вторник, 17 декабря 2019 г.

NASA’s SDO Sees New Kind of Magnetic Explosion on Sun













NASA - Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) patch.

Dec. 17, 2019

NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed a magnetic explosion the likes of which have never been seen before. In the scorching upper reaches of the Sun’s atmosphere, a prominence — a large loop of material launched by an eruption on the solar surface — started falling back to the surface of the Sun. But before it could make it, the prominence ran into a snarl of magnetic field lines, sparking a magnetic explosion.

Scientists have previously seen the explosive snap and realignment of tangled magnetic field lines on the Sun — a process known as magnetic reconnection — but never one that had been triggered by a nearby eruption. The observation, which confirms a decade-old theory, may help scientists understand a key mystery about the Sun’s atmosphere, better predict space weather, and may also lead to breakthroughs in the controlled fusion and lab plasma experiments.


Image above: Forced magnetic reconnection, caused by a prominence from the Sun, was seen for the first time in images from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO. This image shows the Sun on May 3, 2012, with the inset showing a close-up of the reconnection event imaged by SDO’s Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument, where the signature X-shape is visible. Image Credits: NASA/SDO/Abhishek Srivastava/IIT(BHU)​.

“This was the first observation of an external driver of magnetic reconnection,” said Abhishek Srivastava, solar scientist at Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), in Varanasi, India. “This could be very useful for understanding other systems.  For example, Earth’s and planetary magnetospheres, other magnetized plasma sources, including experiments at laboratory scales where plasma is highly diffusive and very hard to control.”

Previously a type of magnetic reconnection known as spontaneous reconnection has been seen, both on the Sun and around Earth. But this new explosion-driven type — called forced reconnection — had never been seen directly, thought it was first theorized 15 years ago. The new observations have just been published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). Image Credit: NASA

The previously-observed spontaneous reconnection requires a region with just the right conditions — such as having a thin sheet of ionized gas, or plasma, that only weakly conducts electric current — in order to occur. The new type, forced reconnection, can happen in a wider range of places, such as in plasma that has even lower resistance to conducting an electric current. However, it can only occur if there is some type of eruption to trigger it. The eruption squeezes the plasma and magnetic fields, causing them to reconnect.

While the Sun’s jumble of magnetic field lines are invisible, they nonetheless affect the material around them — a soup of ultra-hot charged particles known as plasma. The scientists were able to study this plasma using observations from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, looking specifically at a wavelength of light showing particles heated 1-2 million kelvins (1.8-3.6 million F).

The observations allowed them to directly see the forced reconnection event for the first time in the solar corona — the Sun’s uppermost atmospheric layer. In a series of images taken over an hour, a prominence in the corona could be seen falling back into the photosphere. En route, the prominence ran into a snarl of magnetic field lines, causing them to reconnect in a distinct X shape.

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Roman Sceptre Mount of Mars, Kirmington, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.

Roman Sceptre Mount of Mars, Kirmington, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Modeling your ancestry has never been easier

An exceedingly simple, yet feature-packed, online tool ideal for modeling ancestry with Global25 coordinates is freely available HERE. It works offline too, after downloading the web page onto your computer. Just copy paste the coordinates of your choice under the "source" and "target" tabs, and then mess around with the buttons to see what happens. The screen caps below show me doing just that.

* This article was originally published here

Stunning 4K Drone Footage of Puerto Rico Travel



Stunning 4K Drone Footage of Puerto Rico  Travel

Fireball over Puerto Rico

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Channel: Frankie Lucena  

I captured this fireball on the night of Sept 10, 2019 at 10:28pm local time (02:28 UTC Sept 11). My camera was facing northwest from Cabo Rojo.

Video length: 0:07
Category: Science & Technology
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Граница Тумана Одесса

Перекрёсток Туманной сферы и прекрасный закат Солнца в три луча.

Перекрёсток Туманной сферы и прекрасный закат Солнца в три луча.

A breakthrough for high luminosity













CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research logo.

