четверг, 28 ноября 2019 г.

CASC - Long March-4C launches Gaofen-12













CASC - China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation logo.

Nov. 28, 2019

Long March-4C launches Gaofen-12

A Long March-4C launch vehicle launched the Gaofen-12 Earth observation satellite from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, Shanxi Province, northern China, on 27 November 2019, at 23:52 UTC (28 November, at 07:52 local time).

The satellite, Gaofen-12, launched aboard a Long March-4C carrier rocket, entered the planned orbit successfully. It was the 320th flight mission of the Long March carrier rocket series.

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NASA scientists confirm water vapour on Europa


Forty years ago, a Voyager spacecraft snapped the first closeup images of Europa, one of Jupiter's 79 moons. These revealed brownish cracks slicing the moon's icy surface, which give Europa the look of a veiny eyeball. Missions to the outer solar system in the decades since have amassed enough additional information about Europa to make it a high-priority target of investigation in NASA's search for life.

NASA scientists confirm water vapour on Europa
On the left is a view of Europa taken from 2.9 million kilometers (1.8 million miles) away on March 2, 1979 by the
Voyager 1 spacecraft. Next is a color image of Europa taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft during its close
encounter on July 9, 1979. On the right is a view of Europa made from images taken by the Galileo
spacecraft in the late 1990s [Credit: NASA/JPL]
What makes this moon so alluring is the possibility that it may possess all of the ingredients necessary for life. Scientists have evidence that one of these ingredients, liquid water, is present under the icy surface and may sometimes erupt into space in huge geysers. But no one has been able to confirm the presence of water in these plumes by directly measuring the water molecule itself. Now, an international research team led out of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, has detected the water vapor for the first time above Europa's surface. The team measured the vapor by peering at Europa through W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, one of the world's biggest telescopes.

Confirming that water vapor is present above Europa helps scientists better understand the inner workings of the moon. For example, it helps support an idea, of which scientists are confident, that there's a liquid water ocean, possibly twice as big as Earth's, sloshing beneath this moon's miles-thick ice shell. Another source of water for the plumes, some scientists suspect, could be shallow reservoirs of melted water ice not far below Europa's surface. It's also possible that Jupiter's strong radiation field is stripping water particles from Europa's ice shell, though the recent investigation argued against this mechanism as the source of the observed water.


"Essential chemical elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) and sources of energy, two of three requirements for life, are found all over the solar system. But the third—liquid water—is somewhat hard to find beyond Earth," said Lucas Paganini, a NASA planetary scientist who led the water detection investigation. "While scientists have not yet detected liquid water directly, we've found the next best thing: water in vapor form."

In a study published in the journal Nature Astronomy, Paganini and his team reported that they detected enough water releasing from Europa (5,202 pounds, or 2,360 kilograms, per second) to fill an Olympic-size swimming pool within minutes. Yet, the scientists also found that the water appears infrequently, at least in amounts large enough to detect from Earth, said Paganini: "For me, the interesting thing about this work is not only the first direct detection of water above Europa, but also the lack thereof within the limits of our detection method."


Indeed, Paganini's team detected the faint yet distinct signal of water vapor just once throughout 17 nights of observations between 2016 and 2017. Looking at the moon from Keck Observatory, the scientists saw water molecules at Europa's leading hemisphere, or the side of the moon that's always facing in the direction of the moon's orbit around Jupiter. (Europa, like Earth's moon, is gravitationally locked to its host planet, so the leading hemisphere always faces the direction of the orbit, while the trailing hemisphere always faces in the opposite direction.)

They used Keck Observatory's Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSPEC), which measures the chemical composition of planetary atmospheres through the infrared light they emit or absorb. Molecules such as water emit specific frequencies of infrared light as they interact with solar radiation.

Mounting evidence for water

Before the recent water vapor detection, there have been many tantalizing findings on Europa. The first came from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, which measured perturbations in Jupiter's magnetic field near Europa while orbiting the gas giant planet between 1995 and 2003. The measurements suggested to scientists that electrically conductive fluid, likely a salty ocean beneath Europa's ice layer, was causing the magnetic disturbances. When researchers analyzed the magnetic disturbances more closely in 2018, they found evidence of possible plumes.

In the meantime, scientists announced in 2013 that they had used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to detect the chemical elements hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)—components of water (H2O)—in plume-like configurations in Europa's atmosphere. And a few years later, other scientists used Hubble to gather more evidence of possible plume eruptions when they snapped photos of finger-like projections that appeared in silhouette as the moon passed in front of Jupiter.

"This first direct identification of water vapor on Europa is a critical confirmation of our original detections of atomic species, and it highlights the apparent sparsity of large plumes on this icy world" said Lorenz Roth, an astronomer and physicist from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm who led the 2013 Hubble study and was a co-author of this recent investigation.


Roth's research, along with other previous Europa findings, have only measured components of water above the surface. The trouble is that detecting water vapor at other worlds is challenging. Existing spacecraft have limited capabilities to detect it, and scientists using ground-based telescopes to look for water in deep space have to account for the distorting effect of water in Earth's atmosphere. To minimize this effect, Paganini's team used complex mathematical and computer modeling to simulate the conditions of Earth's atmosphere so they could differentiate Earth's atmospheric water from Europa's in data returned by the NIRSPEC.

