пятница, 20 декабря 2019 г.

An nMonte and 4mix guide for the participants of the Basal-rich K7 and/or Global 10 tests


Copied from a thread at the Anthrogenica forum because unfortunately it seems that a lot of people can't access the post:

This is an nMonte and 4mix guide I have written for people who donated to the Eurogenes Project in order to take part in the Basal-rich K7 and/or Global 10 tests of that project and subsequently received their test results. For information on how to participate in one or both of the Basal-rich K7 and Global 10 tests, see the link below:

Fund-raising offer: Basal-rich K7 and/or Global 10 genetic map

In your results you receive from Davidski by email, you are provided with your Basal-rich K7 component percentages and your position on the Basal-rich K7 PCA if you took the Basal-rich K7 test, and your Global 10 PCA coordinates and your position on the Global 10 PCA if you took the Global 10 test. You will need your Basal-rich K7 component percentages and/or Global 10 PCA coordinates in order to make use of nMonte and 4mix, which allow you to be modeled as a mix different populations in varying ancestry percentages and varying distance levels based on either of your Basal-rich K7 and Global 10 results. You can download nMonte and 4mix from these links respectively:

nMonte

4Mix

Because that it can run multiple targets at the same time, I gave the link to 4mix_multi rather than classical 4mix. They are basically the same in all other aspects.

In order to use nMonte and 4mix you need to have the R software installed on your PC. You can download it from one of the mirrors here:

CRAN mirrors

Making a target file for Basal-rich K7:

Open Notepad and copy and paste the Basal-rich K7 component names and your Basal-rich K7 component percentages along with your name in this format:


Note the use of commas. Save the file as target.

If you will use your target file with 4mix_multi, you can add multiple targets to it. So if you have participated in the Eurogenes tests with multiple individuals, you can add them together to your target file if you will use it with 4mix_multi. This will allow you to get their 4mix results at the same run. Below is shown how to add multiple targets to your target file:


Note that classical 4mix and nMonte cannot run multiple targets at the same time, so your target file should have only one target if you will use it with classical 4mix or nMonte.

Making a target file for Global 10:

Open Notepad and copy and paste the Global 10 PCA coordinate names and your Global 10 PCA coordinates along with your name in this format:


Save the file as target.

As in the target file for Basal-rich K7, you can add multiple targets to your target file for Global 10 if you will use it with 4mix_multi.

Using nMonte with R:

First make an input file for the kind of modeling you want to make. Making an input file for nMonte is similar to making a target file (whether to use with Basal-rich K7 or Global 10). The difference is that, instead of yours or of other people you want to model, you add the Basal-rich K7 component percentages (if you will use it with Basal-rich K7) or Global 10 PCA coordinates (if you will use it with Global 10) of the population averages or individual population members from the Basal-rich K7 spreadsheet or Global 10 datasheet you want to use as references in your modeling. Below are the links of the Basal-rich K7 spreadsheet and Global 10 datasheet respectively:

Basal-rich K7 spreadsheet

Global 10 datasheet

Save the input file as input.

Here is an example of a Basal-rich K7 input file for nMonte:


Here is an example of a Global 10 input file for nMonte:


nMonte can run an endless number of reference population averages and individuals, so you can enrich the list generously in your nMonte input files.

Before using nMonte with R, make sure that the nMonte R files, input file and target file are in the same directory. Open R and click Change dir… from the File menu and choose the directory where the nMonte R files, input file and target file are located. Then write source(‘nMonte.r’) in the R command prompt (write source(‘nMonte2.r’) instead if you want to make use of more functions of nMonte) and press enter. Now write getMonte(‘input.txt’,’target.txt’), press enter and enjoy your result!

Using 4mix_multi with R:

In 4mix and its 4mix_multi version, you do not need to specify the reference population averages and/or individuals to use in your modeling in the input file. Instead, you can copy and paste all the population averages and individual population members from the Basal-rich K7 spreadsheet or Global 10 datasheet to the input file, albeit in the comma-separated format shown above. Once you hade make that input file, save it as Basal-rich_K7 if it consists of Basal-rich K7 data and as Global_10 if it consists of Global 10 data (the links of the Basal-rich K7 spreadsheet and Global 10 datasheet have already been provided in the section Using nMonte with R above).

Before using 4mix_multi with R, make sure that the 4mix_multi R file, input file and target file are in the same directory. Open R and click Change dir… from the File menu and choose the directory where the 4mix_multi R file, input file and target file are located. Then write source(‘4mix_multi.r’) in the R command prompt and press enter. In 4mix and its 4mix_multi version, reference specification is done in the command prompt.

So now for Basal-rich K7 you will write:

getMix(‘Basal-rich_K7.txt’,’target.txt’,’ref1’,’ref2’,’ref3’,’re f4’)

For Global 10 you will write:

andgetMix(‘Global_10.txt’,’target.txt’,’ref1’,’ref2’, ’ref3’,’ref4’)

In these arguments ref1, ref2, ref3 and ref4 refer to the names of the reference population averages and/or population individual members from the Basal-rich spreadsheet or Global 10 datasheet. An example for Basal-rich K7 would be:

getMix(‘Basal-rich_K7.txt’,’target.txt’,’Belarusian:average’,’Clovis:Anzick’,’Boncuklu_Neolithic:average’,’Palestinian:average’).

An example for Global 10 would be:

getMix(‘Global_10.txt’,’target.txt’,’Makrani’,’Levant_Neolithic:I1699’,’Bell_Beaker_Czech:RISE569’,’Latvian’).

Once you have specified the references for your modeling in the command prompt, you can press enter to enjoy the ensuing hurly burly!

Some tips:

Know thyself, i.e., choose the references in a way that would be most logical for your modeling in light of your known ancestry. Try to model yourself in many different ways to get a good sense of your ancestry from many different angles. Try to diminish the distance level to around 2-3% in your modeling, but refrain from overfitting, 5 or 6 references would be enough in nMonte most of the time. You can safely remove references that show only tiny contributions in most cases. And most important of all: be patient, it might take days of trials and errors for you to find a good modeling of yourself. But always keep in mind that there is no set in stone rule in modeling with nMonte and 4mix.