16 December, 2019

The underground structures of the High-Luminosity LHC have been connected to the LHC tunnel 


Image above: On Friday, 13 December, Lucio Rossi, Leader of the HL-LHC project, Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, and Oliver Brüning, Deputy Leader of the HL-LHC project, met in the LHC tunnel to celebrate the breakthrough at the LHC’s Point 1. (Image: CERN).

A handshake 100 metres underground isn’t something you see every day. But on Friday, 13 December, that’s exactly how Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Lucio Rossi, High-Luminosity LHC project leader, and Oliver Brunning, his deputy, marked the connection of the LHC tunnel with that of its successor, the High-Luminosity LHC. “This is a crucial milestone for the High-Luminosity LHC,” said Lucio Rossi. “These structures will house equipment that is needed to reach high luminosity.”

For the past 18 months, diggers have been at work underground to excavate the structures for the future accelerator. Work is focused on Point 1, where the ATLAS experiment is located, and Point 5, which houses the CMS experiment. Most of the equipment that will be installed in these locations is designed to boost the luminosity – or to put it another way, the number of collisions – at the heart of these two experiments.

A breakthrough for high luminosity

Video above: A short film presenting the milestone moment when the civil engineering teams made the junction that connected the HL-LHC with the LHC tunnel. (Video: CERN).

At each site, the underground constructions consist of a shaft around 80 metres deep, a service cavern, a 300-metre tunnel and four 50-metre tunnels connecting the new structures to the existing LHC tunnel. Around 80% of the excavations on the two sites are now complete: after having dug the shafts, the caverns and almost all of the two longer tunnels, the civil engineering companies are now working on the tunnels that will connect the new structures to the LHC tunnel. And as a result they connected the LHC with its successor, at Point 5 on 11 December and then at Point 1 the following day. “These connection works were completed with almost surgical precision, so as to minimise damage to the tunnel and to protect the LHC as much as possible from the dust produced by cutting through the concrete,” explains Pieter Mattelaer, Project Manager – Civil Engineering, High-Luminosity LHC Project.

A second connection between the new tunnels and the LHC tunnel should be completed before summer 2020. The underground structures will be fully completed by mid-2021, while the surface buildings will be completed by mid-2022.

A new schedule for the LHC and its successor

The LHC will restart in May 2021 and Run 3 will be extended by one year


Image above: The LHC will restart in 2021 after the intensive works of Long Shutdown 2 (Image: CERN).

The CERN Management has presented a new calendar for future accelerator runs to the Council, which met on 12 December. Under the new schedule, the LHC will restart in May 2021, two months after the initially planned date, and Run 3 will be extended by one year, until the end of 2024. All of the equipment needed for the High-Luminosity LHC, the LHC’s successor, and its experiments will be installed during Long Shutdown 3, between 2025 and mid-2027. The High-Luminosity LHC is scheduled to come into operation at the end of 2027.

For the last year, extensive upgrades of CERN’s accelerator complex and experiments in preparation for the next LHC run and the High-Luminosity LHC have been under way. Major work is being carried out on all the machines and infrastructures: the particle accelerator chain is being entirely renovated as part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project, new equipment is being installed in the LHC, where upgrades are also ongoing, and the experiments are replacing numerous components, even entire subdetectors, in order to prepare for high luminosity (read also about upgrades at ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb).

The High-Luminosity LHC will generate many more collisions than the LHC, accumulating ten times more data than its predecessor throughout its operation. This groundbreaking machine will thus be able to detect extremely rare phenomena and improve the precision of measurements of the infinitesimally small. In order to fully exploit the increased quantity of data, the experiments have embarked upon ambitious detector upgrade programmes. The extra time will enable them to ready themselves for Run 3 and, then, for the High-Luminosity LHC.

Note:

CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s largest and most respected centres for scientific research. Its business is fundamental physics, finding out what the Universe is made of and how it works. At CERN, the world’s largest and most complex scientific instruments are used to study the basic constituents of matter — the fundamental particles. By studying what happens when these particles collide, physicists learn about the laws of Nature.

The instruments used at CERN are particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before they are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions.

