil samples for Bennu to Earth in 2023 for a detailed analysis.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191223.html



* This article was originally published here

Eurogenes K36 now at GEDmatch


I've just put together a new test for GEDmatch called the Eurogenes K36. Obviously, the K36 means that it features thirty six ancestral clusters. It probably won't include any Oracles, mostly because the Calculator Effect would render these useless if they were based on the average results of the reference samples (see the sheet here for details), and it'd be very time consuming for me to test a wide variety of other samples in supervised mode using thirty six sets of allele frequencies.

The main purpose of the Eurogenes K36 is to help users unravel the ethnic origins of local areas of their genomes (aka. half-segments), hence the high number of ancestral categories, some of which are very specific. In other words, the test is mainly a chromosome painting utility. It's accessible via the GEDmatch Ad-Mix link below:


GEDmatch > Ad-Mix page > Eurogenes > Eurogenes K36


An important point to keep in mind is not to take the ancestry proportions too literally. If you're, say, English, and you get an Iberian score of 12% this doesn't actually mean you have recent ancestry from Spain or Portugal. What it means is that 12% of your alleles look typical of the reference samples classified as Iberian, and this figure might only indicate recent Iberian admixture if it's clearly higher than those of other English users.

Another way to look at it is that the ancestry proportions are like map coordinates, and they'll place you with a very high degree of accuracy on a genetic map featuring other users. Indeed, please feel free to post your scores and ancestry details in the comments below to help others get an idea of what their results might represent. My results are listed below. The scores put me squarely in Poland relative to those of other European samples I've run, which is correct.


Also worth mentioning is that this test focuses on much deeper ancestry than the Ancestry Composition at 23andMe. Hence, I expect that many Europeans will score a few percent in non-European clusters. However, like many ADMIXTURE results, this could give us strong hints about population movements into Europe during prehistory and early history, so it's worth keeping an eye on.




* This article was originally published here

The 'Cores' of Massive Galaxies Had Already Formed 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

Figure 1: A blow-up of a small portion of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. The red galaxy at the center is a dying galaxy at 12 billion years ago. Astronomers measured the motion of stars in the galaxy and found that the core of the galaxy is nearly fully formed. (Credit: NAOJ)

A distant galaxy more massive than our Milky Way -- with more than a trillion stars -- has revealed that the 'cores' of massive galaxies in the Universe had formed already 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, about 1 billion years earlier than previous measurements revealed.

Researchers published their analysis on November 6, 2019 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, a journal of the American Astronomical Society.

"If we point a telescope to the sky and take a deep image, we can see so many galaxies out there," said Masayuki Tanaka, paper author and associate professor of astronomical science in the Graduate University for Advanced Studies and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. "But our understanding of how these galaxies form and grow is still quite limited -- especially when it comes to massive galaxies."

Galaxies are broadly categorized as dead or alive: dead galaxies are no longer forming stars, while living galaxies are still bright with star formation activity. A 'quenching' galaxy is a galaxy in the process of dying -- meaning its star formation is significantly suppressed. Quenching galaxies are not as bright as fully alive galaxies, but they're not as dark as dead galaxies. Researchers use this spectrum of brightness as the first line of identification when observing the Universe.

The researchers used the telescopes at the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii to observe a quenching galaxy in what is called the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. This region of the sky has been closely observed by several telescopes, producing a wealth of data for scientists to study. Tanaka and his team used an instrument called MOSFIRE on the Keck I telescope to obtain measurements of the galaxy. They obtained a two-micron measurement in the near-infrared spectrum, which the human eye cannot see, but it confirmed that the light from the galaxy was emitted just 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang. The team also confirmed that the galaxy's star formation was suppressed.

"The suppressed star formation tells you that a galaxy is dying, sadly, but that is exactly the kind of galaxy we want to study in detail to understand why quenching occurs," said Francesco Valentino, a co-author of the paper and an assistant professor at the Cosmic Dawn Center in Copenhagen.

According to Valentino, astronomers believe that massive galaxies are the first to die in the history of the Universe and that they hold the key to understanding why quenching occurs in the first place.

"We also found that the 'cores' of massive galaxies today seem to be fully formed in the early Universe," Tanaka said. How stars move within a galaxy depends on how much mass that object contains. Tanaka and his team found that the stars in the distant galaxy seem to move just as quickly as those closer to home. "The previous measurement of this kind was made when the Universe was 2.5 billion years old. We pushed the record up to 1.5 billion years and found, to our surprise, that the core was already pretty mature."