Onur Dinçer
FTDNA Anatolia-Balkans-Caucasus project admin
https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/anatol-balkan-caucas/about
https://www.facebook.com/groups/800912433320422/



* This article was originally published here

NASA’s Fermi Mission Links Nearby Pulsar’s Gamma-ray ‘Halo’ to Antimatter Puzzle

This animation shows a region of the sky centered on the pulsar Geminga. The first image shows the total number of gamma rays detected by Fermi’s Large Area Telescope at energies from 8 to 1,000 billion electron volts (GeV) — billions of times the energy of visible light — over the past decade. By removing all bright sources, astronomers discovered the pulsar’s faint, extended gamma-ray halo. Credit: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration

NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has discovered a faint but sprawling glow of high-energy light around a nearby pulsar. If visible to the human eye, this gamma-ray “halo” would appear about 40 times bigger in the sky than a full Moon. This structure may provide the solution to a long-standing mystery about the amount of antimatter in our neighborhood.

“Our analysis suggests that this same pulsar could be responsible for a decade-long puzzle about why one type of cosmic particle is unusually abundant near Earth,” said Mattia Di Mauro, an astrophysicist at the Catholic University of America in Washington and NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “These are positrons, the antimatter version of electrons, coming from somewhere beyond the solar system.”

A paper detailing the findings was published in the journal Physical Review D on Dec. 17 and is available online.


Astronomers using data from NASA’s Fermi mission have discovered a pulsar with a faint gamma-ray glow that spans a huge part of the sky. Watch to learn more.Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Download additional multimedia from NASA Goddard's Scientific Visualization Studio

A neutron star is the crushed core left behind when a star much more massive than the Sun runs out of fuel, collapses under its own weight and explodes as a supernova. We see some neutron stars as pulsars, rapidly spinning objects emitting beams of light that, much like a lighthouse, regularly sweep across our line of sight.

Geminga (pronounced geh-MING-ga), discovered in 1972 by NASA’s Small Astronomy Satellite 2, is among the brightest pulsars in gamma rays. It is located about 800 light-years away in the constellation Gemini. Geminga’s name is both a play on the phrase “Gemini gamma-ray source” and the expression “it’s not there” —  referring to astronomers’ inability to find the object at other energies — in the dialect of Milan, Italy.

Geminga was finally identified in March 1991, when flickering X-rays picked up by Germany’s ROSAT mission revealed the source to be a pulsar spinning 4.2 times a second.

A pulsar naturally surrounds itself with a cloud of electrons and positrons. This is because the neutron star’s intense magnetic field pulls the particles from the pulsar’s surface and accelerates them to nearly the speed of light.

Electrons and positrons are among the speedy particles known as cosmic rays, which originate beyond the solar system. Because cosmic ray particles carry an electrical charge, their paths become scrambled when they encounter magnetic fields on their journey to Earth. This means astronomers cannot directly track them back to their sources.

For the past decade, cosmic ray measurements by Fermi, NASA’s Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) aboard the International Space Station, and other space experiments near Earth have seen more positrons at high energies than scientists expected. Nearby pulsars like Geminga were prime suspects.

Then, in 2017, scientists with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-ray Observatory (HAWC) near Puebla, Mexico, confirmed earlier ground-based detections of a small gamma-ray halo around Geminga. They observed this structure at energies from 5 to 40 trillion electron volts — light with trillions of times more energy than our eyes can see.

Scientists think this emission arises when accelerated electrons and positrons collide with nearby starlight. The collision boosts the light up to much higher energies. Based on the size of the halo, the HAWC team concluded that Geminga positrons at these energies only rarely reach Earth. If true, it would mean that the observed positron excess must have a more exotic explanation.

This model of Geminga's gamma-ray halo shows how the emission changes at different energies, a result of two effects. The first is the pulsar's rapid motion through space over the decade Fermi's Large Area Telescope has observed it. Second, lower-energy particles travel much farther from the pulsar before they interact with starlight and boost it to gamma-ray energies. This is why the gamma-ray emission covers a larger area at lower energies. One GeV represents 1 billion electron volts — billions of times the energy of visible light. Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/M. Di Mauro.

Scientists think this emission arises when accelerated electrons and positrons collide with nearby starlight. The collision boosts the light up to much higher energies. Based on the size of the halo, the HAWC team concluded that Geminga positrons at these energies only rarely reach Earth. If true, it would mean that the observed positron excess must have a more exotic explanation.

But interest in a pulsar origin continued, and Geminga was front and center. Di Mauro led an analysis of a decade of Geminga gamma-ray data acquired by Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT), which observes lower-energy light than HAWC.

“To study the halo, we had to subtract out all other sources of gamma rays, including diffuse light produced by cosmic ray collisions with interstellar gas clouds,” said co-author Silvia Manconi, a postdoctoral researcher at RWTH Aachen University in Germany. “We explored the data using 10 different models of interstellar emission.”

What remained when these sources were removed was a vast, oblong glow spanning some 20 degrees in the sky at an energy of 10 billion electron volts (GeV). That’s similar to the size of the famous Big Dipper star pattern — and the halo is even bigger at lower energies.

“Lower-energy particles travel much farther from the pulsar before they run into starlight, transfer part of their energy to it, and boost the light to gamma rays. This is why the gamma-ray emission covers a larger area at lower energies ,” explained co-author Fiorenza Donato at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics and the University of Turin. “Also, Geminga’s halo is elongated partly because of the pulsar’s motion through space.”

The team determined that the Fermi LAT data were compatible with the earlier HAWC observations. Geminga alone could be responsible for as much as 20% of the high-energy positrons seen by the AMS-02 experiment. Extrapolating this to the cumulative emission from all pulsars in our galaxy, the scientists say it’s clear that pulsars remain the best explanation for the positron excess.

“Our work demonstrates the importance of studying individual sources to predict how they contribute to cosmic rays,” Di Mauro said. “This is one aspect of the exciting new field called multimessenger astronomy, where we study the universe using multiple signals, like cosmic rays, in addition to light.”

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is an astrophysics and particle physics partnership managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Fermi was developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy, with important contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden and the United States.