"We performed diligent safety checks to remove possible contaminants in ground-based observations," said Avi Mandell, a Goddard planetary scientist on Paganini's team. "But, eventually, we'll have to get closer to Europa to see what's really going on."

Scientists will soon be able get close enough to Europa to settle their lingering questions about the inner and outer workings of this possibly habitable world. The forthcoming Europa Clipper mission, expected to launch in the mid-2020s, will round out half a century of scientific discovery that started with a modest photo of a mysterious, veiny eyeball.

When it arrives at Europa, the Clipper orbiter will conduct a detailed survey of Europa's surface, deep interior, thin atmosphere, subsurface ocean, and potentially even smaller active vents. Clipper will try to take images of any plumes and sample the molecules it finds in the atmosphere with its mass spectrometers. It will also seek out a fruitful site from which a future Europa lander could collect a sample. These efforts should further unlock the secrets of Europa and its potential for life.

Author: Lonnie Shekhtman | Source: W. M. Keck Observatory [November 20, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Ringed Shaped Object Seen From The Earth To The Moon To The Sun.

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

Here Is Some Evidence That I have Put Together Of These Ringed Shaped Or Doughnut Shaped UFOs Are Something Other Than Dust Particles On A Lens.These Objects Have Been Seen During The NASA Tether Incident. I Have Also Found Them Close To The SUN With The Helioviewer. I Have Found A Few Videos Showing These Ringed Or Doughnut Shaped UFOs As Well. A Big Thanks To Tom Brown For Letting Me Use His Video Labeled
Doughnut-Shaped UFO Floats by ISS. If you can donate please do https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US thank you.
Sources
Helioviewer :https://helioviewer.org/
Tom Browns : Doughnut-Shaped UFO Floats by ISS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fvoqtEF2o_s
Jason Callum, MoonCat72 :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1Wjxyr1dWA

Video length: 4:18
Category: Science & Technology
10 comments

Space is key to monitoring ocean acidification










ESA - SMOS Mission logo.

Nov. 28, 2019

This week, the UN World Meteorological Organization announced that concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have reached yet another high. This ongoing trend is not only heating up the planet, but also affecting the chemical composition of our oceans. Until recently, it has been difficult to monitor ‘ocean acidification’, but scientists are exploring new ways to combine information from different sources, including from ESA’s SMOS mission, to shed new light on this major environmental concern.

SMOS in orbit

As the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to rise, our oceans are playing an increasingly important role in absorbing some of this excess. In fact, it was reported recently that the global ocean annually draws down about a third of the carbon released into the atmosphere by human activities.

While this long-term absorption means that the planet isn’t as hot as it would be otherwise, the process is causing the ocean’s carbonate chemistry to change: seawater is becoming less alkaline – a process commonly known as ocean acidification.

In turn, this is altering bio-geo-chemical cycles and having a detrimental effect on ocean life.

Sea butterfly

Pteropods, tiny marine snails known as ‘sea butterflies’, are an example of a particularly vulnerable species, where shell damage has been observed already in portions of the Arctic and Southern Ocean. Pteropods are hugely important in the polar food web, serving as a key food source for important fisheries species, such as salmon and cod.

With the damaging effects of ocean acidification already becoming evident, it is vital that the current shift in pH is monitored closely. Covering over 70% of Earth’s surface, ocean wellbeing also has a bearing on the health and balance of the rest of the planet.

Recent advances in data capture have included state-of-the-art pH instruments on ships and floats, but we can gain a global view by taking measurements from space. However, at present there aren’t any spaceborne sensors that can measure pH directly.

The use of satellites has not yet been thoroughly explored as an option for routinely observing ocean surface chemistry, but a paper published recently in Remote Sensing of Environment describes how scientists are testing new ways of merging different datasets to estimate and ultimately monitor ocean acidification.

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Ballymeanoch Prehistoric Stone Row and Complex Video Clip, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland,...

Ballymeanoch Prehistoric Stone Row and Complex Video Clip, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 23.11.19.



* This article was originally published here

Researchers discover highest-energy light from a gamma-ray burst


Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the cosmos. These explosive events last a fraction of a second to several minutes and emit the same amount of gamma rays as all the stars in the universe combined. Such extreme amounts of energy can only be released during catastrophic events like the death of a very massive star, or the merging of two compact stars, and are accompanied by an afterglow of light over a broad range of energies that fades with time.

Researchers discover highest-energy light from a gamma-ray burst
This is an artistic view of a MAGIC telescope with gamma-ray burst
[Credit: Gabriel Perez Diaz/IAC]
It has been decades since the discovery of the first gamma-ray burst, yet some of their fundamental traits remain unclear. An international team of researchers, including two astrophysicists from the George Washington University, Chryssa Kouveliotou and Alexander van der Horst, now has taken the next step in understanding the physical processes at work during these events with a recent discovery published in the journal Nature.


The researchers observed a gamma-ray burst with an afterglow that featured the highest energy photons--a trillion times more energetic than visible light--ever detected in a burst.

"This very high energy emission had been previously predicted in theoretical studies but never before directly observed," Dr. van der Horst, an assistant professor of physics at GW, said.

Researchers discover highest-energy light from a gamma-ray burst
GRB 190114C, located about 4.5 billion light-years away in the constellation Fornax
[Credit: NASA, ESA, and V. Acciari et al. 2019]
"After over 45 years of observing GRBs, we just confirmed the existence of yet another unknown component in their afterglows, which increases the gamma-ray burst overall energy budget dramatically," Dr. Kouveliotou, a professor of physics at GW, added.


