понедельник, 25 ноября 2019 г.

A Monster Galaxy From the Dawn of the Universe Discovered by Accident

An artist’s impression of what a massive galaxy in the early universe might look like. The galaxy is undergoing an explosion of star formation, lighting up the gas surrounding the galaxy. Thick clouds of dust obscure most of the light, causing the galaxy to look dim and disorganized, very different from galaxies seen today. Credit: James Josephides/Swinburne Astronomy Productions, Christina Williams/University of Arizona, Ivo Labbe/Swinburne

The early universe is filled with monsters, a new study revealed. Researchers led by astronomer Christina Williams discovered a previously invisible galaxy, and perhaps a new galaxy population waiting to be discovered.

Astronomers accidentally discovered the footprints of a monster galaxy in the early universe that has never been seen before. Like a cosmic Yeti, the scientific community generally regarded these galaxies as folklore, given the lack of evidence of their existence, but astronomers in the United States and Australia managed to snap a picture of the beast for the first time.

Published today (October 22, 2019) in the Astrophysical Journal, the discovery provides new insights into the first growing steps of some of the biggest galaxies in the universe.

University of Arizona astronomer Christina Williams, lead author of the study, noticed a faint light blob in new sensitive observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, or ALMA, a collection of 66 radio telescopes high in the Chilean mountains. Strangely enough, the shimmering seemed to be coming out of nowhere, like a ghostly footstep in a vast dark wilderness.

“It was very mysterious because the light seemed not to be linked to any known galaxy at all,” said Williams, a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow at the Steward Observatory. “When I saw this galaxy was invisible at any other wavelength, I got really excited because it meant that it was probably really far away and hidden by clouds of dust.”

The researchers estimate that the signal came from so far away that it took 12.5 billion years to reach Earth, therefore giving us a view of the universe in its infancy. They think the observed emission is caused by the warm glow of dust particles heated by stars forming deep inside a young galaxy. The giant clouds of dust conceal the light of the stars themselves, rendering the galaxy completely invisible.

Study co-author Ivo Labbé, of the Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, said: “We figured out that the galaxy is actually a massive monster galaxy with as many stars as our Milky Way, but brimming with activity, forming new stars at 100 times the rate of our own galaxy.”

The discovery may solve a long-standing question in astronomy, the authors said. Recent studies found that some of the biggest galaxies in the young universe grew up and came of age extremely quickly, a result that is not understood theoretically. Massive mature galaxies are seen when the universe was only a cosmic toddler at 10% of its current age. Even more puzzling is that these mature galaxies appear to come out of nowhere: astronomers never seem to catch them while they are forming.

Smaller galaxies have been seen in the early universe with the Hubble Space Telescope, but such creatures are not growing fast enough to solve the puzzle. Other monster galaxies have also been previously reported, but those sightings have been far too rare for a satisfying explanation.

“Our hidden monster galaxy has precisely the right ingredients to be that missing link,” Williams explains, “because they are probably a lot more common.”

An open question is exactly how many of them there are. The observations for the current study were made in a tiny part of the sky, less than 1/100th the disc of the full moon. Like the Yeti, finding footprints of the mythical creature in a tiny strip of wilderness would either be a sign of incredible luck or a sign that monsters are literally lurking everywhere.

Williams said researchers are eagerly awaiting the March 2021 scheduled launch of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope to investigate these objects in more detail.

“JWST will be able to look through the dust veil so we can learn how big these galaxies really are and how fast they are growing,
But for now, the monsters are out there, shrouded in dust and a lot of mystery.

By University of Arizona 





Reference:

“Discovery of a Dark, Massive, ALMA-only Galaxy at z ~ 5–6 in a Tiny 3 mm Survey” by Christina C. Williams, Ivo Labbe, Justin Spilker, Mauro Stefanon, Joel Leja, Katherine Whitaker, Rachel Bezanson, Desika Narayanan, Pascal Oesch and Benjamin Weiner, 22 October 2019, Astrophysical Journal.

DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab44aa

The study was funded by the National Science Foundation.




* This article was originally published here

Таймлапс над Куяльником Одесса

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Channel: UFO Odessa  

Cumulus timelapse over Odessa UkraineНад санаторием Куяльник снято с берега лимана, 23 мая 2019Xiaomi yi camera

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First identification of a heavy element born from neutron star collision

Artist’s impression of strontium emerging from a neutron star merger

X-shooter spectra montage of kilonova in NGC 4993

The galaxy NGC 4993 in the constellation of Hydra

The sky around the galaxy NGC 4993


Videos

ESOcast 210 Light: First identification of a heavy element born from neutron star collision
ESOcast 210 Light: First identification of a heavy element born from neutron star collision

Neutron star merger animation and elements formed in these events

Animation of spectra of kilonova in NGC 4993
Animation of spectra of kilonova in NGC 4993



For the first time, a freshly made heavy element, strontium, has been detected in space, in the aftermath of a merger of two neutron stars. This finding was observed by ESO’s X-shooter spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and is published today in Nature. The detection confirms that the heavier elements in the Universe can form in neutron star mergers, providing a missing piece of the puzzle of chemical element formation.


In 2017, following the detection of gravitational waves passing the Earth, ESO pointed its telescopes in Chile, including the VLT, to the source: a neutron star merger named GW170817. Astronomers suspected that, if heavier elements did form in neutron star collisions, signatures of those elements could be detected in kilonovae, the explosive aftermaths of these mergers. This is what a team of European researchers has now done, using data from the X-shooter instrument on ESO’s VLT.


Following the GW170817 merger, ESO’s fleet of telescopes began monitoring the emerging kilonova explosion over a wide range of wavelengths. X-shooter in particular took a series of spectra from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Initial analysis of these spectra suggested the presence of heavy elements in the kilonova, but astronomers could not pinpoint individual elements until now. 

“By reanalysing the 2017 data from the merger, we have now identified the signature of one heavy element in this fireball, strontium, proving that the collision of neutron stars creates this element in the Universe,” says the study’s lead author Darach Watson from the University of Copenhagen in Denmark. On Earth, strontium is found naturally in the soil and is concentrated in certain minerals. Its salts are used to give fireworks a brilliant red colour. 

Astronomers have known the physical processes that create the elements since the 1950s. Over the following decades they have uncovered the cosmic sites of each of these major nuclear forges, except one. “This is the final stage of a decades-long chase to pin down the origin of the elements,” says Watson. “We know now that the processes that created the elements happened mostly in ordinary stars, in supernova explosions, or in the outer layers of old stars. But, until now, we did not know the location of the final, undiscovered process, known as rapid neutron capture, that created the heavier elements in the periodic table.”

Rapid neutron capture is a process in which an atomic nucleus captures neutrons quickly enough to allow very heavy elements to be created. Although many elements are produced in the cores of stars, creating elements heavier than iron, such as strontium, requires even hotter environments with lots of free neutrons. Rapid neutron capture only occurs naturally in extreme environments where atoms are bombarded by vast numbers of neutrons.

“This is the first time that we can directly associate newly created material formed via neutron capture with a neutron star merger, confirming that neutron stars are made of neutrons and tying the long-debated rapid neutron capture process to such mergers,” says Camilla Juul Hansen from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, who played a major role in the study.

Scientists are only now starting to better understand neutron star mergers and kilonovae. Because of the limited understanding of these new phenomena and other complexities in the spectra that the VLT’s X-shooter took of the explosion, astronomers had not been able to identify individual elements until now.

“We actually came up with the idea that we might be seeing strontium quite quickly after the event. However, showing that this was demonstrably the case turned out to be very difficult. This difficulty was due to our highly incomplete knowledge of the spectral appearance of the heavier elements in the periodic table,” says University of Copenhagen researcher Jonatan Selsing, who was a key author on the paper. 

