пятница, 29 ноября 2019 г.

Barbequed clams on the menu for ancient Puerto Ricans


Scientists have reconstructed the cooking techniques of the early inhabitants of Puerto Rico by analysing the remains of clams.

Barbequed clams on the menu for ancient Puerto Ricans
Photographs of all shells analyzed in this study
[Credit: Cardiff University]
Led by Philip Staudigel, who conducted the analysis as a graduate student at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School and is now a postdoctoral researcher at Cardiff University, the team has used new chemical analysis techniques to identify the exact cooking temperatures at which clams were cooked over 2500 years ago.

With cooking temperatures getting up to around 200oC according to the new analysis, the team believe the early Puerto Ricans were partial to a barbeque rather than boiling their food as a soup.


The study, which also involved academics from the University of Miami and Valencia College, has been published today in the journal Science Advances.

Whilst the results throw new light on the cultural practices of the first communities to arrive on the island of Puerto Rico, they also provide at least circumstantial evidence that ceramic pottery technology was not widespread during this period of history - it's likely that this would be the only way in which the clams could have been boiled.

Lead author of the study Dr Philip Staudigel, currently at Cardiff University's School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, said: "Much of peoples' identity draws upon on where they came from, one of the most profound expressions of this is in cooking. We learn to cook from our parents, who learned from their parents.

Barbequed clams on the menu for ancient Puerto Ricans
Measuring in excavation unit at CRNWR_P13
[Credit: Carlos Mora]
"In many parts of the world, written records extend back thousands of years, which often includes recipes. This is not the case in the Caribbean, as there were no written texts, except for petroglyphs. By learning more about how ancient Puerto Rican natives cooked their meals, we can relate to these long-gone peoples through their food."

In their study, the team analysed over 20kg of fossilised clam shells at the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences Stable Isotope Lab, which were collected from an archaeological site in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico.


The pre-Arawak population of Puerto Rico were the first inhabitants of the island, arriving sometime before 3000 BC, and came from Central and/or South America. They existed primarily from fishing, hunting, and gathering near the mangrove swamps and coastal areas where they had settled.

The fossilised shells, dating back to around 700 BC, were cleaned and turned into a powder, which was then analysed to determine its mineralogy, as well as the abundance of specific chemical bonds in the sample.

When certain minerals are heated, the bonds between atoms in the mineral can rearrange themselves, which can then be measured in the lab. The amount of rearrangement is proportional to the temperature the mineral is heated.

Barbequed clams on the menu for ancient Puerto Ricans
Sample reacting with phosphoric acid, releasing CO2 gas which will then be analyzed
using mass spectrometry [Credit: Philip Staudigel]


This technique, known as clumped isotope geochemistry, is often used to determine the temperature an organism formed at but in this instance was used to reconstruct the temperature at which the clams were cooked.

The abundance of bonds in the powdered fossils was then compared to clams which were cooked at known temperatures, as well as uncooked modern clams collected from a nearby beach.

Results showed that that the majority of clams were heated to temperatures greater than 100°C - the boiling point of water - but no greater than 200°C. The results also revealed a disparity between the cooking temperature of different clams, which the researchers believe could be associated with a grilling technique in which the clams are heated from below, meaning the ones at the bottom were heated more than the ones at the top.

"The clams from the archaeological site appeared to be most similar to clams which had been barbequed," continued Dr Staudigel.

"Ancient Puerto Ricans didn't use cookbooks, at least none that lasted to the present day. The only way we have of knowing how our ancestors cooked is to study what they left behind. Here, we demonstrated that a relatively new technique can be used to learn what temperature they cooked at, which is one important detail of the cooking process."

Source: Cardiff University [November 27, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

UFO moves through skies over France

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UFO in France on July 2, 2014
Source Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDePzMoBz0w

Video length: 2:08
Category: Science & Technology
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Black Hole Nurtures Baby Stars a Million Light-Years Away













NASA - Chandra X-ray Observatory patch.

Nov. 29, 2019


Black holes are famous for ripping objects apart, including stars. But now, astronomers have uncovered a black hole that may have sparked the births of stars over a mind-boggling distance, and across multiple galaxies.

If confirmed, this discovery, made with NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes, would represent the widest reach ever seen for a black hole acting as a stellar kick-starter. The black hole seems to have enhanced star formation more than one million light-years away. (One light year is equal to 6 trillion miles.)