On Jan. 14, 2019, researchers detected a burst labeled GRB 190114C. The discovery triggered an extensive campaign of observations across the electromagnetic spectrum using more than 20 observatories and instruments around the world. This collaborative effort allowed an international team to gather an unprecedented level of information about GRB 190114C, capturing the evolution of the gamma-ray burst afterglow emission across 17 orders of magnitude in energy.

As part of the joint efforts, Dr. van der Horst and Dr. Kouveliotou were part of a subteam responsible for tracking the emission of radio waves in the afterglow of GRB 190114C. The team used the new MeerKAT radio telescope in South Africa to record the emission, which is at the opposite end of the spectrum compared to very high energy gamma rays.


"MeerKAT is a new radio observatory with very good sensitivity," Dr. van der Horst said. "It is a great facility to observe this kind of event. Our team is carrying out a multi-year program to observe many more gamma-ray bursts and other cosmic explosions in the coming years."


GRB 190114C is unique in that researchers were able to observe photons with teraelectronvolt (TeV) energies for the first time in its afterglow emission. Using the MAGIC Collaboration telescopes in La Palma, Spain, researchers noticed this emission of TeV photons was 100 times more intense than the brightest known steady source at TeV energies, the Crab Nebula. As expected though, this very high energy emission quickly faded in about half an hour after the event onset, while the afterglow emission in other parts of the spectrum persisted for much longer.

The researchers noted that the shape of the observed spectrum of afterglow light was indicative of an emission process called inverse Compton emission. This event supports the possibility that inverse Compton emission is commonly produced in gamma-ray bursts.


"MAGIC, the TeV photon detector in La Palma, Spain, opened up a new window for research on gamma-ray bursts," Dr. Kouveliotou said. "We are looking forward to understanding their physics and true energy release in gamma-ray bursts with more detections in the future."

Source: George Wahington University [November 20, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Dark Object Does A Death Dive Towards The Ground After A Lightning Strike!

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

Megan Taylor From Somerset England Records A Thunderstorm Inadvertently Catches A Mysterious Dark Object Speeding To Earth After A Lightning Strike.If you can spare spare a little donations are accepted little goes a long way.https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US

Video length: 1:42
Category: Science & Technology
20 comments

Nether Largie Prehistoric Standing Stone Complex Video Clip, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland,...

Nether Largie Prehistoric Standing Stone Complex Video Clip, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 23.11.19.



* This article was originally published here

ISRO - PSLV-C47 / Cartosat-3 Mission Success













ISRO -  Indian Space Research Organisation logo.

Nov. 27, 2019

PSLV-C47 / Cartosat-3 Liftoff

India’s PSLV-C47 successfully launched Cartosat-3 and 13 commercial nanosatellites from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota.

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Outback telescope captures Milky Way centre, discovers remnants of dead stars


A radio telescope in the Western Australian outback has captured a spectacular new view of the centre of the galaxy in which we live, the Milky Way.

Outback telescope captures Milky Way centre, discovers remnants of dead stars
This image shows a new view of the Milky Way from the Murchison Widefield Array, with the lowest frequencies in red,
middle frequencies in green, and the highest frequencies in blue. Huge golden filaments indicate enormous magnetic
 fields, supernova remnants are visible as little spherical bubbles, and regions of massive star formation show
up in blue. The supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy is hidden in the bright white region
in the centre. [Credit: Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker (ICRAR/Curtin) and the GLEAM Team]
The image from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) telescope shows what our galaxy would look like if human eyes could see radio waves.

Astrophysicist Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker, from the Curtin University node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), created the images using the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Perth.


"This new view captures low-frequency radio emission from our galaxy, looking both in fine detail and at larger structures," she said.

"Our images are looking directly at the middle of the Milky Way, towards a region astronomers call the Galactic Centre."

Outback telescope captures Milky Way centre, discovers remnants of dead stars
These are the 27 newly-discovered supernova remnants—the remains of stars that ended their lives in huge stellar
explosions thousands to hundreds of thousands of years ago. The radio images trace the edges of the explosions
 as they continue their ongoing expansion into interstellar space. Some are huge, larger than the full moon, and
others are small and hard to spot in the complexity of the Milky Way [Credit: Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker
(ICRAR/Curtin) and the GLEAM Team]
The data for the research comes from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, or 'GLEAM' for short.

The survey has a resolution of two arcminutes (about the same as the human eye) and maps the sky using radio waves at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz (FM radio is near 100 MHz).


"It's the power of this wide frequency range that makes it possible for us to disentangle different overlapping objects as we look toward the complexity of the Galactic Centre," Dr Hurley-Walker said.

"Essentially, different objects have different 'radio colours', so we can use them to work out what kind of physics is at play."

Outback telescope captures Milky Way centre, discovers remnants of dead stars
This 28 image photomosaic captures the arch of the milky way over the Guilderton Lighthouse in Western Australia,
and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The location of a supernova that would have exploded 9,000 years
ago and been visible in the night sky is shown in the image [Credit: Paean Ng/Astrordinary Imaging]
Using the images, Dr Hurley-Walker and her colleagues discovered the remnants of 27 massive stars that exploded in supernovae at the end of their lives.