The GW170817 merger was the fifth detection of gravitational waves, made possible thanks to the NSF's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in the US and the Virgo Interferometer in Italy. Located in the galaxy NGC 4993, the merger was the first, and so far the only, gravitational wave source to have its visible counterpart detected by telescopes on Earth. 


With the combined efforts of LIGO, Virgo and the VLT, we have the clearest understanding yet of the inner workings of neutron stars and their explosive mergers.



More Information

This research was presented in a paper to appear in Nature on 24 October 2019.

The team is composed of D. Watson (Niels Bohr Institute & Cosmic Dawn Center, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), C. J. Hansen (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany), J. Selsing (Niels Bohr Institute & Cosmic Dawn Center, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), A. Koch (Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University, Germany), D. B. Malesani (DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, & Niels Bohr Institute & Cosmic Dawn Center, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), A. C. Andersen (Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), J. P. U. Fynbo (Niels Bohr Institute & Cosmic Dawn Center, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), A. Arcones (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany & GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany), A. Bauswein (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany & Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Germany), S. Covino (Astronomical Observatory of Brera, INAF, Milan, Italy), A. Grado (Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory, INAF, Naples, Italy), K. E. Heintz (Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland & Niels Bohr Institute & Cosmic Dawn Center, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), L. Hunt (Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, INAF, Florence, Italy), C. Kouveliotou (George Washington University, Physics Department, Washington DC, USA & Astronomy, Physics and Statistics Institute of Sciences), G. Leloudas (DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, & Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), A. Levan (Department of Physics, University of Warwick, UK), P. Mazzali (Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, UK & Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, Germany), E. Pian (Astrophysics and Space Science Observatory of Bologna, INAF, Bologna, Italy).

ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It has 16 Member States: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile and with Australia as a Strategic Partner. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer as well as two survey telescopes, VISTA working in the infrared and the visible-light VLT Survey Telescope. Also at Paranal ESO will host and operate the Cherenkov Telescope Array South, the world’s largest and most sensitive gamma-ray observatory. ESO is also a major partner in two facilities on Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre Extremely Large Telescope, the ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.



Links



Contacts

Darach Watson
Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN), Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen
Copenhagen, Denmark
Cell: +45 24 80 38 25
Email: darach@nbi.ku.dk

Camilla J. Hansen
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
Heidelberg, Germany
Tel: +49 6221 528-358
Email: hansen@mpia.de

Jonatan Selsing
Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN), Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen
Copenhagen, Denmark
Cell: +45 61 71 43 46
Email: jselsing@nbi.ku.dk

Bárbara Ferreira
ESO Public Information Officer
Garching bei München, Germany
Tel: +49 89 3200 6670
Email: pio@eso.org




* This article was originally published here

Large wasps on the beaches

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Channel: UFO Odessa  

Huge hornets fly on the central path near the city beach, many people pass nearby. The largest representatives of the genus (Vespa mandarinia) have dimensions of up to 55 mm in length.

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Chandra Spots a Mega-Cluster of Galaxies in the Making


Labeled image of Abell 1758 system
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/G.Schellenberger et al.; Optical:SDSS 





Astronomers using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes have put together a detailed map of a rare collision between four galaxy clusters. Eventually all four clusters — each with a mass of at least several hundred trillion times that of the Sun — will merge to form one of the most massive objects in the universe.

Galaxy clusters are the largest structures in the cosmos that are held together by gravity. Clusters consist of hundreds or even thousands of galaxies embedded in hot gas, and contain an even larger amount of invisible dark matter. Sometimes two galaxy clusters collide, as in the case of the Bullet Cluster, and occasionally more than two will collide at the same time.

The new observations show a mega-structure being assembled in a system called Abell 1758, located about 3 billion light-years from Earth. It contains two pairs of colliding galaxy clusters that are heading toward one another. Scientists first recognized Abell 1758 as a quadruple galaxy cluster system in 2004 using data from Chandra and XMM-Newton, a satellite operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).