“This is the first time we’ve seen a single black hole boost star birth in more than one galaxy at a time,” said Roberto Gilli of the National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) in Bologna, Italy, lead author of the study describing the discovery. “It’s amazing to think one galaxy’s black hole can have a say in what happens in other galaxies millions of trillions of miles away.”

A black hole is an extremely dense object from which no light can escape. The black hole's immense gravity pulls in surrounding gas and dust, but particles from a small amount of that material can also get catapulted away instead at nearly the speed of light. These fast-moving particles form two narrow beams or "jets" near the poles of the black hole.

The supermassive black hole scientists observed in the new study is located in the center of a galaxy about 9.9 billion light-years from Earth. This galaxy has at least seven neighboring galaxies, according to observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT).

Using the National Science Foundation's Karl Jansky Very Large Array, scientists had previously detected radio-wave emission from a jet of high-energy particles that is about a million light-years long. The jet can be traced back to the supermassive black hole, which Chandra detected as a powerful source of X-rays produced by hot gas swirling around the black hole. Gilli and colleagues also detected a diffuse cloud of X-ray emission surrounding one end of the radio jet. This X-ray emission is most likely from a gigantic bubble of hot gas heated by the interaction of the energetic particles in the radio jet with surrounding matter.

As the hot bubble expanded and swept through four neighboring galaxies, it could have created a shock wave that compressed cool gas in the galaxies, causing stars to form.  All four galaxies are approximately the same distance, about 400,000 light years, from the center of the bubble. The authors estimate that the star formation rate is between about two to five times higher than typical galaxies with similar masses and distance from Earth.


Chandra X-ray Observatory

“The story of King Midas talks of his magic touch that can turn metal into gold,” said co-author Marco Mignoli, also of INAF in Bologna, Italy. “Here we have a case of a black hole that helped turn gas into stars, and its reach is intergalactic.”


Astronomers have seen many cases where a black hole affects its surroundings through “negative feedback” – in other words, curtailing the formation of new stars. This can occur when the black hole's jets inject so much energy into the hot gas of a galaxy, or galaxy cluster, that the gas can't cool down enough to make large numbers of stars.

In this newly discovered collection of galaxies, astronomers have found a less common example of “positive feedback,” where the black hole’s effects increase star formation. Moreover, when astronomers previously encountered positive feedback, it either involved increases in the star formation rate of 30% or less, or it occurred over scales of only about 20,000 to 50,000 light years on a nearby companion galaxy. Whether the feedback is positive or negative depends on a delicate balance between the heating rate and cooling rate of a cloud. That is because clouds that are initially cooler when hit by a shock wave are more prone to experience positive feedback, and form more stars.

“Black holes have a well-earned reputation for being powerful and deadly, but not always," said co-author Alessandro Peca, formerly at INAF in Bologna and now a Ph.D. student at the University of Miami. “This is a prime example that they sometimes defy that stereotype and can be nurturing instead.”


The researchers used a total of six days of Chandra observing time spread out over five months.


"It's only because of this very deep observation that we saw the hot gas bubble produced by the black hole," said co-author Colin Norman of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. "By targeting objects similar to this one, we may discover that positive feedback is very common in the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies."

A paper describing these results has been published in the most recent issue of the journal “Astronomy and Astrophysics” and is available online: https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.00814

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge and Burlington, Massachusetts.

Read more from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory: https://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2019/bhfeedback/

For more Chandra images, multimedia and related materials, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/chandra

Image, Animation, Text,  Credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/INAF/R. Gilli et al.; Radio NRAO/VLA; Optical: NASA/STScI/NASA/Lee Mohon.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

Ostrich eggshell beads reveal 10,000 years of cultural interaction across Africa


Ostrich eggshell beads are some of the oldest ornaments made by humankind, and they can be found dating back at least 50,000 years in Africa. Previous research in southern Africa has shown that the beads increase in size about 2,000 years ago, when herding populations first enter the region.

Ostrich eggshell beads reveal 10,000 years of cultural interaction across Africa
A string of modern ostrich eggshell beads from eastern Africa
[Credit: Hans Sell]
In the current study, researchers Jennifer Miller and Elizabeth Sawchuk investigate this idea using increased data and evaluate the hypothesis in a new region where it has never before been tested.