These stars would have been eight or more times more massive than our Sun before their dramatic destruction thousands of years ago.


Younger and closer supernova remnants, or those in very dense environments, are easy to spot, and 295 are already known.

Unlike other instruments, the MWA can find those which are older, further away, or in very empty environments.

Outback telescope captures Milky Way centre, discovers remnants of dead stars
This is a 104 frame photomosaic capturing the Milky Way directly overhead taken at the Pinnacles Desert in Western
Australia. A popular tourist location by day and incredible stargazing at night. The location of a supernova that
would have exploded 9,000 years ago is shown in the image [Credit: Paean Ng/Astrordinary Imaging]
Dr Hurley-Walker said one of the newly-discovered supernova remnants lies in such an empty region of space, far out of the plane of our galaxy, and so despite being quite young, is also very faint.

"It's the remains of a star that died less than 9,000 years ago, meaning the explosion could have been visible to Indigenous people across Australia at that time," she said.


An expert in cultural astronomy, Associate Professor Duane Hamacher from the University of Melbourne, said some Aboriginal traditions do describe bright new stars appearing in the sky, but we don't know of any definitive traditions that describe this particular event.

"However, now that we know when and where this supernova appeared in the sky, we can collaborate with Indigenous elders to see if any of their traditions describe this cosmic event. If any exist, it would be extremely exciting," he said.


Dr Hurley-Walker said two of the supernova remnants discovered are quite unusual "orphans", found in a region of sky where there are no massive stars, which means future searches across other such regions might be more successful than astronomers expected. Other supernova remnants discovered in the research are very old, she said.

"This is really exciting for us, because it's hard to find supernova remnants in this phase of life--they allow us to look further back in time in the Milky Way."

The MWA telescope is a precursor to the world's largest radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array, which is due to be built in Australia and South Africa from 2021.

"The MWA is perfect for finding these objects, but it is limited in its sensitivity and resolution," Dr Hurley-Walker said.

"The low-frequency part of the SKA, which will be built at the same site as the MWA, will be thousands of times more sensitive and have much better resolution, so should find the thousands of supernova remnants that formed in the last 100,000 years, even on the other side of the Milky Way."

A paper describing the GLEAM Survey is published in Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia.

Source: International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR] [November 20, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Invisible UFO in infrared НЛО в ИК 18.4.19

290 views   13 likes   0 dislikes  

Channel: UFO Odessa  

Strange flying Sphere in the sky.Using old sony handycam in full spectrum night mode with 950nm ir filter.18 April 2019 Odessa, Ukraine
https://xissufotoday.space/2019/04/нло-в-одессе-инфракрасный-невидимое-д/amp/
НЛО над Одессой, Украина, инфракрасная съёмка неба.

Video length: 1:41
Category: Entertainment
5 comments

The plot thickens for a hypothetical “X17” particle













CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research logo.

27 November, 2019

Additional evidence of an unknown particle from a Hungarian lab gives a new impetus to NA64 searches

The NA64 experiment at CERN (Image: CERN)

Fresh evidence of an unknown particle that could carry a fifth force of nature gives the NA64 collaboration at CERN a new incentive to continue searches.

In 2015, a team of scientists spotted an unexpected glitch, or “anomaly”, in a nuclear transition that could be explained by the production of an unknown particle. About a year later, theorists suggested that the new particle could be evidence of a new fundamental force of nature, in addition to electromagnetism, gravity and the strong and weak forces. The findings caught worldwide attention and prompted, among other studies, a direct search for the particle by the NA64 collaboration at CERN.

A new paper from the same team, led by Attila Krasznahorkay at the Atomki institute in Hungary, now reports another anomaly, in a similar nuclear transition, that could also be explained by the same hypothetical particle.

The first anomaly spotted by Krasznahorkay’s team was seen in a transition of beryllium-8 nuclei. This transition emits a high-energy virtual photon that transforms into an electron and its antimatter counterpart, a positron. Examining the number of electron–positron pairs at different angles of separation, the researchers found an unexpected surplus of pairs at a separation angle of about 140º. In contrast, theory predicts that the number of pairs decreases with increasing separation angle, with no excess at a particular angle. Krasznahorkay and colleagues reasoned that the excess could be interpreted by the production of a new particle with a mass of about 17 million electronvolts (MeV), the “X17” particle, which would transform into an electron–positron pair.

The latest anomaly reported by Krasznahorkay’s team, in a paper that has yet to be peer-reviewed, is also in the form of an excess of electron–positron pairs, but this time the excess is from a transition of helium-4 nuclei. “In this case, the excess occurs at an angle 115º but it can also be interpreted by the production of a particle with a mass of about 17 MeV,” explained Krasznahorkay. “The result lends support to our previous result and the possible existence of a new elementary particle,” he adds.

Sergei Gninenko, spokesperson for the NA64 collaboration at CERN, which has not found signs of X17 in its direct search, says: “The Atomki anomalies could be due to an experimental effect, a nuclear physics effect or something completely new such as a new particle. To test the hypothesis that they are caused by a new particle, both a detailed theoretical analysis of the compatibility between the beryllium-8 and the helium-4 results as well as independent experimental confirmation is crucial.”