Illustration of NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in orbit.
Credits: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center  

By Francis Reddy
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Editor: Rob Garner





* This article was originally published here

Genetic ancestry online store (to be updated regularly)


Following a rigorous testing phase, the awesome Global 25 analysis is now available at the store for $12 USD. What's so awesome about this test, you might ask? See here and here.


Please send your request and autosomal genotype data (from AncestryDNA, FTDNA, LivingDNA, MyHeritage or 23andMe) to eurogenesblog at gmail dot com and money via PayPal to the same e-mail.

However, note that this test is free for anyone who already has Global 10 coordinates (see here). That's right, if you already have Global 10 coordinates, all you have to do is to send me your data and say what it's for. Simple as that.

...

My Celtic vs Germanic Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is now available via the store for $6 USD (see here). Please note that this test is only really useful for people of Central, Northern and/or Western European origin, and indeed geared for those of overwhelmingly Northwestern European ancestry.


Please send your request and autosomal genotype data (from AncestryDNA, FTDNA, LivingDNA, MyHeritage or 23andMe) to eurogenesblog at gmail dot com and money via PayPal to the same e-mail.

...

The popular Basal-rich K7 admixture test is now available via the store for $6 USD. It's suitable for everyone, except people with significant (>10%) Sub-Saharan ancestry. For more information about this test and some ideas about what to do with the output see here and here.


Please send your request and autosomal genotype data (from AncestryDNA, FTDNA, LivingDNA, MyHeritage or 23andMe) to eurogenesblog at gmail dot com and money via PayPal to the same e-mail.

See also...

Global25 workshop 1: that classic West Eurasian plot

Global25 workshop 2: intra-European variation

Global25 workshop 3: genes vs geography in Northern Europe

Modeling genetic ancestry with Davidski: step by step



* This article was originally published here

Tomnavrie Prehistoric Recumbent Stone Circle, Tarland, Aberdeenshire, 20.12.19.

Tomnavrie Prehistoric Recumbent Stone Circle, Tarland, Aberdeenshire, 20.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

2019 December 20 Late Afternoon on Mars Image Credit: NASA,...



2019 December 20

Late Afternoon on Mars
Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, Marco Di Lorenzo

Explanation: Shadows grow long near sunset in this wide panoramic view from the Curiosity rover on Mars. Made with Curiosity’s navcam, the scene covers about 200 degrees from north through east to south (left to right), stitched together from frames taken by the Mars rover on sol 2616. That’s just Earth date December 16. Curiosity is perched on top of a plateau on Western Butte. The distant northern rim of Gale crater is visible along the left. Near center is Central Butte, already visited by Curiosity. On the right, the shadow of the rover seems to stretch toward the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp), a future destination. The monochrome navcam frames have been colorized to approximate the colors of the late martian afternoon.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191220.html



* This article was originally published here

Y-haplogroup R1a and mental health

I've updated my map of pre-Corded Ware culture R1a samples with a couple of new entries from Central and South Asia (the original is still here). However, before any of you get overly excited, please note that these samples aren't older than the Corded Ware culture. The reason I added them to my map is to counter the ongoing absurd claims online that South Asian R1a isn't derived from European

* This article was originally published here

20 Years of the 3rd Hubble Servicing Mission













NASA . STS-103 Mission patch.

Dec. 19, 2019

This Week in NASA History: 3rd Hubble Servicing Mission – Dec. 19, 1999

 
This week in 1999, space shuttle Discovery, mission STS-103, launched from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center on the third Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission.

Over the course of three planned extravehicular activities, the STS-103 crew restored Hubble to working order and upgraded some of its systems, allowing the then decade-old observatory to get ready to begin its second scheduled decade of astronomical observations.

STS-103 Crew

Hubble was released from Discovery’s cargo bay Dec. 24. Here, astronauts Michael Foale and Claude Nicollier install a Fine Guidance Sensor into a protective enclosure in the shuttle’s payload bay.

The NASA History Program is responsible for generating, disseminating and preserving NASA’s remarkable history and providing a comprehensive understanding of the institutional, cultural, social, political, economic, technological and scientific aspects of NASA’s activities in aeronautics and space. For more pictures like this one and to connect to NASA’s history, visit the Marshall History Program’s webpage (NASA).

Related links:

Marshall History Program’s webpage: https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/history/index.html

NASA History: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/index.html

Space Shuttle: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/main/index.html

STS-103: https://www.nasa.gov/subject/3304/sts103

Hubble Space Telescope: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/main/index.html

Images, Text, Credits: NASA/Lee Mohon.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

If you're using my tools to find Jewish ancestry please read this


It's come to my attention that many people are still using the Jtest and taking the results very seriously. Indeed, perhaps too seriously.

Also, some users are doing weird stuff with the Jtest output in an attempt to estimate their supposedly "true" Ashkenazi ancestry proportions, like multiplying their Ashkenazi coefficient by three, because Ashkenazi Jews "only" score around 30% Ashkenazi in this test. Ouch! Please don't do that!

Let me reiterate that this test was only supposed to be a fun experiment. It was never meant to be the definitive online Ashkenazi ancestry test. And even as fun experiments with ADMIXTURE go, it's now horribly outdated, and probably useless for anyone with less than 15-20% Ashkenazi ancestry.

So it might be time to move on. If you really want to confirm your Jewish ancestry, either or both Ashkenazi and Sephardi, then you need to look at much more powerful and sophisticated options. One of these options is the Global25 analysis (see HERE), which can pick up minor Jewish ancestry of just a few per cent. But it's not free (USD $12), and it's a DIY test that requires a bit of time and effort to get the most out of it. Also, you'd need to send me your autosomal file so that I can estimate your Global25 coordinates. But I can help you get started and even quickly check if you have any hope at all of confirming Jewish ancestry.

If, for whatever reason, you'd rather not take advantage of the Global25 offer, because, say, you don't want to share your data with me, then it might be an idea to join the Anthrogenica discussion board and ask the experienced members there about other options [LINK].