Review of old ideas, analysis of old collections

To conduct their study, the researchers recorded the diameters of 1,200 ostrich eggshell beads unearthed from 30 sites in Africa dating to the last 10,000 years. Many of these bead measurements were taken from decades-old unstudied collections, and so are being reported here for the first time. This new data increases the published bead diameter measurements from less than 100 to over 1,000, and reveals new trends that oppose longstanding beliefs.


The ostrich eggshell beads reflect different responses to the introduction of herding between eastern and southern Africa. In southern Africa, new bead styles appear alongside signs of herding, but do not replace the existing forager bead traditions. On the other hand, beads from the eastern Africa sites showed no change in style with the introduction of herding.

Ostrich eggshell beads reveal 10,000 years of cultural interaction across Africa
Archaeological ostrich eggshell beads from southern Africa (a,b) and eastern Africa (c,d)
[Credit: Jennifer Miller]
Although eastern African bead sizes are consistently larger than those from southern Africa, the larger southern African herder beads fall within the eastern African forager size range, hinting at contact between these regions as herding spread. "These beads are symbols that were made by hunter-gatherers from both regions for more than 40,000 years," says lead author Jennifer Miller, "so changes - or lack thereof - in these symbols tells us how these communities responded to cultural contact and economic change."

Ostrich eggshell beads tell the story of ancient interaction

The story told by ostrich eggshell beads is more nuanced than previously believed. Contact with outside groups of herders likely introduced new bead styles along with domesticated animals, but the archaeological record suggests the incoming influence did not overwhelm existing local traditions. The existing customs were not replaced with new ones; rather they continued and incorporated some of the new elements.


In eastern Africa, studied here for the first time, there was no apparent change in bead style with the arrival of herding groups from the north. This may be because local foragers adopted herding while retaining their bead-making traditions, because migrant herders possessed similar traditions prior to contact, and/or because incoming herders adopted local styles.

Ostrich eggshell beads reveal 10,000 years of cultural interaction across Africa
The current study reports ostrich eggshell bead data from 11 new sites,
including Magubike Rockshelter [Credit: Jennifer Miller]
"In the modern world, migration, cultural contact, and economic change often create tension," says Sawchuk, "ancient peoples experienced these situations too, and the patterns in cultural objects like ostrich eggshell beads give us a chance to study how they navigated these experiences."


The researchers hope that this work inspires a renewed interest into ostrich eggshell beads, and recommend that future studies present individual bead diameters rather than a single average of many. Future research should also investigate questions related to manufacture, chemical identification, and the effects of taphonomic processes and wear on bead diameter.

"This study shows that examining old collections can generate important findings without new excavation," says Miller, "and we hope that future studies will take advantage of the wealth of artifacts that have been excavated but not yet studied."

The study is published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE.

Source: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History [November 27, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

NO UFO!!! Update to UFO or not UFO

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

So I posted a video last week that was questionable of what exactly it was. We had comments from a demon to a 787. Yes it was a 787 so definitely not a UFO.
Source video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=epa6WxEw1Xk

Video length: 2:07
Category: Science & Technology
21 comments

Unique sled dogs helped the inuit thrive in the North American Arctic


A unique group of dogs helped the Inuit conquer the tough terrain of the North American Arctic, major new analysis of the remains of hundreds of animals shows.

Unique sled dogs helped the inuit thrive in the North American Arctic
A team of Greenland sled dogs working in Greenland’s Disko Bay
 [Credit: Tatiana Feuerborn]
The study shows that the Inuit brought specialised dogs with them when they migrated from Alaska and Siberia instead of adopting local dogs they would have come across during their migration. They instead maintained their own dogs, suggesting they were keen to enhance or keep the special features they had. By analysing the shape of elements from 391 dogs, the study shows that the Inuit had larger dogs with a proportionally narrower cranium to these earlier dogs. The Inuit dogs are the direct ancestors of modern Arctic sledge dogs, although their appearance has continued to change over time.

Experts had thought the Inuit used dogs to pull sledges, and this is the first study which shows they introduced a new dog population to the region to do this. These dogs then spread across the North American Arctic alongside Inuit migrants.


Dr Carly Ameen, an archaeologist from the University of Exeter who led the study, said: "Dogs have lived in North America for as long as humans, but we show here that the Inuit brought new dogs to the region which were genetically distinct and physically different from earlier dogs.