Founded in 1954, the CERN Laboratory sits astride the Franco–Swiss border near Geneva. It was one of Europe’s first joint ventures and now has 23 Member States.

Related links:

High-Luminosity LHC: https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc

Large Hadron Collider (LHC): https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider

ALICE: https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/upgrading-alice-whats-store-next-two-years

ATLAS: https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/wheels-motion-whats-planned-atlas-next-two-years

CMS: https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/whats-store-cms-detector-over-next-two-years

LHCb: https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/transforming-lhcb-whats-store-next-two-years

For more information about European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Visit: https://home.cern/

Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credit: European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

Neolithic Axeheads, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.

Neolithic Axeheads, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Getting the most out of the Global25

The first thing you need to know about the Global25 is that I update the relevant datasheets regularly, usually every few weeks, but they're always at these links: Global25 datasheet ancient scaled Global25 pop averages ancient scaled Global25 datasheet ancient Global25 pop averages ancient ... Global25 datasheet modern scaled Global25 pop averages modern scaled Global25 datasheet modern

* This article was originally published here

Gigantic Jet over Tropical Storm Karen

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Channel: Frankie Lucena  

This massive Gigantic Jet was captured on Sept 24, 2019 while tropical storm Karen was just south of my location in Cabo Rojo,Puerto Rico. The diffused top is similar to one that was captured near Taiwan last year and was found to be an overshooting event. A regular gigantic jet reaches about 90 Km and an overshooting event reaches 100 Km or higher, which means it enters the Ionosphere.

Video length: 0:21
Category: Science & Technology
6 comments

SpaceX JCSAT-18/Kacific1 launch Success













SpaceX - Falcon 9 / JCSAT-18 & Kacific1 Mission patch.

Dec. 16, 2019

Falcon 9 carrying JCSAT-18 & Kacific1 lift off

A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launched the JCSAT-18/Kacific1 satellite from Space Launch Complex 40 (SLC-40) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, on 17 December 2019, at 00:10 UTC (16 December, 19:10 EST).

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Neolithic Pottery, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.

Neolithic Pottery, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Big deal of 2019: ancient DNA confirms the link between Y-haplogroup N and Uralic expansions

The academic consensus is that Indo-European languages first spread into the Baltic region from the Eastern European steppes along with the Corded Ware culture (CWC) and its people during the Late Neolithic, well before the expansion of Uralic speakers into Fennoscandia and surrounds, probably from somewhere around the Ural Mountains. On the other hand, the views that the Uralic language family

* This article was originally published here

Gigantic Jet Lightning in the Caribbean

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Channel: Frankie Lucena  

This gigantic jet was captured on the night of Sept 16th 2019. It was southwest of my location in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico.

Video length: 0:13
Category: Science & Technology
1 comments

2019 December 14 Interstellar Comet 2I/Borisov Image Credit:...



2019 December 14

Interstellar Comet 2I/Borisov
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and D. Jewitt (UCLA) et al.

Explanation: From somewhere else in the Milky Way galaxy, Comet 2I/Borisov is just visiting the Solar System. Discovered by Crimean amateur astronomer Gennady Borisov on August 30, 2019, the first known interstellar comet is captured in these two recent Hubble Space Telescope images. On the left, a distant background galaxy near the line-of-sight to Borisov is blurred as Hubble tracked the speeding comet and dust tail about 327 million kilometers from Earth. At right, 2I/Borisov appears shortly after perihelion, it’s closest approach to Sun. Borisov’s closest approach to our fair planet, a distance of about 290 million kilometers, will come on December 28. Even though Hubble’s sharp images don’t resolve the comet’s nucleus, they do lead to estimates of less than 1 kilometer for its diameter.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191214.html



* This article was originally published here

Late Roman Decorated Strap End, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.

Late Roman Decorated Strap End, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

The BOO people: earliest Uralic speakers in the ancient DNA record?