Each pair in the system contains two galaxy clusters that are well on their way to merging. In the northern (top) pair seen in the composite image, the centers of each cluster have already passed by each other once, about 300 to 400 million years ago, and will eventually swing back around. The southern pair at the bottom of the image has two clusters that are close to approaching each other for the first time.

X-rays from Chandra are shown as blue and white, depicting fainter and brighter diffuse emission, respectively. This new composite image also includes an optical image from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The Chandra data revealed for the first time a shock wave — similar to the sonic boom from a supersonic aircraft — in hot gas visible with Chandra in the northern pair's collision. From this shock wave, researchers estimate two clusters are moving about 2 million to 3 million miles per hour (3 million to 5 million kilometers per hour), relative to each other.

Chandra data also provide information about how elements heavier than helium, the "heavy elements," in galaxy clusters get mixed up and redistributed after the clusters collide and merge. Because this process depends on how far a merger has progressed, Abell 1758 offers a valuable case study, since the northern and the southern pairs of clusters are at different stages of merging.

In the southern pair, the heavy elements are most abundant in the centers of the two colliding clusters, showing that the original location of the elements has not been strongly impacted by the ongoing collision. By contrast, in the northern pair, where the collision and merger has progressed further, the location of the heavy elements has been strongly influenced by the collision. The highest abundances are found between the two cluster centers and to the left side of the cluster pair, while the lowest abundances are in the center of the cluster on the left side of the image.

Collisions between clusters affect their component galaxies as well as the hot gas that surrounds them. Data from the 6.5-meter MMT telescope in Arizona, obtained as part of the Arizona Cluster Redshift Survey, show that some galaxies are moving much faster than others, probably because they have been thrown away from the other galaxies in their cluster by gravitational forces imparted by the collision.

The team also used radio data from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), and X-ray data from ESA's XMM-Newton mission.

A paper describing these latest results by Gerrit Schellenberger, Larry David, Ewan O'Sullivan, Jan Vrtilek (all from Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian) and Christopher Haines (Universidad de Atacama, Chile) was published in the September 1st, 2019 issue of The Astrophysical Journal, and is available online.

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Massachusetts.





Fast Facts for Abell 1758

Scale: Image is about 16.7 arcmin (14 million light years) across.
Category: Groups & Clusters of Galaxies, Cosmology/Deep Fields/X-ray Background
Coordinates (J2000): RA 13h 32m 43.02s | Dec +50° 32´ 25.70"
Constellation: Canes Venatici
Observation Date: Aug 28, 2001
Observation Time: 56 hours 40 minutes (2 days 8 hours 40 minutes)
Obs. ID: 2213, 13997, 15538, 15540
Instrument: ACIS
References: Schellenberger G., et al, 2019, ApJ, 882, 59; arXiv:1907.10581
Color Code: X-ray: blue and white; Optical: yellow and pink
Distance Estimate: About 3.2 billion light years (z=0.28)





* This article was originally published here

Severe weather near Odessa

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Channel: UFO Odessa  

Severe weather in Odessa on May 25, 2019. Thunderstorm front in the area.Суровая погода в Одессе 25 мая 2019. Грозовой фронт в области.

Video length: 3:14
Category: Entertainment
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2019 November 25 NGC 6995: The Bat Nebula Image Credit &...



2019 November 25

NGC 6995: The Bat Nebula
Image Credit & Copyright: Josep Drudis

Explanation: Do you see the bat? It haunts this cosmic close-up of the eastern Veil Nebula. The Veil Nebula itself is a large supernova remnant, the expanding debris cloud from the death explosion of a massive star. While the Veil is roughly circular in shape and covers nearly 3 degrees on the sky toward the constellation of the Swan (Cygnus), the Bat Nebula, NGC 6995, spans only ½ degree, about the apparent size of the Moon. That translates to 12 light-years at the Veil’s estimated distance, a reassuring 1,400 light-years from planet Earth. In the composite of image data recorded through broad and narrow band filters, emission from hydrogen atoms in the remnant is shown in red with strong emission from oxygen and nitrogen atoms shown in hues of blue. Of course, in the western part of the Veil lies another seasonal apparition: the Witch’s Broom Nebula.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap191125.html



* This article was originally published here

Unidentified submerged object!