The NA64 collaboration searches for X17 by firing a beam of tens of billions of electrons from the Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator onto a fixed target. If X17 did exist, the interactions between the electrons and nuclei in the target would sometimes produce this particle, which would then transform into an electron–positron pair. The collaboration has so far found no indication that such events took place, but its datasets allowed them to exclude part of the possible values for the strength of the interaction between X17 and an electron. The team is now upgrading their detector for the next round of searches, which are expected to be more challenging but at the same time more exciting, says Gninenko.

Among other experiments that could also hunt for X17 in direct searches are the LHCb experiment and the recently approved FASER experiment, both at CERN. Jesse Thaler, a theoretical physicist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says: “By 2023, the LHCb experiment should be able to make a definitive measurement to confirm or refute the interpretation of the Atomki anomalies as arising from a new fundamental force. In the meantime, experiments such as NA64 can continue to chip away at the possible values for the hypothetical particle’s properties, and every new analysis brings with it the possibility (however remote) of discovery.”

Note:

CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s largest and most respected centres for scientific research. Its business is fundamental physics, finding out what the Universe is made of and how it works. At CERN, the world’s largest and most complex scientific instruments are used to study the basic constituents of matter — the fundamental particles. By studying what happens when these particles collide, physicists learn about the laws of Nature.

The instruments used at CERN are particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before they are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions.

Founded in 1954, the CERN Laboratory sits astride the Franco–Swiss border near Geneva. It was one of Europe’s first joint ventures and now has 23 Member States.

Related links:

The latest anomaly reported by Krasznahorkay’s team: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.10459.pdf

Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS): https://home.cern/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron

LHCb experiment: https://home.cern/science/experiments/lhcb

FASER experiment: https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/faser-cern-approves-new-experiment-look-long-lived-exotic-particles

Antimatter: https://home.cern/science/physics/antimatter

For more information about European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Visit: https://home.cern/

Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: CERN/Ana Lopes.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

Temple Wood Prehistoric Stone Circle and Cist Cairn Video Clip, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland,...

Temple Wood Prehistoric Stone Circle and Cist Cairn Video Clip, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 23.11.19.



* This article was originally published here

Researchers sequence genome of the 'devil worm'


When scientists discovered a worm deep in an aquifer nearly one mile underground, they hailed it as the discovery of the deepest-living animal ever found. Now American University researchers, reporting in Nature Communications, have sequenced the genome of the unique animal, referred to as the 'Devil Worm' for its ability to survive in harsh, subsurface conditions. The Devil Worm's genome provides clues to how an organism adapts to lethal environmental conditions. Future research into how it evolved could help humans learn lessons for how to adapt to a warming climate.

Researchers sequence genome of the 'devil worm'
H. Mephisto (the Devil Worm) (microscopic image, magnified 200x)
[Credit: Prof. John Bracht, American University]
In 2008, Gaetan Borgonie from the University of Ghent and Princeton University geoscientist Tullis Onstott discovered the microscopic Devil Worm while investigating subterrestrial bacterial communities in active gold mines in South Africa. Borgonie and his team were stunned to discover the worm, a complex, multi-cellular animal thriving in an environment thought only livable for microbes, with high temperatures, little oxygen and high amounts of methane.

Researchers named the worm Halicephalobus mephisto, in honor of Mephistopheles, a subterranean demon from the medieval German legend Faust.

The Devil Worm is the first subterrestrial animal to have its genome sequenced. The genome offers evidence of how life can exist below Earth's surface and opens up a new way of understanding how life can survive beyond Earth, said John Bracht, assistant professor of biology at American University who led the genome sequencing project.


The sequencing revealed that the genome encodes an unusually large number of heat-shock proteins known as Hsp70, which is notable because many nematode species whose genomes are sequenced do not reveal such a large number. Hsp70 is a well-studied gene that exists in all life forms and restores cellular health due to heat damage.

Many of the Hsp70 genes in the Devil Worm's genome were copies of themselves. The genome also has extra copies of AIG1 genes, known cellular survival genes in plants and animals. More research will be needed, but Bracht believes the presence of copies of the gene signifies the worm's evolutionary adaptation.

"The Devil Worm can't run away; it's underground," Bracht explained. "It has no choice but to adapt or die. We propose that when an animal cannot escape intense heat, it starts making additional copies of these two genes to survive."


By scanning other genomes, Bracht identified other cases where the same two gene families, Hsp70 and AIG1, are expanded. The animals he identified are bivalves, a group of mollusks including clams, oysters and mussels. They are heat-adapted like the Devil Worm. This suggests that the pattern identified in the Devil Worm may extend more generally to organisms unable to escape environmental heat. This work was also recently published in the Journal of Molecular Evolution with an AU Biology undergraduate first author, Megan Guerin.

Bracht got the chance to sequence the unique worm's genome as a post-doctoral fellow at Princeton University. He carried the project over to American University when he joined the biology faculty in 2014. Two biology master's students working in his lab, Deborah Weinstein and Sarah Allen, contributed research and writing of the Nature Communications paper and are first and second authors, respectively, on the manuscript. Kathryn Walters-Conte, Ph.D., director of AU's Master's in Biotechnology program, also contributed to the paper.

Nearly a decade ago, the Devil Worm was unknown and living below the Earth's surface. Now it's a subject of study in science laboratories, including Bracht's. When Bracht brought Devil Worms from a laboratory in South Africa that cultures them to his laboratory at AU, he recalls saying to his students that aliens landed at AU. The metaphor isn't a stretch. NASA supports research of the Devil Worm for what it can teach scientists about the search for life beyond Earth.