N-L1026 is the Y-chromosome haplogroup most closely associated with the speakers of Uralic languages. Thus far, the oldest published instances of N-L1026 are in two Siberian-like samples dating to 1473±87 calBCE from the site of Bolshoy Oleni Ostrov (BOO), located within the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, northern Russia. So does this mean that the BOO people were Uralic speakers? I'm now

* This article was originally published here

Amazing Gigantic Jet Lightning Captured by Pilot Chris Holmes

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Channel: Frankie Lucena  

This Gigantic Jet was captured while the pilot was flying south near the Yucatan Peninsula on Oct. 15th 2019. He says that it appeared approx 35 miles from the plane. I am trying to contact him to get the time of the event and the direction the camera was facing. I have captured many of these myself but this one tops them all. This is an Amazing Capture !!!

Video length: 0:25
Category: Science & Technology
1 comments

2019 December 17 The Horsehead Nebula Image Credit &...



2019 December 17

The Horsehead Nebula
Image Credit & Copyright: Mark Hanson & Martin Pugh, SSRO, PROMPT, CTIO, NSF

Explanation: Sculpted by stellar winds and radiation, a magnificent interstellar dust cloud by chance has assumed this recognizable shape. Fittingly named the Horsehead Nebula, it is some 1,500 light-years distant, embedded in the vast Orion cloud complex. About five light-years “tall”, the dark cloud is cataloged as Barnard 33 and is visible only because its obscuring dust is silhouetted against the glowing red emission nebula IC 434. Stars are forming within the dark cloud. Contrasting blue reflection nebula NGC 2023, surrounding a hot, young star, is at the lower left of the full image. The featured gorgeous color image combines both narrowband and broadband images recorded using several different telescopes.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191217.html



* This article was originally published here

Carved Prehistoric Pottery Fragment, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.

Carved Prehistoric Pottery Fragment, North Lincolnshire Museum, Scunthorpe, 14.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Interesting times ahead

The map below made a big impression on me. Can't wait to see all of these ancient samples online. More details here. See also... Is Yamnaya overrated? Y-haplogroup R1a and mental health Getting the most out of the Global25

* This article was originally published here

Starlink Satellites over Puerto Rico

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Channel: Frankie Lucena  

This video was taken in Puerto Rico on Nov 21st 2019 facing east in Cabo Rojo. These are 3 separate clips back to back. One was at 5:05am then 5:07am and then at 5:10am. The photo at the end of the video is of the first clip only.

Video length: 0:11
Category: Science & Technology
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ESO Telescope Images Stunning Central Region of Milky Way, Finds Ancient Star Burst

HAWK-I view of the Milky Way’s central region

Details of the HAWK-I view of the Milky Way’s central region

Location of the Galactic centre in the night sky


Videos
ESOcast 213 Light: Stunning stars in the Milky Way central region
ESOcast 213 Light: Stunning stars in the Milky Way central region

Pan across the Milky Way’s central region

Zoom of the Milky Way’s central region
Zoom of the Milky Way’s central region

The Milky Way’s central region in visible light and near-infrared
PR Video eso1920d
The Milky Way’s central region in visible light and near-infrared 

The Milky Way’s central region observed with VISTA and HAWK-I
The Milky Way’s central region observed with VISTA and HAWK-I 



 Image Comparisons

The Milky Way’s central region in visible light and near-infrared
The Milky Way’s central region in visible light and near-infrared

The Milky Way’s central region observed with VISTA and HAWK
The Milky Way’s central region observed with VISTA and HAWK



ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) has observed the central part of the Milky Way with spectacular resolution and uncovered new details about the history of star birth in our galaxy. Thanks to the new observations, astronomers have found evidence for a dramatic event in the life of the Milky Way: a burst of star formation so intense that it resulted in over a hundred thousand supernova explosions.

"Our unprecedented survey of a large part of the Galactic centre has given us detailed insights into the formation process of stars in this region of the Milky Way," says Rainer Schödel from the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia in Granada, Spain, who led the observations. "Contrary to what had been accepted up to now, we found that the formation of stars has not been continuous,” adds Francisco Nogueras-Lara, who led two new studies of the Milky Way central region while at the same institute in Granada.

