понедельник, 9 декабря 2019 г.

GOCE reveals what’s going on deep below Antarctica










ESA - GOCE Mission logo.

Dec. 9, 2019

Antarctica: below the surface

Despite having completed its mission in orbit over six years ago, ESA’s GOCE gravity mapper continues to yield new insights into our planet. Thanks to this extraordinary satellite, scientists now have a much clearer view of the secrets that lie deep below one of the most remote parts of the world: Antarctica. And while the vast expanse of white ice above may appear relatively uniform, it is a very different story below the bedrock.

A layer of ice up to 4 km thick, fierce winds and temperatures that can reach –60°C make Antarctica one of the harshest environments on Earth. This, coupled with the remoteness of this vast icy continent, means that it is difficult and expensive to carry out scientific research, particularly into what lies beneath deep below. Thankfully, data collected from space can offer information that field experiments alone cannot.

A paper, published recently in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, describes how scientists used gravity data from the GOCE satellite mission along with seismological models to reveal unprecedented insight into the crust and upper mantle, otherwise known as the lithosphere, below this frozen continent.



2019 December 9

Looking Sideways from the Parker Solar Probe
Video Credit: NASA, JHUAPL, Naval Research Lab, Parker Solar Probe

Explanation: Everybody sees the Sun. Nobody’s been there. Starting in 2018 though, NASA launched the robotic Parker Solar Probe (PSP) to investigate regions near to the Sun for the first time. The PSP’s looping orbit brings it yet closer to the Sun each time around – every few months. The featured time-lapse video shows the view looking sideways from behind PSP’s Sun shield during its first approach to the Sun a year ago – to about half the orbit of Mercury. The PSP’s Wide Field Imager for Solar Probe (WISPR) cameras took the images over nine days, but they are digitally compressed here into about 14 seconds. The waving solar corona is visible on the far left, with stars, planets, and even the central band of our Milky Way Galaxy streaming by in the background as the PSP orbits the Sun. PSP has found the solar neighborhood to be surprisingly complex and to include switchbacks – times when the Sun’s magnetic field briefly reverses itself. The Sun is not only Earth’s dominant energy source, its variable solar wind compresses Earth’s atmosphere, triggers auroras, affects power grids, and can even damage orbiting communication satellites.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191209.html



* This article was originally published here

Leahill Roman Turret (Turret 51b), Hadrian’s Wall, Brampton, 8.12.19.

Leahill Roman Turret (Turret 51b), Hadrian’s Wall, Brampton, 8.12.19.



* This article was originally published here

Banks East Roman Turret (Turret 52a), Hadrian’s Wall, Brampton, 8.12.19.Today I took a tour of...

Banks East Roman Turret (Turret 52a), Hadrian’s Wall, Brampton, 8.12.19.

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* This article was originally published here

Pike Hill Signal Tower, Hadrian’s Wall, Brampton, 8.12.19.A Roman Signal Tower predating...

Pike Hill Signal Tower, Hadrian’s Wall, Brampton, 8.12.19.

A Roman Signal Tower predating Hadrian’s Wall.



* This article was originally published here

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