Figure 2: A schematic view of this work. The dying galaxy in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field was observed with MOSFIRE on the Keck I telescope. The top-right panel shows the spectrum at 2 microns, which is invisible to the human eye. The spectrum gives the distance to the galaxy (12 billion years ago) as well as a mass of the galaxy, which turned out to be as massive as the core of galaxies today. (Credit: NAOJ/Tanaka et al. 2019).

The researchers are continuing to investigate how massive galaxies form and how they die in the early Universe, and they are searching for more massive quenching galaxies in the far distant Universe that may shed light on earlier phases of the process.

"When did the first dead galaxy appear in the Universe?" Tanaka asked. "This is a very interesting question for us to address. To do so, we will continue to observe the deep sky with the largest telescopes and expand our search as more advanced facilities become available.

" These results were published on November 6, 2019 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters (Masayuki Tanaka, Francesco Valentino, Sune Toft, Masato Onodera, Rhythm Shimakawa, Daniel Ceverino, Andreas L. Faisst, Anna Gallazzi, Carlos Gómez-Guijarro, Mariko Kubo, "Stellar Velocity Dispersion of a Massive Quenching Galaxy at z = 4.01").

This work was funded, in part, by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. JP15K17617); the Danish National Research Foundation; the Carlsberg Foundation; the European Research Council; the Japanese Cabinet Office; the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; the Toray Science Foundation; the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization; Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics; and Princeton University.

Other contributors include Sune Toft, Carlos Gómez-Guijarro, Georgios E. Magdis, Charles L. Steinhardt, and Mikkel Stockmann, all of the Cosmic Dawn Center and the Niels Bohr Institute of the University of Copenhagen. Magdis is also affiliated with DTU Space, the National Space Institute of the Technical University of Denmark. Masato Onodera and Rhythm Shimakawa, both of the Subaru Telescope at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; Daniel Ceverino of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Andreas Faisst of IPAC at the California Institute of Technology; Anna Gallazzi of INAF - Observatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri; Mariko Kubo of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; Kiyoto Yabe of the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; and Johannes Zabl, of Unive Lyon at the Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, also contributed. Onodera also has an affiliation with the Department of Astronomical Science at the Graduate University for Advanced Studies.





* This article was originally published here

Asiatic East Germanics

Around a third of the ancient individuals in my dataset associated with East Germanic-speaking cultures show obvious ancestry from Central and/or West Asia. This shouldn't be too surprising, considering, for instance, the well documented contacts between East Germanic tribes and the Avars, Huns, Sarmatians and other nomadic groups that streamed into Europe from the Asian steppes during the

* This article was originally published here

Eurogenes K15 now at GEDmatch


This new test is essentially an upgraded version of the EUtest. Unlike the original, it includes an Amerindian component and five native reference populations from North and Central America. So obviously it should be a lot more useful for users from the New World who are wondering about Amerindian admixture.

GEDmatch > Ad-Mix Utilities > Eurogenes > Eurogenes EUtestV2 K15

I just tried it myself, and have say that the 4-Ancestors Oracle results were impressive. In other words, they were very accurate based on what I know about my recent ancestry. On the other hand, I'd say the default Oracle was picking up more ancient gene flows. However, this might not be the case for everyone, so let's hear some feedback, discuss the outcomes, and perhaps tweak the settings if necessary.

One of the most important things to keep in mind is to ignore all results under 1%. These are likely to be noise.

The population averages and Fst distances between the ancestral clusters are here and here, respectively. Below are spatial maps of the main West Eurasian components courtesy of Gui (FR7): Baltic, North Sea, Atlantic, East Euro, West Med, East Med, West Asian.










See also...

Orcadians, the K15 and the calculator effect



* This article was originally published here

Another Geminid Fireball near the Lajas Aerostat

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Channel: Frankie Lucena  

This fireball was captured by my Sony color CCD camera and my B&W Watec 902HU camera also. The timestamp is Dec 22, 2019 at 1:18am (05:18 UTC).

Video length: 0:13
Category: Science & Technology
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East Aquthorthies Prehistoric Recumbent Stone Circle, Aberdeenshire, 20.12.19.

East Aquthorthies Prehistoric Recumbent Stone Circle, Aberdeenshire, 20.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

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