"Thousands of years ago there was not the huge number of dog breeds as we know them today. Through analysing the DNA and morphology of the remains of hundreds of dogs we've found that the dogs used by the Inuit had distinctive skull and teeth shapes, and would have likely looked different in life to dogs already in the Arctic."

Unique sled dogs helped the inuit thrive in the North American Arctic
The ancestors of these dogs arrived with the Inuit to the North American Arctic
[Credit: Tatiana Feuerborn]
Experts also examined the DNA from 921 dogs and wolves who lived during the last 4,500 years. This analysis of the DNA, and the locations and time periods in which they were found, shows dogs from Inuit sites occupied from around 2,000 years ago were genetically different from the dogs already in the region.


Study co-lead author Tatiana Feuerborn, from the Globe Institute in Denmark and the Centre for Palaeogenetics in Sweden, said: "Archaeological evidence has shown us that before the Inuit arrived in North America dog sledging was a rarity. Our analysis of the DNA suggests dogs brought by the Inuit were distinct from the earlier dogs of the North American Arctic to fill specialist role in helping communities thrive in this hostile environment by aiding with transportation and hunting. The genetic legacy of these Inuit dogs can still be seen today in Arctic sledge dogs."

The Inuit were specialised sea mammal hunters, and were more mobile than other groups living in the Arctic, migrating huge distances across the region over 1,000 years ago, with the help of dog sledges and water craft. Today, sledge dogs whose origins can be traced back to the Inuit period continue to be an important part of Arctic communities.

The article is published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Source: University of Exeter [November 27, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

UFO OR NOT UFO THAT IS THE QUESTION?

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

UFO OR JET ETHER ONE PUTTING OUT A SERIOUS CHEM-TRAIL OR HAVING ENGINE TROUBLE. VIDEO WAS TAKEN FROM AN AIRPLANE OVER MEXICO.Me personally I believe this is an airplane.Hey guys please subscribe i'm going to put out more great content that we can try to debunk, confirm or discuss.
Source video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOhHqJBVfO0&list=WL&index=30&t=0s

Video length: 2:46
Category: Science & Technology
58 comments

Inbreeding and population/demographic shifts could have led to Neanderthal extinction


Small populations, inbreeding, and random demographic fluctuations could have been enough to cause Neanderthal extinction, according to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Krist Vaesen from Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands, and colleagues.

Inbreeding and population/demographic shifts could have led to Neanderthal extinction
Small populations, inbreeding, and random demographic fluctuations could have
been enough to cause Neanderthal extinction, according to a new study
[Credit: Petr Kratochvil (CC0)]
Paleoanthropologists agree that Neanderthals disappeared around 40,000 years ago--about the same time that anatomically modern humans began migrating into the Near East and Europe. However, the role modern humans played in Neanderthal extinction is disputed. In this study, the authors used population modelling to explore whether Neanderthal populations could have vanished without external factors such as competition from modern humans.


Using data from extant hunter-gatherer populations as parameters, the authors developed population models for simulated Neanderthal populations of various initial sizes (50, 100, 500, 1,000, or 5,000 individuals). They then simulated for their model populations the effects of inbreeding, Allee effects (where reduced population size negatively impacts individuals' fitness), and annual random demographic fluctuations in births, deaths, and the sex ratio, to see if these factors could bring about an extinction event over a 10,000-year period.

The population models show that inbreeding alone was unlikely to have led to extinction (this only occurred in the smallest model population). However, reproduction-related Allee effects where 25 percent or fewer Neanderthal females gave birth within a given year (as is common in extant hunter-gatherers) could have caused extinction in populations of up to 1,000 individuals. In conjunction with demographic fluctuations, Allee effects plus inbreeding could have caused extinction across all population sizes modelled within the 10,000 years allotted.


The population models are limited by their parameters, which are based on modern human hunter-gatherers and exclude the impact of the Allee effect on survival rates. It's also possible that modern humans could have impacted Neanderthal populations in ways which reinforced inbreeding and Allee effects, but are not reflected in the models.

However, by showing demographic issues alone could have led to Neanderthal extinction, the authors note these models may serve as a "null hypothesis" for future competing theories--including the impact of modern humans on Neanderthals.

The authors add: "Did Neanderthals disappear because of us? No, this study suggests. The species' demise might have been due merely to a stroke of bad, demographic luck."

Source: Public Library of Science [November 27, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Snake like UFO

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

Five videos spanding ten years of the same sighting of a snake like UFO stretching from America to Ireland.