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

First off I want to say Thank you to UFO UFOmania - The truth is out there go check out his channel.Okay so Sandrine Fontain was in her room when she noticed from out her window a very large black object hovering very close to the water's surface.She then got out her telescope and took a look then she got her phone and placed it to the eyepiece of the telescope and started recording and she got this amazing video. Well done Sandrine Fontain. Its hard to keep the phone steady on a telescope, I know you did a great job!
Donate if you can it would be a wonderful help https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US

Source video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhtT_NlYPqI&list=WL&index=2&t=2s

Source video https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCdXfEfd8eqyd4ZpRaxLwy3g/about

Video length: 4:23
Category: Science & Technology
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Hubble Studies Gamma-Ray Burst with the Highest Energy Ever Seen













ESA - Hubble Space Telescope logo.

20 November 2019

GRB 190114C (Artist’s Impression)

New observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have investigated the nature of the gamma-ray burst GRB 190114C.

Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the Universe. They emit most of their energy in gamma rays, light which is much more energetic than the visible light we can see with our eyes.

GRB 190114C (Artist’s Impression)

In January 2019, an extremely bright and long gamma-ray burst (GRB) was detected by a suite of telescopes, including NASA’s Swift and Fermi telescopes, as well as by the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes. Known as GRB 190114C, some of the light detected from the object had the highest energy ever observed: 1Tera electron volt (TeV) — about one trillion times as much energy per photon as visible light. Scientists have been trying to observe such very high energy emission from GRB’s for a long time, so this detection is considered a milestone in high-energy astrophysics.

Previous observations revealed that to achieve this energy, material must be emitted from a collapsing star at 99.999% the speed of light. This material is then forced through the gas that surrounds the star, causing a shock that creates the gamma-ray burst itself. For the first time, scientists have observed extremely energetic gamma rays from this particular burst.

GRB 190114C (Artist’s Impression)

Several ground- and space-based observatories have set out to study GRB 190114C. European astronomers were provided observing time with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to observe the gamma-ray burst, to study its environment and find out how this extreme emission is produced[1].

“Hubble’s observations suggest that this particular burst was sitting in a very dense environment, right in the middle of a bright galaxy 5 billion light years away,” explained one of the lead authors, Andrew Levan of the Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics & Particle Physics Department of Astrophysics at Radboud University in the Netherlands. “This is really unusual, and suggests that might be why it produced this exceptionally powerful light.”

Wide-field view of GRB 190114C (ground-based view)

Astronomers used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Teleescope, together with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope and the Atacama Large Milimeter/submilimeter Array to study the host galaxy of this GRB. Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 was instrumental in studying whether the environmental properties of the host system, which is composed of a close pair of interacting galaxies, might have contributed to the production of these very-high-energy photons. The GRB occurred within the nuclear region of a massive galaxy, a location that is rather unique. This is indicative of a denser environment than that in which GRBs are typically observed and could have been crucial for the generation of the very-high-energy photons that were observed.

Hubble Observation of the host galaxy of GRB 190114C

“Scientists have been trying to observe very-high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts for a long time,” explained lead author Antonio de Ugarte Postigo of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía in Spain. “This new observation is a vital step forward in our understanding of gamma-ray bursts, their immediate surroundings, and just how matter behaves when it is moving at 99.999% of the speed of light.”

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Lights in the night sky

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

Two videos 1st video was recorded in France by YouTube channel Lys Orlova. Lys stated she saw these lights above her house at 11:30 at night in Yveline France.
Second video was recorded in Tinley Park Illinois. Uploaded by UFO Watchman.