In any case, whatever you choose to do, please remember the following points, and feel free to share them with others who are still using the Jtest:

- do not multiply your Jtest Ashkenazi score by 3 in an attempt to find your "true" Ashkenazi ancestry proportion, because this won't work for the vast majority of users

- but do compare your Jtest Ashkenazi score to those of other people of the same or very similar ancestry to yours to get a rough idea whether you might have any Ashkenazi ancestry (the Jtest population averages will be useful for this, see here)

- if you're still not sure what your Jtest results mean, then just focus on your Jtest Oracle-4 output at GEDmatch, and if you don't see AJ at the top of the oracle list, then this is a strong signal that you don't have substantial Ashkenazi ancestry

See also...

Global25 workshop 1: that classic West Eurasian plot

Global25 workshop 2: intra-European variation

Global25 workshop 3: genes vs geography in Northern Europe

Modeling genetic ancestry with Davidski: step by step

Getting the most out of the Global25

Genetic ancestry online store (to be updated regularly)



* This article was originally published here

ESO Observations Reveal Black Holes' Breakfast at the Cosmic Dawn

Gas halo observed by MUSE surrounding a galaxy merger seen by ALMA

Artistic impression of a distant quasar surrounded by a gas halo



Videos

ESOcast 214 Light: A Black Holes' Breakfast at the Cosmic Dawn
ESOcast 214 Light: A Black Holes' Breakfast at the Cosmic Dawn

3D view of gas halo observed by MUSE surrounding a galaxy merger seen by ALMA
3D view of gas halo observed by MUSE surrounding a galaxy merger seen by ALMA

Artistic animation of a distant quasar surrounded by a gas halo
Artistic animation of a distant quasar surrounded by a gas halo



Astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope have observed reservoirs of cool gas around some of the earliest galaxies in the Universe. These gas halos are the perfect food for supermassive black holes at the centre of these galaxies, which are now seen as they were over 12.5 billion years ago. This food storage might explain how these cosmic monsters grew so fast during a period in the Universe’s history known as the Cosmic Dawn.

We are now able to demonstrate, for the first time, that primordial galaxies do have enough food in their environments to sustain both the growth of supermassive black holes and vigorous star formation,” says Emanuele Paolo Farina, of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, who led the research published today in The Astrophysical Journal. “This adds a fundamental piece to the puzzle that astronomers are building to picture how cosmic structures formed more than 12 billion years ago.

Astronomers have wondered how supermassive black holes were able to grow so large so early on in the history of the Universe. "The presence of these early monsters, with masses several billion times the mass of our Sun, is a big mystery," says Farina, who is also affiliated with the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching bei München. It means that the first black holes, which might have formed from the collapse of the first stars, must have grown very fast. But, until now, astronomers had not spotted ‘black hole food’ — gas and dust — in large enough quantities to explain this rapid growth.

To complicate matters further, previous observations with ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, revealed a lot of dust and gas in these early galaxies that fuelled rapid star formation. These ALMA observations suggested that there could be little left over to feed a black hole.

To solve this mystery, Farina and his colleagues used the MUSE instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in the Chilean Atacama Desert to study quasars — extremely bright objects powered by supermassive black holes which lie at the centre of massive galaxies. The study surveyed 31 quasars that are seen as they were more than 12.5 billion years ago, at a time when the Universe was still an infant, only about 870 million years old. This is one of the largest samples of quasars from this early on in the history of the Universe to be surveyed.

The astronomers found that 12 quasars were surrounded by enormous gas reservoirs: halos of cool, dense hydrogen gas extending 100 000 light years from the central black holes and with billions of times the mass of the Sun. The team, from Germany, the US, Italy and Chile, also found that these gas halos were tightly bound to the galaxies, providing the perfect food source to sustain both the growth of supermassive black holes and vigorous star formation.

The research was possible thanks to the superb sensitivity of MUSE, the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer, on ESO’s VLT, which Farina says was “a game changer” in the study of quasars. “In a matter of a few hours per target, we were able to delve into the surroundings of the most massive and voracious black holes present in the young Universe,” he adds. While quasars are bright, the gas reservoirs around them are much harder to observe. But MUSE could detect the faint glow of the hydrogen gas in the halos, allowing astronomers to finally reveal the food stashes that power supermassive black holes in the early Universe.

In the future, ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) will help scientists reveal even more details about galaxies and supermassive black holes in the first couple of billion years after the Big Bang. “With the power of the ELT, we will be able to delve even deeper into the early Universe to find many more such gas nebulae,” Farina concludes.



More Information

This research is presented in a paper to appear in The Astrophysical Journal.

The team is composed of Emanuele Paolo Farina (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy [MPIA], Heidelberg, Germany and Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics [MPA], Garching bei München, Germany), Fabrizio Arrigoni-Battaia (MPA), Tiago Costa (MPA), Fabian Walter (MPIA), Joseph F. Hennawi (MPIA and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, US [UCSB Physics]), Anna-Christina Eilers (MPIA), Alyssa B. Drake (MPIA), Roberto Decarli (Astrophysics and Space Science Observatory of Bologna, Italian National Institute for Astrophysics [INAF], Bologna, Italy), Thales A. Gutcke (MPA), Chiara Mazzucchelli (European Southern Observatory, Vitacura, Chile), Marcel Neeleman (MPIA), Iskren Georgiev (MPIA), Eduardo Bañados (MPIA), Frederick B. Davies (UCSB Physics), Xiaohui Fan (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, US [Steward]), Masafusa Onoue (MPIA), Jan-Torge Schindler (MPIA), Bram P. Venemans (MPIA), Feige Wang (UCSB Physics), Jinyi Yang (Steward), Sebastian Rabien (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching bei München, Germany), and Lorenzo Busoni (INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Florence, Italy).

ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It has 16 Member States: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile and with Australia as a Strategic Partner. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer as well as two survey telescopes, VISTA working in the infrared and the visible-light VLT Survey Telescope. Also at Paranal ESO will host and operate the Cherenkov Telescope Array South, the world’s largest and most sensitive gamma-ray observatory. ESO is also a major partner in two facilities on Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre Extremely Large Telescope, the ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.