Source video 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2aSOupjBftA&t=28s

Source video 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OoQ1mv5aEE0&t=25s

Source video 3https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAnilmhdGUQ

Source video 4https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgDFjiDFE7w&t=34s

Source video 5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3JHAQ7yEIs&t=82s

Video length: 3:06
Category: Science & Technology
22 comments

2019 November 29 Galileo’s Europa Remastered Image...



2019 November 29

Galileo’s Europa Remastered
Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, SETI Institute, Cynthia Phillips, Marty Valenti

Explanation: Looping through the Jovian system in the late 1990s, the Galileo spacecraft recorded stunning views of Europa and uncovered evidence that the moon’s icy surface likely hides a deep, global ocean. Galileo’s Europa image data has been remastered here, using improved new calibrations to produce a color image approximating what the human eye might see. Europa’s long curving fractures hint at the subsurface liquid water. The tidal flexing the large moon experiences in its elliptical orbit around Jupiter supplies the energy to keep the ocean liquid. But more tantalizing is the possibility that even in the absence of sunlight that process could also supply the energy to support life, making Europa one of the best places to look for life beyond Earth. What kind of life could thrive in a deep, dark, subsurface ocean? Consider planet Earth’s own extreme shrimp.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191129.html



* This article was originally published here

Remains of 2,000-year-old 'barbarian woman' with Roman jewellery found in Russia


The remains of an ancient 'barbarian woman' thought to be almost 2,000 years old have been found bedecked in fine jewellery from the Roman Empire.

Remains of 2,000-year-old 'barbarian woman' with Roman jewellery found in Russia
Zayukovo burial site excavated [Credit: Joint North Caucasian Archaeological
Expedition of the State Historical Museum, KBSU & IA RAS]
She was found in Russia and is thought to have been of a 'high-status' within her community - possibly the wife, sister or mother of a prominent warrior or chieftain.


Her remains, found in a tomb in the mountainous Russian republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, have surprised archaeologists, in part due to the fact the jewelry was of Roman origin.

The ancient woman is probably from the Alans warrior people who made incursions into the Caucasus in the first and second centuries AD. Archaeologists say she was buried alongside a warrior and two other men

Remains of 2,000-year-old 'barbarian woman' with Roman jewellery found in Russia
Twisted glass ring [Credit: Joint North Caucasian Archaeological Expedition
of the State Historical Museum, KBSU & IA RAS]
"She had two rings on her fingers manufactured with the use of quite a complex technology," said archaeologist Anna Kadieva, head of an expedition at Zayukovo-2 burial site.

Ms Kadieva said the fact the jewellery was Roman-made is "beyond any doubt".

She added: "It is quite expensive for the time, and priceless for the barbarian world because there was no glass production in the North Caucasus back then."

Remains of 2,000-year-old 'barbarian woman' with Roman jewellery found in Russia
Amethyst medallion in gold setting [Credit: Joint North Caucasian Archaeological
Expedition of the State Historical Museum, KBSU & IA RAS]
The beads on her shoes were made of glass but also contained an orange-colored mineral called carnelian that is part of the Quartz family.


She also wore two rings on her fingers manufactured with the use of quite a complex technology. Each of them was cast from transparent white glass with golden fibers from the same material, with a dark glass installation in the middle, as seen in this image

The woman was also discovered wearing a bright violet amethyst medallion. The team say this would have been "priceless" for the region as they had no glass blowing technology at the time

Remains of 2,000-year-old 'barbarian woman' with Roman jewellery found in Russia
Roman beads found in Alan woman's grave [Credit: Joint North Caucasian Archaeological
Expedition of the State Historical Museum, KBSU & IA RAS]
"This is a high class gem worthy of its gold casing," said the archaeologist from the State Historical Museum of Russia.

The woman was possibly the wife of a renowned warrior or tribal chief. The team are examining her remains and others at the Zayukovo-2 burial site in the Russian republic of Kabardino-Balkaria


She had been buried with a warrior and two other males. Archaeologists are not sure how they died but found they had at a similar time

Remains of 2,000-year-old 'barbarian woman' with Roman jewellery found in Russia
Excavation of the tomb [Credit: Joint North Caucasian Archaeological
Expedition of the State Historical Museum, KBSU & IA RAS]
"We came to the conclusion that wealthy warriors from North Caucasus presented expensive jewellery to their loved ones," Ms Kadieva said.