Source Video 1 : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WKHXirDTiA8
Source Video 2 : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q32CHZRQtQs

Video length: 2:19
Category: Science & Technology
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Outback telescope captures Milky Way centre, discovers remnants of dead stars

A radio telescope in the Western Australian outback has captured a spectacular new view of the centre of the galaxy in which we live, the Milky Way.

The image from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) telescope shows what our galaxy would look like if human eyes could see radio waves.

This image shows a new view of the Milky Way from the Murchison Widefield Array, with the lowest frequencies in red, middle frequencies in green, and the highest frequencies in blue. Huge golden filaments indicate enormous magnetic fields, supernova remnants are visible as little spherical bubbles, and regions of massive star formation show up in blue. The supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy is hidden in the bright white region in the centre. Credit: Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker (ICRAR/Curtin) and the GLEAM Team.

Astrophysicist Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker, from the Curtin University node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), created the images using the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Perth.

“This new view captures low-frequency radio emission from our galaxy, looking both in fine detail and at larger structures,” she said.

“Our images are looking directly at the middle of the Milky Way, towards a region astronomers call the Galactic Centre.”

The data for the research comes from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, or ‘GLEAM’ for short.

The survey has a resolution of two arcminutes (about the same as the human eye) and maps the sky using radio waves at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz (FM radio is near 100 MHz).

“It’s the power of this wide frequency range that makes it possible for us to disentangle different overlapping objects as we look toward the complexity of the Galactic Centre,” Dr Hurley-Walker said.

“Essentially, different objects have different ‘radio colours’, so we can use them to work out what kind of physics is at play.”

Using the images, Dr Hurley-Walker and her colleagues discovered the remnants of 27 massive stars that exploded in supernovae at the end of their lives.

These are the 27 newly-discovered supernova remnants—the remains of stars that ended their lives in huge stellar explosions thousands to hundreds of thousands of years ago. The radio images trace the edges of the explosions as they continue their ongoing expansion into interstellar space. Some are huge, larger than the full moon, and others are small and hard to spot in the complexity of the Milky Way. Credit: Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker (ICRAR/Curtin) and the GLEAM Team.

These stars would have been eight or more times more massive than our Sun before their dramatic destruction thousands of years ago.

Younger and closer supernova remnants, or those in very dense environments, are easy to spot, and 295 are already known.

Unlike other instruments, the MWA can find those which are older, further away, or in very empty environments.

Dr Hurley-Walker said one of the newly-discovered supernova remnants lies in such an empty region of space, far out of the plane of our galaxy, and so despite being quite young, is also very faint.

“It’s the remains of a star that died less than 9,000 years ago, meaning the explosion could have been visible to Indigenous people across Australia at that time,” she said.

This 28 image photomosaic captures the arch of the milky way over the Guilderton Lighthouse in Western Australia, and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The location of a supernova that would have exploded 9,000 years ago and been visible in the night sky is shown in the image. Credit: Paean Ng / Astrordinary Imaging.

An expert in cultural astronomy, Associate Professor Duane Hamacher from the University of Melbourne, said some Aboriginal traditions do describe bright new stars appearing in the sky, but we don’t know of any definitive traditions that describe this particular event.

“However, now that we know when and where this supernova appeared in the sky, we can collaborate with Indigenous elders to see if any of their traditions describe this cosmic event. If any exist, it would be extremely exciting,” he said. This is a 104 frame photomosaic capturing the Milky Way directly overhead taken at the Pinnacles Desert in Western Australia. A popular tourist location by day and incredible stargazing at night. The location of a supernova that would have exploded 9,000 years ago is shown in the image. Credit: Paean Ng / Astrordinary Imaging.

This is a 104 frame photomosaic capturing the Milky Way directly overhead taken at the Pinnacles Desert in Western Australia. A popular tourist location by day and incredible stargazing at night. The location of a supernova that would have exploded 9,000 years ago is shown in the image. Credit: Paean Ng / Astrordinary Imaging.