Link



Contacts

Emanuele Paolo Farina
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
Heidelberg and Garching bei München, Germany
Tel: +49 89 3000 02297
Email: emanuele.paolo.farina@gmail.com

Bárbara Ferreira
ESO Public Information Officer
Garching bei München, Germany
Tel: +49 89 3200 6670
Cell: +49 151 241 664 00
Email: pio@eso.org

Source: ESO/News




* This article was originally published here

Astronomers confirm planet-mass objects in extragalactic systems


A University of Oklahoma research group is reporting the detection of extragalactic planet-mass objects in a second and third galaxy beyond the Milky Way after the first detection in 2018. With the existing observational resources, it is impossible to directly detect planet-mass objects beyond the Milky Way and to measure its rogue planetary population.

Astronomers confirm planet-mass objects in extragalactic systems
X-ray image of the gravitational lens system SDSS J1004+4112 taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The central
 red extended emission is from the hot gas in the foreground lens galaxy cluster at z=0.68 and the four blue
point sources are the lensed images of the background quasar at z=1.734. The planet mass objects
 are detected in the foreground galaxy cluster, which has an age about half of the universe
[Credit: University of Oklahoma]
Members of the group include Xinyu Dai, associate professor in the Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, OU College of Arts and Sciences, with Ph.D. student Saloni Bhatiani and former postdoctoral researcher Eduardo Guerras.

"The detection of planet-mass objects, either free-floating planets or primordial black holes, are extremely valuable for modeling of star/planet formation or early universe," said Dai. "Even without decomposing the two populations, our limit on the primordial black hole population are already a few orders of magnitude below previous limits in this mass range."

The research group has identified a novel technique that uses quasar microlensing to probe the planet population within distant extragalactic systems. They have been able to constrain the fraction of these planet-mass objects with respect to the galactic halo by studying their microlensing signatures in the spectrum of the lensed images of distant bright Active Galactic Nuclei.


The group surmised these unbound objects to be either free-floating planets or primordial black holes. Free-floating planets were ejected or scattered during stellar/planetary formation. Primordial black holes are formed in the early phase of the universe due to quantum fluctuation. The results are of significant as they confirm that planet-mass objects are indeed universal in galaxies. Moreover, the first-ever constraints at the planet-mass range within the intracluster region of a galaxy cluster are presented here.

The constraints on the primordial mass black holes in the planet mass range are a few orders of magnitude below previous limits.

"We are very excited about the detections in two news systems," said Bhatiani. "We can consistently extract signals from planet mass objects in distant galaxies. This opens a new window in astrophysics."


The observational data used for this work comes from decade-long observations conducted by NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory. The observational evidence for these planet-mass objects was derived from the microlensing signals that appear as shifts in the X-ray emission line of the quasar. These observational measurements were matched against microlensing simulations that were computed at the OU Supercomputing Center for Education and Research.

Comparison of the research group's models with the observed microlensing rates allowed them to constrain the fraction of these planet-mass objects in the two extragalactic systems about 0.01% of the total mass. This work is a follow-up of the previous research work done by Dai and Guerras that provided the first indirect evidence for the existence of free-floating planets outside the Milky Way.

The two systems are Q J0158?4325 and SDSS J1004+4112. To be able to confirm the existence of planet-mass objects in a galaxy cluster when the universe was half of its current age is quite extraordinary. The group's analysis confirms the existence of these planet-scale objects ranging from Jupiter to Moon mass at extragalactic distances and provides the most stringent constraints at this mass range. These results are in agreement with the current constraints for the unbound planet-mass objects within the Milky Way Galaxy.

The results are published in The Astrophysical Journal.

Source: University of Oklahoma [December 12, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Astronauts “Train Like You Fly” in Boeing Starliner Simulations




















Boeing & NASA - Orbital Flight Test (OFT) patch.

Dec. 18, 2019

While Starliner tests its capabilities during Boeing’s first uncrewed Starliner flight test, astronauts are getting ready to fly through extensive training at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. As home to the astronaut corps and training, Johnson is equipped with various Starliner simulators and trainers to ensure the astronauts are prepared for any situation that may arise during their missions. While Starliner is designed to fly autonomously, astronauts are trained to step in for almost any emergency situation – as always, training as they will fly and preparing for the unexpected.


Image above: The Boeing Company unveils its fully outfitted CST-100 mock-up at the company's Houston Product Support Center in Texas. This test version is optimized to support five crew members and will allow the company to evaluate crew safety, interfaces, communications, maneuverability and ergonomics. Image Credits: Boeing/NASA.

Boeing’s first uncrewed test flight, known as Orbital Flight Test (OFT), will launch aboard an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. During OFT, Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner will autonomously rendezvous, dock and undock with the International Space Station and return to Earth at White Sands Space Harbor in New Mexico. This will be the first flight to space for Starliner and is a major step toward demonstrating the spacecraft is ready to begin carrying astronauts to the station.

NASA caught up with Jim May, Boeing’s Starliner crew training specialist and software engineer, to learn more about Starliner training at Johnson.

How many Starliner training components are housed at Johnson?

May: We have three largescale simulators bigger than a computer – the Boeing Mission Simulator and two part-task trainers. We also have a mockup of the Starliner spacecraft in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility to use for training.

How is the Boeing Mission Simulator used for training?


Image above: NASA commercial crew astronaut Josh Cassada trains for docking to the International Space Station. Cassada is assigned to the second crewed flight to the International Space Station of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner. Image Credits: Boeing/NASA.

May: The Boeing Mission Simulator is meant to be our main mission simulator. It’s a cutting-edge simulator that looks, feels and operates just like the Starliner itself. The crew uses the mission simulator, which is the exact same size as the flight deck of the Starliner, so they can interact with one another and get used to sitting in the exact same location as they would be in for their mission. The simulator ties into the broader spectrum of both training assets and simulators that NASA already uses as well to present flight-like conditions of the controls for every phase of a Starliner mission. The Starliner mission simulator sits on the same footprint as the former space shuttle mission simulator, and the Starliner instructors work from rooms just down the hall like the shuttle instructors, so the overall training environment should feel familiar. When the crew is training for Starliner-specific tasks they have a dedicated set of Starliner instructors, and when they’re training for things like rendezvous and undocking with the International Space Station, we tie our simulator into the station simulator. All of systems also tie into the Mission Control Center to enable integrated training runs with the same ground control teams and astronauts will work with during their mission.