In the study, published today in Nature Astronomy, the team found that about 80% of the stars in the Milky Way central region formed in the earliest years of our galaxy, between eight and 13.5 billion years ago. This initial period of star formation was followed by about six billion years during which very few stars were born. This was brought to an end by an intense burst of star formation around one billion years ago when, over a period of less than 100 million years, stars with a combined mass possibly as high as a few tens of million Suns formed in this central region.

The conditions in the studied region during this burst of activity must have resembled those in ‘starburst’ galaxies, which form stars at rates of more than 100 solar masses per year,” says Nogueras-Lara, who is now based at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. At present, the whole Milky Way is forming stars at a rate of about one or two solar masses per year.

This burst of activity, which must have resulted in the explosion of more than a hundred thousand supernovae, was probably one of the most energetic events in the whole history of the Milky Way,” he adds. During a starburst, many massive stars are created; since they have shorter lifespans than lower-mass stars, they reach the end of their lives much faster, dying in violent supernova explosions.

This research was possible thanks to observations of the Galactic central region done with ESO’s HAWK-I instrument on the VLT in the Chilean Atacama Desert. This infrared-sensitive camera peered through the dust to give us a remarkably detailed image of the Milky Way’s central region, published in October in Astronomy & Astrophysics by Nogueras-Lara and a team of astronomers from Spain, the US, Japan and Germany. The stunning image shows the galaxy’s densest region of stars, gas and dust, which also hosts a supermassive black hole, with an angular resolution of 0.2 arcseconds. This means the level of detail picked up by HAWK-I is roughly equivalent to seeing a football (soccer ball) in Zurich from Munich, where ESO’s headquarters are located.

This image is the first release of the GALACTICNUCLEUS survey. This programme relied on the large field of view and high angular resolution of HAWK-I on ESO’s VLT to produce a beautifully sharp image of the central region of our galaxy. The survey studied over three million stars, covering an area corresponding to more than 60 000 square light-years at the distance of the Galactic centre (one light-year is about 9.5 trillion kilometres).



More Information

This research was presented in the paper “GALACTICNUCLEUS: A high angular resolution JHKs imaging survey of the Galactic Centre: II. First data release of the catalogue and the most detailed CMDs of the GC” published in Astronomy & Astrophysics and in “Early formation and recent starburst activity in the nuclear disc of the Milky Way” to appear in Nature Astronomy (doi: 10.1038/s41550-019-0967-9).

The team of the Astronomy & Astrophysics paper is composed of F. Nogueras-Lara (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Granada, Spain [IAA-CSIC]), R. Schödel (IAA-CSIC), A. T. Gallego-Calvente (IAA-CSIC), H. Dong (IAA-CSIC), E. Gallego-Cano (IAA and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán, Almería, Spain), B. Shahzamanian (IAA-CSIC), J. H. V. Girard (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA), S. Nishiyama (Miyagi University of Education, Sendai, Japan), F. Najarro (Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología CAB (CSIC-INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain), N. Neumayer (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany).

The team of the Nature Astronomy paper is composed of F. Nogueras-Lara (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Granada, Spain [IAA-CSIC]), R. Schödel (IAA-CSIC), A. T. Gallego-Calvente (IAA-CSIC), E. Gallego-Cano (IAA-CSIC), B. Shahzamanian (IAA-CSIC), H. Dong (IAA-CSIC), N. Neumayer (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany), M. Hilker (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany), F. Najarro (Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología, Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain), S. Nishiyama (Miyagi University of Education, Sendai, Japan), A. Feldmeier-Krause (The Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The University of Chicago, Chicago, US), J. H. V. Girard (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA) and S. Cassisi (INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Abruzzo, Teramo, Italy).

ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It has 16 Member States: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile and with Australia as a Strategic Partner. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer as well as two survey telescopes, VISTA working in the infrared and the visible-light VLT Survey Telescope. Also at Paranal ESO will host and operate the Cherenkov Telescope Array South, the world’s largest and most sensitive gamma-ray observatory. ESO is also a major partner in two facilities on Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre Extremely Large Telescope, the ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.