"The woman most likely was a close relative of the warriors - mother, wife, or sister - because the catacomb is a family burial. It is not clear how they died, but given the integrity of the skeletons, the time between their deaths was short," she said.

Further studies are being made into the finds.

Author: Will Stewart | Source: Daily Mail [November 10, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Shape shifting UFO in Greensboro NC.

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

Daniel Grier recorded a UFO in Greensboro North Carolina.As he watched this object for sometime he noticed it changing shapes from a small black circular dot to a large black square. So what are we witnessing here leave a comment and like always like and subscribe Terry out.
Source video 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6YwoPbIABc4&t=80s
Source video 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3L8Im1a5lI

Video length: 3:44
Category: Science & Technology
24 comments

Unpredicted Stellar Black Hole Discovered

Figure LB-1: Accretion of gas onto a stellar black hole from its blue companion star, through a truncated accretion disk (artist impression). Credit: YuJjingchuan, Beijing Planetarium, 2019.

Maunakea, Hawaii – Our Milky Way Galaxy is estimated to contain 100 million stellar black holes – cosmic bodies formed by the collapse of massive stars and so dense even light can’t escape.

Until now, scientists had estimated the mass of an individual stellar black hole in our Galaxy at no more than 20 times that of the Sun. But the discovery of a huge black hole by a Chinese-led team of international scientists has toppled that assumption.

The team, headed by Prof. LIU Jifeng of the National Astronomical Observatory of China of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), spotted a stellar black hole with a mass 70 times greater than the Sun.

The monster black hole is located 15 thousand light-years from Earth and has been named LB-1 by the researchers. The discovery is reported in today’s issue of Nature.

The discovery came as a big surprise.

“Black holes of such mass should not even exist in our Galaxy, according to most of the current models of stellar evolution,” said Prof. LIU. “We thought that very massive stars with the chemical composition typical of our Galaxy must shed most of their gas in powerful stellar winds, as they approach the end of their life. Therefore, they should not leave behind such a massive remnant. LB-1 is twice as massive as what we thought possible. Now theorists will have to take up the challenge of explaining its formation.”

Until just a few years ago, stellar black holes could only be discovered when they gobbled up gas from a companion star. This process creates powerful X-ray emissions, detectable from Earth, that reveal the presence of the collapsed object.

The vast majority of stellar black holes in our Galaxy are not engaged in a cosmic banquet, though, and thus don’t emit revealing X-rays. As a result, only about two dozen Galactic stellar black holes have been well identified and measured.

To counter this limitation, Prof. LIU and collaborators surveyed the sky with China’s Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), looking for stars that orbit an invisible object, pulled by its gravity.

This observational technique was first proposed by the visionary English scientist John Michell in 1783, but it has only become feasible with recent technological improvements in telescopes and detectors.

Still, such a search is like looking for the proverbial needle in a haystack: only one star in a thousand may be circling a black hole.

After the initial discovery, the world’s largest optical telescopes – Spain’s 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias and W. M. Keck Observatory’s 10-m Keck I telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii – were used to determine the system’s physical parameters. The results were nothing short of fantastic: a star eight times heavier than the Sun was seen orbiting a 70-solar-mass black hole, every 79 days.

The discovery of LB-1 fits nicely with another breakthrough in astrophysics. Recently, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo gravitational wave detectors have begun to catch ripples in spacetime caused by collisions of black holes in distant galaxies. Intriguingly, the black holes involved in such collisions are also much bigger than what was previously considered typical.

The direct sighting of LB-1 proves that this population of over-massive stellar black holes exists even in our own backyard. “This discovery forces us to re-examine our models of how stellar-mass black holes form,” said LIGO Director Prof. David Reitze from the University of Florida in the U.S.

“This remarkable result along with the LIGO-Virgo detections of binary black hole collisions during the past four years really points towards a renaissance in our understanding of black hole astrophysics,” said Reitze.

This work was made possible by LAMOST (Xinglong, China), the Gran Telescopio Canarias (Canary Islands, Spain), the W. M. Keck Observatory (Hawaii, United States), and the Chandra X-ray Observatory (United States). The research team comprised scientists from China, the United States, Spain, Australia, Italy, Poland and the Netherlands.