How is the Boeing Mission Trainer (BMT) used?

May: The Boeing Mission Trainer is the same size and dimensions as a real Starliner vehicle and is positioned upright in the attitude Starliner will be in when it’s sitting on the launch pad or after landing on Earth. The trainer is meant for crews to practice getting into and out of the spacecraft in various situations, as well as learning how to efficiently move around inside the vehicle. For things like pad entry or emergency egress, that training is all done in the trainer. Flipping switches and working on control panels usually is all done in the mission simulator. Since the mockup is sitting upright like it would be for launch and landing, the crew has opportunity to practice getting in and out of the spacecraft, should they have to in the scenario that they’ve landed somewhere that emergency crews couldn’t get to them immediately. We also practice with the emergency crews getting into the spacecraft through the side hatch or the top hatch to practice pulling the flight crew out of the spacecraft. The mockup trainer gives the pad and landing crews the opportunity to refine procedures for crew support for launch and landing and to rehearse cargo loading and unloading.

What is the purpose of the Crew Part Task Trainers?


Image above: Commercial Crew astronauts Suni Williams and Eric Boe practice docking operations for Boeing's CST-100 Starliner using part-task trainers designed to mimic the controls and behavior of the spacecraft. They are part of a suite of cloud-based and hands-on trainers that Boeing has built to prepare astronauts and mission controllers. Image Credits: Boeing/NASA.

May: We have two part-task trainers here on site at Johnson in building 5. The part task trainers are designed to let astronauts practice individual elements of a Starliner mission in a more classroom-style environment. They are lower fidelity in the sense that they don’t have a full physical flight-like console, but instead have four large touchscreens. Certain parts are between 80- to 100-percent scale, but these trainers provide a similar control layout as if a pilot were sitting in the real spacecraft seat. It has control functionality identical to the real Starliner vehicle, so astronauts can run through procedures and training with instructors who sit in the same room with them. Things are meant to be done in small pieces, so a “part task,” for example, has an astronaut learn how to rendezvous the vehicle or learn how to use the joysticks. That type of individual training for individual people are all done in the part task trainers. It keeps crews from having to fully strap into a flight seat and also minimizes the number of people involved for a more intimate learning environment; the instructor is sitting behind the student and they can have casual conversations without voice loops and headsets.

Why did Boeing choose to have training operations on site at Johnson?


Image above: Boeing’s Flight Control Team participated in a rehearsal of prelaunch procedures for the company’s upcoming Orbital Flight Test in the White Flight Control Room in the Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center in Houston. Image Credits: Boeing/NASA.

May: Everyone’s time is valuable, so being able to have crews get to their training within minutes when they’re at Johnson is very helpful. During the design of the spacecraft, it was extremely convenient for the engineers, training and operations people to just drive across the street and be involved in design discussions or a development simulation. The original four astronauts assigned to commercial crew were also involved with the design and the early analysis on how they would operate Starliner. It was great being able to drive across the street and talk to them or get their inputs in the physical mockups and simulators within minutes. For the future, it helps to be co-located with space station training, as well. When the crews are doing integrated training between the station and Starliner, emergency egress from station for example, they can go directly from the station mockup to the Starliner mockup in the same building or to the mission simulator in a nearby building and can immediately get into practicing their procedures. The idea of train like you fly has been made easy by the co-location.

How will the crews be able to put their training to work during the Orbital Flight Test?


Image above: NASA commercial crew astronauts Eric Boe and Suni Williams train in a Boeing CST-100 Starliner mockup at the agency’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. Boe is assigned to launch to the International Space Station on the first crewed flight of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner. Williams will fly to the space station on Starliner’s second crewed flight. Image Credits: Boeing/NASA.

May: The crews will have roles both at the launch site and in Mission Control and will get to see their simulation training come to life. For this flight test, a lot of their focus will be situational awareness of how the ground teams operate, since they’ll be in the seats and far removed from the ground teams for the crewed flight. For the uncrewed flight, they’ll get to sit directly with the ground teams they’re going to be working and communicating with remotely when they’re on board the Starliner.

Will astronaut training change in any way after the Orbital Flight Test or will the crews continue with typical training?

May: Training should be pretty close to the same after OFT. We’ve been using every revision of the flight software, and as we’ve narrowed down and finalized the vehicle design and come up with what we consider our baseline training plan. The Crewed Flight Test (CFT) is going to be slightly different, but OFT is unique because parts of the mission are demos to prove the vehicle can do what it is required to, which aren’t always required to be demoed on a crewed flight. We have six demonstration options, and we teach the flight controllers that part of the mission and some of the demos won’t be necessary for CFT. Crewed simulations should be pretty close to the baseline for all our future contract missions. Any revisions to the training will be from lessons learned during OFT or in future crewed missions.


Image above: NASA astronaut Nicole Mann poses for a photograph as she exits the Boeing Mockup Trainer at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Image Credits: Boeing/NASA.

NASA astronauts Nicole Mann and Mike Fincke and Boeing’s Chris Ferguson are continuing preparations for the first crewed flight aboard Starliner known as the Crew Flight Test. In addition to training on Starliner’s systems, they’re rehearsing both expected and unlikely scenarios, such as water rescue training. They also are well into space station training, and are now focusing on becoming a longer duration crew. Mann and Fincke are training for upcoming spacewalks, and Ferguson is training to support them from inside the station.

Related articles:

Boeing Flight Test for Commercial Crew Program Will Pave the Way for Future Science
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/12/boeing-flight-test-for-commercial-crew.html

Boeing and NASA Approach Milestone Orbital Flight Test
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/12/boeing-and-nasa-approach-milestone.html

Related links:

Orbital Flight Test (OFT): https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-to-provide-coverage-of-boeing-orbital-flight-test-for-commercial-crew

Commercial Crew: https://www.nasa.gov/exploration/commercial/crew/index.html

International Space Station: http://www.nasa.gov/station

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

The PIE homeland controversy: August 2019 status report

Archeologist David Anthony has a new paper on the Indo-European homeland debate titled Archaeology, Genetics, and Language in the Steppes: A Comment on Bomhard. It's part of a series of articles dealing with Allan R. Bomhard's "Caucasian substrate hypothesis" in the latest edition of The Journal of Indo-European Studies. It's also available, without any restrictions, here. Any thoughts? Feel

* This article was originally published here

Fireballs Over Puerto Rico

142 views   7 likes   0 dislikes  

Channel: Frankie Lucena  

These two fireballs were recorded at 06:33 UTC and 09:31 UTC on the night of November 27th 2018. The first event could be a Taurid meteor because the tail end seems to be pointing in the direction of the constellation of Taurus.