Dr Hurley-Walker said two of the supernova remnants discovered are quite unusual “orphans”, found in a region of sky where there are no massive stars, which means future searches across other such regions might be more successful than astronomers expected.

Other supernova remnants discovered in the research are very old, she said.

“This is really exciting for us, because it’s hard to find supernova remnants in this phase of life—they allow us to look further back in time in the Milky Way.”

The MWA telescope is a precursor to the world’s largest radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array, which is due to be built in Australia and South Africa from 2021.

“The MWA is perfect for finding these objects, but it is limited in its sensitivity and resolution,” Dr Hurley-Walker said.

“The low-frequency part of the SKA, which will be built at the same site as the MWA, will be thousands of times more sensitive and have much better resolution, so should find the thousands of supernova remnants that formed in the last 100,000 years, even on the other side of the Milky Way.”

The new images of the Galactic Centre can be viewed via a web browser using the GLEAMoscope app or through an android device using the GLEAM app.



Source: International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR)/News



Publication:

‘New candidate radio supernova remnants detected in the GLEAM survey over 345° < l < 60°, 180° < l < 240°’, published in Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia (PASA) on November 20th, 2019. Paper

‘Candidate radio supernova remnants observed by the GLEAM survey over 345° < l < 60°, 180° < l < 240°’, published in Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia (PASA) on November 20th, 2019. Paper 

‘GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey II: Galactic Plane 345° < l < 67°, 180° < l < 240°’, published in Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia (PASA) on November 20th, 2019. Paper



More Information: 

ICRAR

The International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) is a joint venture between Curtin University and The University of Western Australia with support and funding from the State Government of Western Australia. 

The Murchison Widefield Array 

The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a low-frequency radio telescope and is the first of four Square Kilometre Array (SKA) precursors to be completed. A consortium of partner institutions from seven countries (Australia, USA, India, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, and China) financed the development, construction, commissioning, and operations of the facility. The MWA consortium is led by Curtin University.



Contacts:

Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker — ICRAR / Curtin University
Ph: +61 8 9266 9178
E:Natasha.Hurley-Walker@curtin.edu.au

Pete Wheeler — Media Contact, ICRAR
Ph: +61 423 982 018

Lucien Wilkinson — Media Contact, Curtin University
Ph: +61 401 103 683




* This article was originally published here

Cairnbaan Prehistoric Rock Art Video Clip, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 23.11.19.

Cairnbaan Prehistoric Rock Art Video Clip, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 23.11.19.



* This article was originally published here

Fireball over Seville, Huelva and Badajoz // Bola de fuego sobre Sevilla, Huelva y Badajoz

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Channel: Meteors  

This slow meteor overflew the south of Spain 2019 November 22 at about 20:53 local time (equivalent to 19:53 universal time). It was generated by a rock from a comet that hit the atmosphere at about 54,000 km/h. It began at an altitude of about 83 km over the province of Seville, and ended at a height of around 68 km over the province of Badajoz.

The event was recorded in the framework of the SMART project, which is being conducted by the Southwestern Europe Meteor Network (SWEMN). The event was spotted from the meteor-observing stations located at Sevilla and La Sagra (Granada).
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A las 20:53 (hora local) del 22 de noviembre, los detectores del proyecto SMART detectaban una bola de fuego que cruzó el cielo de Sevilla, Huelva y Badajoz.

El evento ha sido analizado por el investigador responsable del Proyecto SMART, el astrofísico José María Madiedo del Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). Este análisis ha permitido determinar que la roca que originó este fenómeno entró en la atmósfera a unos a unos 54 mil km/h. La roca procedía de un cometa denominado 289P/Blanpain. El choque con la atmósfera a esta velocidad hizo que la roca se volviese incandescente, generándose así una bola de fuego que se inició a una altitud de unos 83 km sobre el suroeste de la provincia de Sevilla. Desde allí avanzó en dirección noroeste, atravesando la provincia de Huelva y adentrándose Extremadura. Finalmente la bola de fuego se extinguió a unos 68 km de altitud al suroeste de la provincia de Badajoz.