Links



Contacts

Francisco Nogueras-Lara
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
Heidelberg, Germany
Tel: +49 6221 528-393
Email:
nogueras@mpia.de

Rainer Schödel
Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC)
Granada, Spain
Tel: +34 958 230 529
Email:
rainer@iaa.es

Bárbara Ferreira
ESO Public Information Officer
Garching bei München, Germany
Tel: +49 89 3200 6670
Cell: +49 151 241 664 00


Source: ESO/News




* This article was originally published here

Roman Denarii, Doncaster Museum and Gallery, Doncaster, 14.12.19.

Roman Denarii, Doncaster Museum and Gallery, Doncaster, 14.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Modeling your ancestry has never been easier


An exceedingly simple, yet feature-packed, online tool ideal for modeling ancestry with Global25 coordinates is freely available HERE. It works offline too, after downloading the web page onto your computer. Just copy paste the coordinates of your choice under the "source" and "target" tabs, and then mess around with the buttons to see what happens. The screen caps below show me doing just that.






Another free, easy to use online tool that works with Global25 coordinates is the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) runner HERE. Below is a screen cap of me checking out one of the many PCA that it offers.


See also...

Getting the most out of the Global25



* This article was originally published here

Lucena Home Videos: The 1970s

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Channel: Frankie Lucena  

Home Videos.

Video length: 1:58:07
Category: People & Blogs
0 comments

The Pollington Coffin, a wealthy Roman woman of approximately 50 years in a stone coffin and a...

The Pollington Coffin, a wealthy Roman woman of approximately 50 years in a stone coffin and a limestone plaster wrap. This process shows Egyptian influence and is very rare in 4th century CE Britain.

Doncaster Museum and Gallery, Doncaster, 14.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

2019 December 15 Mammatus Clouds over Nebraska Image Credit...



2019 December 15

Mammatus Clouds over Nebraska
Image Credit & Copyright: Jorn Olsen Photography

Explanation: When do cloud bottoms appear like bubbles? Normally, cloud bottoms are flat. This is because moist warm air that rises and cools will condense into water droplets at a specific temperature, which usually corresponds to a very specific height. As water droplets grow, an opaque cloud forms. Under some conditions, however, cloud pockets can develop that contain large droplets of water or ice that fall into clear air as they evaporate. Such pockets may occur in turbulent air near a thunderstorm. Resulting mammatus clouds can appear especially dramatic if sunlit from the side. The mammatus clouds pictured here were photographed over Hastings, Nebraska during 2004 June.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191215.html



* This article was originally published here

Avalon vs Valhalla revisited


Pictured below is a new version of my Celtic vs Germanic genetic map. It's based on the same Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as the original (which can be seen here), but more focused on Northwestern Europe and produced with a different program.


To see the interactive online version, navigate to Vahaduo Custom PCA and copy paste the text from here into the empty space under the PCA DATA tab. Then press the PLOT PCA button under the PCA PLOT tab. For more guidance, refer to the screen caps here and here.

To include a wider range of populations in the key, just edit the data accordingly. For instance, to break up the ancient grouping into more specific populations, delete the Ancient: prefix in all of the relevant rows. This is what you should see:


Conversely, you can leave the ancient sample set intact and instead reorder the present-day linguistic groupings into, say, geographic groupings. To achieve this just delete all of the linguistic prefixes, such as Celtic:, Germanic:, and so on. You should end up with a datasheet like this and plot like this.

Of course, you can design your own plot by using any combination of the ancient and present-day individuals and populations that I've already run in this PCA. Their coordinates are listed here. Indeed, if you're in the possession of your own Celtic vs Germanic PCA coordinates, you can add yourself to the plot. And if you're not, see here.

It's also possible to re-process PCA data via the SOURCE tab. But I don't recommend doing this with the Celtic vs Germanic data, which are derived from a fine scale analysis and don't pack much variation. On the other hand, Global25 data are ideal for such re-processing. I made the plots below from subsets of Global25 coordinates available in a zip file here. To see how, refer to the screen caps here and here.




See also...

Modeling your ancestry has never been easier

Getting the most out of the Global25

Modeling genetic ancestry with Davidski: step by step



* This article was originally published here

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