Video length: 0:13
Category: Science & Technology
1 comments

'Cotton Candy' Planet Mysteries Unravel in New Hubble Observations













NASA - Hubble Space Telescope patch.

Dec. 19, 2019

"Super-Puffs" may sound like a new breakfast cereal. But it's actually the nickname for a unique and rare class of young exoplanets that have the density of cotton candy. Nothing like them exists in our solar system.


Image above: This illustration depicts the Sun-like star Kepler 51 and three giant planets that NASA's Kepler space telescope discovered in 2012–2014. These planets are all roughly the size of Jupiter but a tiny fraction of its mass. This means the planets have an extraordinarily low density, more like that of Styrofoam rather than rock or water, based on new Hubble Space Telescope observations. The planets may have formed much farther from their star and migrated inward. Now their puffed-up hydrogen/helium atmospheres are bleeding off into space. Eventually, much smaller planets might be left behind. The background starfield is correctly plotted as it would look if we gazed back toward our Sun from Kepler 51's distance of approximately 2,600 light-years, along our galaxy's Orion spiral arm. However, the Sun is too faint to be seen in this simulated naked-eye view. Image Credits: NASA, ESA, and L. Hustak, J. Olmsted, D. Player and F. Summers (STScI).

New data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have provided the first clues to the chemistry of two of these super-puffy planets, which are located in the Kepler 51 system. This exoplanet system, which actually boasts three super-puffs orbiting a young Sun-like star, was discovered by NASA's Kepler space telescope in 2012. However, it wasn't until 2014 when the low densities of these planets were determined, to the surprise of many.

The recent Hubble observations allowed a team of astronomers to refine the mass and size estimates for these worlds — independently confirming their "puffy" nature. Though no more than several times the mass of Earth, their hydrogen/helium atmospheres are so bloated they are nearly the size of Jupiter. In other words, these planets might look as big and bulky as Jupiter, but are roughly a hundred times lighter in terms of mass.

How and why their atmospheres balloon outwards remains unknown, but this feature makes super-puffs prime targets for atmospheric investigation. Using Hubble, the team went looking for evidence of components, notably water, in the atmospheres of the planets, called Kepler-51 b and 51 d. Hubble observed the planets when they passed in front of their star, aiming to observe the infrared color of their sunsets. Astronomers deduced the amount of light absorbed by the atmosphere in infrared light. This type of observation allows scientists to look for the telltale signs of the planets' chemical constituents, such as water.

To the amazement of the Hubble team, they found the spectra of both planets not to have any telltale chemical signatures. They attribute this result to clouds of particles high in their atmospheres. "This was completely unexpected," said Jessica Libby-Roberts of the University of Colorado, Boulder. "We had planned on observing large water absorption features, but they just weren't there. We were clouded out!" However, unlike Earth's water-clouds, the clouds on these planets may be composed of salt crystals or photochemical hazes, like those found on Saturn's largest moon, Titan.


Image above: This illustration depicts the three giant planets orbiting the Sun-like star Kepler 51 as compared to some of the planets in our solar system. These planets are all roughly the size of Jupiter but a very tiny fraction of its mass. NASA's Kepler space telescope detected the shadows of these planets in 2012–2014 as they passed in front of their star. There is no direct imaging. Therefore, the colors of the Kepler 51 planets in this illustration are imaginary. Image Credits: NASA, ESA, and L. Hustak and J. Olmsted (STScI).

These clouds provide the team with insight into how Kepler-51 b and 51 d stack up against other low-mass, gas-rich planets outside of our solar system. When comparing the flat spectra of the super-puffs against the spectra of other planets, the team was able to support the hypothesis that cloud/haze formation is linked to the temperature of a planet — the cooler a planet is, the cloudier it becomes.

The team also explored the possibility that these planets weren't actually super-puffs at all. The gravitational pull among the planets creates slight changes to their orbital periods, and from these timing effects planetary masses can be derived. By combining the variations in the timing of when a planet passes in front of its star (an event called a transit) with those transits observed by the Kepler space telescope, the team better constrained the planetary masses and dynamics of the system. Their results agreed with previous measured ones for Kepler-51 b. However, they found that Kepler-51 d was slightly less massive (or the planet was even more puffy) than previously thought.

In the end, the team concluded that the low densities of these planets are in part a consequence of the young age of the system, a mere 500 million years old, compared to our 4.6-billion-year-old Sun. Models suggest these planets formed outside of the star's "snow line," the region of possible orbits where icy materials can survive. The planets then migrated inward, like a string of railroad cars.

Now, with the planets much closer to the star, their low-density atmospheres should evaporate into space over the next few billion years. Using planetary evolution models, the team was able to show that Kepler-51 b, the planet closest to the star, will one day (in a billion years) look like a smaller and hotter version of Neptune, a type of planet that is fairly common throughout the Milky Way. However, it appears that Kepler-51 d, which is farther from the star, will continue to be a low-density oddball planet, though it will both shrink and lose some small amount of atmosphere. "This system offers a unique laboratory for testing theories of early planet evolution," said Zach Berta-Thompson of the University of Colorado, Boulder.

Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Animation Credits: NASA/ESA

The good news is that all is not lost for determining the atmospheric composition of these two planets. NASA's upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, with its sensitivity to longer infrared wavelengths of light, may be able to peer through the cloud layers. Future observations with this telescope could provide insight as to what these cotton candy planets are actually made of. Until then, these planets remain a sweet mystery.

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency). NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy in Washington, D.C.