By: Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters




Media Contact:

XU Ang, annxu@nao.cas.cn




About  W. M. Keck Observatory

The W. M. Keck Observatory telescopes are among the most scientifically productive on Earth. The two, 10-meter optical/infrared telescopes on the summit of Maunakea on the Island of Hawaii feature a suite of advanced instruments including imagers, multi-object spectrographs, high-resolution spectrographs, integral-field spectrometers, and world-leading laser guide star adaptive optics systems. 

Some of the data presented herein were obtained at Keck Observatory, which is a private 501(c) 3 non-profit organization operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the Native Hawaiian community.  We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.




* This article was originally published here

Chinese, Japanese archaeologists reconstruct millennia-old iron-smelting techniques


Chinese and Japanese archaeologists have successfully reconstructed the iron-smelting techniques that date back about two millennia.

Chinese, Japanese archaeologists reconstruct millennia-old iron-smelting techniques
Credit: Sichuan Observer


Based on the archaeological discovery of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), archaeologists built a shaft furnace and successfully smelted pig iron in an experiment conducted over the weekend in the city of Qionglai in southwest China's Sichuan Province.

Chinese, Japanese archaeologists reconstruct millennia-old iron-smelting techniques
Credit: Sichuan Observer
The experiment provides data and a successful case for the study of iron-smelting techniques in the Han Dynasty, according to the archaeologists.

Chinese, Japanese archaeologists reconstruct millennia-old iron-smelting techniques
Credit: Sichuan Observer


The experiment was jointly sponsored by Sichuan University, the institutes of cultural relics and archaeology in Chengdu and Sichuan, Japan's Ehime University and the municipal government of Qionglai.

Chinese, Japanese archaeologists reconstruct millennia-old iron-smelting techniques
Credit: Sichuan Observer
Iron is regarded as one of the most important materials of Chinese civilization. Ancient Chinese were able to refine liquid iron as early as the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC-476 BC).

Chinese, Japanese archaeologists reconstruct millennia-old iron-smelting techniques
Credit: Sichuan Observer
Li Yingfu, vice dean of the College of History and Culture of Sichuan University, said the iron-smelting techniques in the Han Dynasty not only greatly promoted production in ancient China, but also contributed to the development of metallurgy in Southeast Asia and beyond.

Source: Xinhua News Agency [November 19, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

String Of Lights In The Sky And A Disappearing Man.

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

First Video is of what is most likely Spacex Starlink Satellite System Seen Over Southern Germany.
The Second Video Is Of A Man In Australia That Vanishes Right Before An Explosion. It Was Caught On A Local News Story.
Source Video 1 : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0K3Vy_JNhyo&list=WL&index=12&t=0s
Source Video 2 : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TlVUQ33OorA&list=WL&index=21&t=51s

Video length: 2:51
Category: Science & Technology
28 comments

Cave lion figurine made of mammoth tusk found at Denisova Cave


A fragment of a cave lion figurine estimated to be 45,000 years old was unearthed in Siberia’s Denisova Cave by researchers led by Mikhail Shunkov of the Novosibirsk Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography.

Cave lion figurine made of mammoth tusk found at Denisova Cave
Credit: Novosibirsk Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography
The precious small - 42mm long, 8mm thick and 11mm high - figurine of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea, lat) was made by an Upper Palaeolithic artist between 40,000 and 45,000 years ago. It was found inside the 11th layer of the southern gallery of the Denisova Cave.


This is the oldest sculptural zoomorphic image ever found in Siberia and throughout the territory of Northern and Central Asia.

The precise age is yet to be confirmed, but the cautious dating given by Siberian archaeologists means that this might be the oldest animal figurine in the world.


The lion’s head is missing, what we see is its hind legs, groin, back and belly, covered in an ornament of eighteen rows of nothes. There are two extra rows with four notches on the lion’s right side.


‘The figurine depicts an animal with its tummy tucked in, its hind legs bent. It is either galloping, jumping or getting ready to jump. The animal is shown in a typical for big cats position for the moment when they are ready to catch a prey’, said Mikhail Shunkov, head of the Institute’s Stone Age Archaeology Department.

The mammoth ivory for the statuette was delivered from quite a distance away, Russian scientists say. It had to be carried for at least 100 kilometres from the northern footsteps of the Altai Mountains.

Cave lion figurine made of mammoth tusk found at Denisova Cave
Credit: Novosibirsk Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography
After finishing the figurine, the cave artist used red ochre to paint it.