"Part of this work entails looking for 'biosignatures' of life--stable chemical clues left behind by living things. We focus on a ubiquitous biosignature of organic life--genomic DNA--obtained from an animal that has adapted to an environment once considered uninhabitable to complex life: the deep terrestrial subsurface," Bracht said. "It is work that might prompt us to broaden the search for extraterrestrial life to 'uninhabitable' exoplanets' deep subterrestrial regions."

Nematodes are well suited to studies of evolutionary adaptation, Bracht said. They have adapted to a diverse set of environments and are among the most abundant animals on earth. Future work involving the Devil Worm in Bracht's lab will pinpoint Hsp70's function, such as inactivating the gene to test its response to heat stress. Other work could involve gene-transfer studies in C.elegans, a type of heat-intolerant microscopic roundworm, to see if it becomes heat-resilient.

Source: American University [November 21, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

New UFOs found in old NASA Apollo 17 images from 48 years ago.

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

Apollo 17 launched from John F. Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 7th at 5:33 AM.
The Apollo 17 had a three man crew Commander Eugene Cernan, Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt & Command Module Pilot Ronald Evans.
There mission was to explore Taurus Littrow (it is a valley located in the Taurus Mountain range).Theses photos that I am showing you were taken by these astronauts & these photos also show triangular shaped objects in the background in a low earth orbit. Now I ask you are we looking at maybe something that we weren't meant to see. Were these crafts, UFOs, UAPs
whatever you want to call them caught on film by accident 43 years ago? Or is it space junk in the
shape of a triangle or dust on the lens. You tell me. If you feel like donating that wood be great thanks Terry https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US

Video length: 8:27
Category: Science & Technology
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Iron Age Musical Instrument, the Carnyx and a modern reconstruction, The National Museum of...

Iron Age Musical Instrument, the Carnyx and a modern reconstruction, The National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, 24.11.19.



* This article was originally published here

2019 November 28 Moon and Planets at Twilight Image Credit...



2019 November 28

Moon and Planets at Twilight
Image Credit & Copyright: Petr Horálek

Explanation: This week’s ongoing conjunction of Venus and Jupiter may have whetted your appetite for skygazing. Tonight is the main course though. On November 28, a young crescent Moon will join them posing next to the two bright planets above the western horizon at twilight. Much like tonight’s visual feast, this night skyscape shows a young lunar crescent and brilliant Venus in the western evening twilight on October 29. The celestial beacons are setting over distant mountains and the Minya monastery, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, China, planet Earth. Then Mercury, not Jupiter, was a celestial companion to Venus and the Moon. The fleeting innermost planet is just visible here in the bright twilight, below and left of Venus and near the center of the frame. Tomorrow, November 29, the crescent Moon will also help you spot planet Saturn for desert.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191128.html



* This article was originally published here

Self-restrained genes enable evolutionary novelty


Changes in the genes that control development can potentially make large contributions to evolution by generating new morphologies in plants and animals. However, because developmental genes frequently influence many different processes, changes to their expression carry a risk of "collateral damage". Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne, and collaborators, have now shown how gene self-repression can reduce the potential side effects of novel gene expression so that new forms can evolve. This self-regulation occurs via a distinctive molecular mechanism employing small regions of genomic DNA called low-affinity transcription factor binding sites.

Self-restrained genes enable evolutionary novelty
A confocal micrograph of a young leaf of Cardamine hirsuta (hairy bittercress) with
emerging leaflets, showing distribution of the RCO protein. Cell outlines are shown in gray.
RCO shown here in red colour is active at the base of initiating leaflets where it reduces
 growth, leading to the formation of leaflets that are separated from each other
 [Credit: Neha Bhatia and Peter Huijser]
Suppose a bird develops a modified wing shape, which makes flying easier and could be beneficial to its survival. If this gene change also altered the bird's color, making it less attractive to mates, then the advantageous wing-shape modification would be unlikely to persist. So, how then does nature balance the potential for novelty, with the risk of side effects that may prevent novelty from arising? Using the evolution of leaf shape as an example, an international team led by Director Miltos Tsiantis has provided fresh insight into this question.


This new study was done in the hairy bittercress, a small weed that the Tsiantis group has developed into a model system for understanding evolution of plant form. It builds on previous work from the group in which a gene called RCO was found to have driven leaf shape diversification in mustard plants by acquiring a novel expression pattern.

RCO encodes a transcription factor, a type of protein that can turn other genes on or off, and RCO's new expression pattern resulted in the emergence of the more complex leaf shapes found in bittercress. The researchers have now shown that this change in gene expression was accompanied by RCO acquiring the ability to repress its own activity. Mike Levine, Director of the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics at Princeton University who was not involved in the study, finds this particular insight "very compelling". As the self-repression of RCO "limits the scope of its activity", Levine explains, it "thereby blocks potentially deleterious influences on cell development and function".

Stimulating cytokinin

As a next step, the scientists identified the genes targeted by RCO, and found that many of them are responsible for coordinating local levels of cytokinin - a widely acting plant hormone known to affect cell growth. Importantly, when the self-regulation of RCO is modified, RCO stimulates cytokinin excessively and leaf shape is altered in ways that can negatively affect plant fitness. This finding confirms the idea that self-repression of RCO could be essential for the persistence of RCO-induced novel leaf morphologies.