Related links:

Hubble Space Telescope: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/main/index.html

Exoplanets: https://www.nasa.gov/content/the-search-for-life

Images (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Rob Garner/Claire Andreoli/University of Colorado/Daniel Strain/Space Telescope Science Institute/Ray Villard.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

Roman Wine Goblet Fragments, Doncaster Museum and Gallery, Doncaster, 14.12.19.

Roman Wine Goblet Fragments, Doncaster Museum and Gallery, Doncaster, 14.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Global25 workshop 1: that classic West Eurasian plot


In this Global25 workshop I'm going to show you how to reproduce the classic plot of West Eurasian genetic diversity seen regularly in ancient DNA papers and at this blog (for instance, here). To do this you'll need the datasheet below, which I'll be updating regularly, and the PAST program, which is freely available here.

G25_West_Eurasia_scaled.dat

Download the datasheet, plug it into PAST, select all of the columns by clicking on the empty cell above the labels, and go to Multivariate > Ordination > Principal Components. Here's a screen cap of me doing it:


This is what you should end up with. Please note that I also ticked the "convex hulls" box to define the populations from the "group" column in the datasheet.


Here I also ticked the "group labels" box. It's generally a useful feature, even though it makes a mess of the plot in this case due to the large number of populations.


See also...

Global25 workshop 2: intra-European variation

Global25 workshop 3: genes vs geography in Northern Europe

Global25 workshop 4: a neighbour joining tree

Modeling genetic ancestry with Davidski: step by step

Getting the most out of the Global25

Genetic ancestry online store (to be updated regularly)



* This article was originally published here

What Lies Beneath a Gigantic Jet Lightning Event?

145 views   9 likes   0 dislikes  

Channel: Frankie Lucena  

Well, I took the radar images and charge structure data from a Gigantic Jet event that was captured on Sept. 28th 2010 in Florida and superimposed it on a Gigantic Jet event that the Gemini Observatory/AURA cam captured in Hawaii, just to get an idea.

Levi Boggs helped me with the dimensions and in supplying me with the radar and charge structure images. Here is how the charge structure was obtained:

"The charge structure producing gigantic jets is found from a combination of different radar variables, lightning data, and lightning simulations, but information about the charge structure is first obtained from re-analyzing available VHF lightning mapping data at different periods of the storms."

Video length: 0:51
Category: Science & Technology
5 comments

Tune in for Launch Coverage of Boeing’s Orbital Flight Test




















Boeing & NASA - Orbital Flight Test (OFT) patch.

December 19, 2019

Liftoff of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket, is targeted for 6:36 a.m. EST Friday, Dec. 20 from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. This uncrewed mission, known as Boeing’s Orbital Flight Test, is Starliner’s maiden flight to the International Space Station for NASA’s Commercial Crew Program. The main objective of the mission is an end-to-end demonstration of Boeing’s ability to launch astronauts to the orbiting laboratory and return them home. To learn more, read the prelaunch feature.

Meteorologists with the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron continue to predict an 80% chance of favorable weather for launch on Friday morning. Primary concerns for launch day are the Cumulus Cloud Rule and User Ground Winds violations during the instantaneous launch window.


Image above: The crew access arm is seen after being moved into position for Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket on the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41 ahead of the Orbital Flight Test mission, Wednesday, Dec. 18, 2019 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Orbital Flight Test with be Starliner’s maiden mission to the International Space Station for NASA’s Commercial Crew Program. The mission, currently targeted for a 6:36 a.m. EST launch on Dec. 20, will serve as an end-to-end test of the system’s capabilities. Photo Credits: NASA/Joel Kowsky.

Join us at 5:30 a.m. EST Friday, Dec. 20, for countdown coverage on the Commercial Crew blog and NASA TV.

NASA will host an Administrator Post-launch News Conference at 9 a.m. followed by a Launch Team News Conference at 9:30 a.m., both on NASA TV.

Mission Timeline (all times approximate)

Hour/Min/Sec           Events
-06:00:00              Atlas V fueling commences
-04:05:00              Atlas V fueling is complete
-04:04:00              T-4 minute built-in hold begins
-01:25:00              Hatch closure complete
-01:15:00              Prelaunch cabin leak checks
-01:05:00              Cabin pressurization complete
-00:20:00              Launch Conductor conducts terminal count briefing
-00:18:00              CST-100 poll for terminal count
-00:15:00              CST-100 to internal power
-00:10:00              Crew Access Arm retracted
-00:08:00              Launch vehicle poll for terminal count
-00:04:45              Starliner configured for terminal count
-00:04:00              T-4 minute built-in hold releases
-00:01:00              CST-100 is configured for launch
-00:00:03              RD-180 engine ignition

Launch, Landing and CST-100 Deployment (all times approximate)

Hour/Min/Sec          Events
+00:00:01             Liftoff
+00:00:06             Begin pitch/yaw maneuver
+00:00:41             Maximum dynamic pressure
+00:01:05             Mach 1
+00:02:22             SRB jettison
+00:04:29             Atlas booster engine cutoff (BECO)
+00:04:35             Atlas Centaur separation
+00:04:41             Ascent cover jettison
+00:04:45             Centaur first main engine start (MES-1)
+00:05:05             Aeroskirt jettison
+00:11:54             Centaur first main engine cutoff (MECO-1)

Related articles:

Astronauts “Train Like You Fly” in Boeing Starliner Simulations
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/12/astronauts-train-like-you-fly-in-boeing.html

Boeing Flight Test for Commercial Crew Program Will Pave the Way for Future Science
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/12/boeing-flight-test-for-commercial-crew.html

Boeing and NASA Approach Milestone Orbital Flight Test
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/12/boeing-and-nasa-approach-milestone.html

Related links:

NASA TV: https://www.nasa.gov/nasalive

Atlas V rocket: https://blogs.nasa.gov/commercialcrew/tag/atlas-v-rocket/

Boeing: https://blogs.nasa.gov/commercialcrew/category/boeing/

Commercial Crew Program: https://www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew

International Space Station: https://www.nasa.gov/station

Commercial Crew blog (NASA): https://blogs.nasa.gov/commercialcrew/

Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Linda Herridge.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

Featured

    Солнечное затмение 14 декабря 2020 года  — полное  солнечное затмение  142  сароса , которое лучше всего будет видно в юго-восточной час...

Popular