So far traces of it were found mostly around the stomach area - which even led to an idea that it could be symbolising a bleeding wound - but researcher Alexander Fedorchenko believes that most likely the whole animal was painted red.

Remains of ocher were found only in the southern gallery of the Denisova cave.

Authors: Anna Liesowska & Svetlana Skarbo | Source: The Siberian Times [November 20, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Several Saucer Shaped Objects Found Near The Sun.

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

Hey guys please consider donating to help me with my ufo research @ https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US
Using The Helioviewer I Found What Looks Like Several Saucer Shaped UFOs.What Do You Think These Objects Could Be? Are We Looking At A Camera Malfunction Or Debris. Could This Be Proof That We Aren't Alone? Or Are These The Same Objects That NASA Recorded On The Famed Tether Incident. Do Any Of You Have The Answer To These Questions? Please Leave A Comment Or A Suggestion On What We Are Observing And Please Like And Subscribe.If you find my channel interesting and your able to please donate https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US thank you.
Source : Helioviewer https://helioviewer.org/
Source : Jhelioviewer you will have to download https://www.jhelioviewer.org/download.html
NASA tether incident... I want you to check this out these objects or UFOs UAPs, debris or even alien entities how ever you want to labile this. They look the same. https://youtu.be/dlIF0P9j0cM

Video length: 5:20
Category: Science & Technology
22 comments

Remains of Anglo Saxon woman and jewels discovered at university campus in Canterbury


Archaeologists have discovered the remains of an Anglo-Saxon woman, buried with lavish jewels on the University’s Canterbury campus.

Remains of Anglo Saxon woman and jewels discovered at university campus in Canterbury
The skeleton of the Anglo Saxon woman [Credit: Canterbury Archaelogical Trust]
The Canterbury Archaeological Trust (CAT) has been working on site as the University gets ready to open its Science, Technology, Health, Engineering and Medicine facilities in 2020, with a £65m building on the North Holmes campus.


The woman, believed to have been in her twenties, was found buried with a silver, garnet-inlaid, Kentish disc brooch. Scientific testing on similar finds has shown the garnets are likely to have come from Sri Lanka rather than a nearer source. Such brooches, crafted in east Kent from exotic materials, were produced at the behest of the Kentish royal dynasty and distributed as gifts to those in their favour.

Remains of Anglo Saxon woman and jewels discovered at university campus in Canterbury
The broach found with the woman's remains [Credit: Canterbury Archaelogical Trust]
She was also wearing a necklace of amber and glass beads, a belt fastened with a copper alloy buckle, a copper alloy bracelet and was equipped with an iron knife. Together, the items found in the grave suggest that this young woman was buried between AD 580-600. She would have been a contemporary, and likely acquaintance, of the Kentish King Ethelbert and his Frankish Queen Bertha, whose modern statues can be seen nearby at Lady Wootton’s Green.


“The discovery of another ancient burial on our campus is extremely exciting,” she said. “It demonstrates the richness of the archaeology that surrounds us, and contributes important new evidence to our understanding of life and death in Canterbury around 1400 years ago.”

Remains of Anglo Saxon woman and jewels discovered at university campus in Canterbury
Cremation urns were also discovered [Credit: Canterbury Archaelogical Trust]
It is possible that the woman lived long enough to be an eyewitness to the arrival of St Augustine and his monks, who came to Canterbury in AD 597 on their mission to convert the English to Christianity. But her burial, found beside Old Sessions House, close to the present boundary with St Augustine’s Abbey, almost certainly took place before the construction of the first church at St Augustine’s in the early seventh century.


Dr Andrew Richardson, Outreach and Archives Manager at CAT, said: “This discovery is particularly significant, as it suggests that relatively high-status burial was taking place on the site in the years shortly before the establishment of the Abbey.


“One of the primary roles of the Abbey was as the burial place of Augustine and his companions, Archbishops and members of the Kentish royal dynasty. This find suggests that this may represent a continuance of existing practice at the site, rather than a completely new development and has implications for our interpretation of this World Heritage site.”

The woman’s bones will be retained for further scientific study, which it is hoped will provide further insights into her life, death and burial.

Source: Canterbury Christ Church University [November 20, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Something Slithers out of a moving cars trunk then a redneck stabs a tire!

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

I don't know how to describe it other than some kind of thing either falling or slithering out of a trunk of a moving car onto the street and then takes off.

Video length: 1:44
Category: Science & Technology
14 comments

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