What's particularly interesting is that this self-repression of RCO occurs in a very distinctive way. The scientists discovered that it is based on many weak interactions between the RCO protein and RCO regulatory DNA at low-affinity binding sites. "This finding is exciting", explains Tsiantis, "because low-affinity binding sites can evolve relatively quickly, thus offering an easy way for evolution to keep changes in gene expression in check, by lowering a regulator's expression".

Soft repression

Indeed, this latest work from Tsiantis's team directly demonstrates that low-affinity transcription factor binding sites can play a major role in the generation of morphological novelty. By providing a tool to "softly" repress RCO expression, these sites dampen the effects of RCO expression changes and allow cytokinin levels to be fine-tuned. This in turn promotes the appearance of more complex leaf shapes, e.g., by precisely regulating the outgrowth of lobes or leaflets along the margins of developing leaves.

These results will stimulate further efforts to understand the influence of low-affinity transcription factor binding sites on development, diversity and disease. For example, there is increasing awareness that changes in the regulation of developmental genes are a major contributor to human disease, and that other regulatory changes can reduce disease severity or protect individuals who carry disease variants. While the specific DNA sequences underlying these effects are often unknown, this latest work highlights low-affinity transcription factor binding sites as excellent candidate regions for identifying causal sequences of disease susceptibility, and for understanding variation in trait diversity more broadly in complex eukaryotes.

The study is published in Current Biology.

Source: Max Planck Society [November 21, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

Self moving creeping stone аномалии движущийся камень

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Channel: UFO Odessa  

The stone moves itself due to some anomalyFound a strange piece of brick that lay on the dry shore. Some unknown force made him move a meter from the water towards the shore. It was when the beach was swampy and wet, there was no shoe imprint around the stone, as you can see, only birds passed here.
Filmed on the shore of the Kuyalnik reserve, Lake Kuyalnik estuary
Обнаружил странный кусок кирпича который лежал на просохщем берегу. Некая неведомая сила заставила его сдвинуться на метр от воды в сторону берега. Это было когда пляж болотистый и влажный, вокруг камня нету отпечаток обуви, и других следов которые могли бы указать что его сдвинули люди, как видно тут проходили лишь птицы. Заснято на берегу Куяльницкого заповедника, озера лимана Куяльник, Одесская область.

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Category: Entertainment
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Positive Feedback Black Hole: Black Hole Nurtures Baby Stars a Million Light Years Away

 Positive Feedback Black Hole
Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/INAF/R. Gilli et al.; Radio NRAO/VLA; Optical: NASA/STScI





This image contains a black hole that is triggering star formation across the longest distance ever seen, as described in our latest press release. The black hole is located in the center of a galaxy — identified in a labeled image — about 9.9 billion light years from Earth. In this composite image, X-rays from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (red) have been combined with radio emission detected by the NSF's Karl Jansky Very Large Array, or VLA, (blue), and an optical image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (yellow).

As hot gas swirls around the black hole, it emits large amounts of X-rays that Chandra detects. The black hole is also the source of radio-wave emission from a jet of high-energy particles — previously detected by scientists with the VLA — that stretches about a million light years. The jet is also identified in the labeled image. The end of the jet is highlighted by diffuse radio emission caused by the particles slowing down after interacting with surrounding matter. A bright source of radio emission (blue and white) on the opposite side of the black hole marks the end of a second jet of particles. This jet is not visible in the radio image.

Researchers also found a diffuse cloud of X-ray emission surrounding the end of the jet on the left. This X-ray emission is most likely from a gigantic bubble of hot gas heated by the interaction of the jet's particles with surrounding matter. As the hot bubble expanded and swept through four neighboring galaxies it could have created a shock wave that compressed cool gas in the galaxies, causing stars to form. The authors estimate that the star formation rates are between about 100% and 400% higher than typical galaxies with similar masses and distance from Earth.

Positive Feedback Black Hole (labeled)
Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/INAF/R. Gilli et al.; Radio NRAO/VLA; Optical: NASA/STScI

The black hole's galaxy and the four galaxies with boosted star formation have at least three neighboring galaxies. This system of galaxies was identified using observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). These galaxies will likely become part of a group or cluster of galaxies that has been caught early in its formation process.

Astronomers have seen many cases where a black hole affects its surroundings through "negative feedback". This occurs when the black hole chokes off star formation because it injects sufficient energy into a galaxy's or a galaxy cluster's hot gas to prevent it from cooling down to make stars. In this newly discovered collection of galaxies, astronomers have found a less common example of positive feedback, where the black hole's effects increase star formation.

The researchers used a total of six days of Chandra observing time spread out over five months. A paper describing these results has been published in the most recent issue of the journal "Astronomy and Astrophysics" and is available online. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge and Burlington, Massachusetts.





Fast Facts for Positive Feedback Black Hole:

Scale: Image is about 2 arcmin (3.4 million light years) across.
Category: Black Holes, Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
Coordinates (J2000): RA 10h 30m 27s | Dec +05° 24´ 55"
Constellation: Sextans
Observation Date: 10 pointings Jan 17, 2017- May 27, 2017
Observation Time: 132 hours 58 min (5 days 12 hours 58 minutes)
Obs. ID: 18185-18187, 19926, 19987, 19994-19995, 20045-20046, 20081
Instrument: ACIS
References: Gilli, R. et al. 2019; A&A in press. arXiv:1909.00814
Color Code: X-Ray: Red; Radio: Blue; Optical: Yellow
Distance Estimate: About 9.9 billion light years (z=1.7)




* This article was originally published here

Prehistoric Decorated Grave Goods, The National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, 24.11.19.

Prehistoric Decorated Grave Goods, The National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, 24.11.19.



* This article was originally published here

Unravelling gene expression


The DNA of a single cell is 2-3 meters long end-to-end. To fit and function, DNA is packaged around specialized proteins. These DNA-protein complexes are called nucleosomes, and they are a small part of a larger structure called chromatin. Nucleosomes can be thought of as the cell's DNA storage and protection unit.

Unravelling gene expression
The pioneer transcription factor Rap1 pries open compact chromatin
structure to activate genes [Credit: Beat Fierz, EPFL]
When a particular gene needs to be expressed, the cell requires access to the protected DNA within chromatin. This means that the chromatin structure must be opened and the nucleosomes must be removed to expose the underlying target gene.


This takes place in the orchestrated process of "chromatin remodeling", which regulates gene expression and involves a multitude of actors. Unravelling this pivotal step not only furthers our fundamental understanding, but may also help in the development of genetic engineering tools.

Now the lab of Beat Fierz at EPFL, has been able to uncover the first steps in the chromatin-opening process at the level of a single molecule, using a combination of chemical biology and biophysical methods. Published in Molecular Cell, the work looks at the role of a group of proteins called "pioneer transcription factors". These proteins bind to specific DNA regions within chromatin that are themselves shielded from other proteins. Little is known about how these factors overcome the barriers of the chromatin maze.

Unravelling gene expression
The graphical abstract of the paper, showing the way Rap1 accesses chromatin
[Credit: M. Mivelaz et al. 2019]


Fierz's lab looked at yeast, which is a model organism for human genetics. The method involved replicating the architecture of yeast genes, combined with single-molecule fluorescence. The researchers studied a yeast pioneer transcription factor called Rap1, and found that it choreographs chromatin remodeling, allowing access to other proteins required for gene expression that were previously obstructed.

To do this, Rap1 first binds chromatin and then influences the action of a large molecular machine called "Remodeling the Structure of Chromatin" (RSC), displacing nucleosomes and paving the way to the now-exposed DNA for other proteins involved in controlling gene expression.

By revealing the physico-chemical mechanism of how Rap1 gains access to chromatin and opens it up, the EPFL study proposes a biological model for other pioneer transcription factors, but also provides the tools for investigating them at the level of a single molecule.

Source: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne [November 21, 2019]



* This article was originally published here

IR test sony handycam

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Testing Sony dcr dvd610e camcorder from 2008 with ir 950nm filter in night mode on

Video length: 2:24
Category: Entertainment
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Discovery of a huge black hole













Astrophysics logo.

Nov. 27, 2019

Scientists have discovered a huge black hole in the Milky Way.


Image above: The Milky Way, of which our solar system is a part, contains some 100 million stellar black holes. (Photo: archive / photo illustration).

The black hole discovered by scientists is so important that it challenges existing theories of star evolution, according to the researchers.

The LB-1, a stellar black hole located 15'000 light-years from Earth, which the journal "Nature" describes for the first time, has a mass 70 times greater than that of the Sun.

"Black holes of such a mass should not even exist in our galaxy, according to most current theories of stellar evolution," said Liu Jifeng, a professor at the Chinese National Astronomical Observatory, head of the team of researchers who studied LB-1.

"We thought that very massive stars, whose chemical composition is typical of our galaxy, had to spill most of their gas into powerful stellar winds as they near the end of their lives," and therefore not leave behind they have such a massive black hole, said Liu Jifeng.

Abundance of black holes

While the Milky Way, of which our solar system is a part, contains some 100 million stellar black holes, LB-1 has a mass twice as large as scientists thought possible. "Now theorists will have to take up the challenge of explaining how it was formed," said Liu Jifeng in a statement.

Super massive black holes in the center of galaxies. (Illustration image)

For researcher David Reitze of the California Institute of Technology, who has not been involved in LB-1 work, astronomers "are just beginning to understand the abundance of black holes and the mechanisms of their formation." "In general, stellar black holes appear after supernova explosions, but according to current theories, they have a mass less than 50 to 60 times that of the sun," he said. The larger mass of LB-1 would therefore indicate that the black hole could not have been produced by a supernova.

"That means we're dealing with a new kind of black hole, created by another physical mechanism," insisted David Reitze.

"Nothing less than fantastic"

The LB-1 was discovered using the Chinese telescope LAMOST (Large Field Optical Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) by an international team of Chinese, American and European scientists. Scientists first used this telescope to search for stars in orbit around invisible objects, a sign that the star could be orbiting a black hole.

Other images of the world's largest optical telescopes - the Spanish telescope Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Keck I telescope in the United States - have confirmed the size of the LB-1. The National Astronomical Observatory of China has described it in a statement of "nothing less than fantastic".

Related links:

Chinese telescope LAMOST: http://www.lamost.org/public/?locale=en

Gran Telescopio Canarias: http://www.gtc.iac.es/

W. M. Keck Observatory: http://www.keckobservatory.org/

Images, Text, Credits: ATS/LAMOST/Gran Telescopio Canarias/Keck Observatory/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

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