Esta bola de fuego ha sido registrada por los detectores del proyecto SMART desde los observatorios astronómicos de La Sagra (Granada) y Sevilla. Estos detectores operan en el marco de la Red de Bólidos y Meteoros del Suroeste de Europa (SWEMN), que tiene como objetivo monitorizar continuamente el cielo con el fin de registrar y estudiar el impacto contra la atmósfera terrestre de rocas procedentes de distintos objetos del Sistema Solar.

Video length: 1:32
Category: Science & Technology
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Two of a Space Kind: Apollo 12 and Mars 2020














NASA - Apollo 12 Mission patch / NASA - Mars 2020 Rover logo.

Nov. 20, 2019


Image above: (Left) Apollo 12 astronaut Charles “Pete” Conrad Jr. stands beside NASA's Surveyor 3 spacecraft; the lunar module Intrepid can be seen in the distance. Apollo 12 landed on the Moon's Ocean of Storms on Nov. 20, 1969. (Right) Mars 2020 rover, seen here in an artist's concept, will make history's most accurate landing on a planetary body when it lands at Mars' Jezero Crater on Feb. 18, 2021. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Fifty years ago today, during their second moonwalk, Charles "Pete" Conrad Jr. and Alan Bean became the first humans to reach out and touch a spacecraft that had previously landed on another celestial body. NASA's 1969 Apollo 12 Moon mission and the upcoming Mars 2020 mission to the Red Planet may be separated by half a century and targets that are 100 million miles apart, but they share several mission goals unique in the annals of space exploration.

"We on the Mars 2020 project feel a special kinship with the crew of Apollo 12," said John McNamee, Mars 2020 project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "They achieved the first precision landing, deployed the most advanced suite of science instruments of the time, and were the first to interact with another spacecraft that put down on another world. That's all part of the Mars 2020 playbook as well."

NASA needed Apollo 12 to prove a precision landing was possible because future Apollo missions would target locations in the lunar highlands, where mountains, massive craters, boulder fields and rilles could ruin their day if the lunar modules strayed from their prescribed landing path. And while the previous mission, Apollo 11, was a monumental success, it overshot its intended landing site in the Sea of Tranquility by about 4 miles (6 kilometers).


Image above: Apollo 12 lunar module pilot Alan Bean holds a container of lunar soil, with the reflection of mission commander Charles "Pete" Conrad Jr. visible on his visor. The image was taken on the Moon's Ocean of Storms on Nov. 20, 1969. Apollo 12's lunar activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding NASA's Surveyor 3 spacecraft (which landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967), and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Image Credit: NASA.

To demonstrate a precision landing, Apollo 12 mission planners could have chosen just about anywhere on the nearside of the Moon by targeting any of literally millions of known geologic features. In the end, they chose for Pete and Al a relatively nondescript crater in the Ocean of Storms because JPL had plunked down a spacecraft there two-and-a-half years earlier.

"When Pete and Al put the lunar module Intrepid down within about 520 feet [160 meters] of Surveyor 3, it gave NASA the confidence to later send Apollo 15 to Hadley Rille, Apollo 16 to go to the Descartes Highlands and Apollo 17 to land at Taurus Littrow," said McNamee. "We also have to be precise with our landing on Mars — not only to pave the way for future precision landings on the Red Planet for both robotic and human-crewed missions, but also because Mars 2020's scientifically appealing landing site at Jezero Crater has all sorts of cliffsides, sand dunes, boulders and craters that can adversely affect us during landing."

Mars 2020 will be history's first planetary mission to include terrain relative navigation, a computerized autopilot that utilizes optical imagers and computers to help Mars 2020 avoid landing hazards and make the most accurate landing on a planetary body in history.

Sweet Suite Science

There are other similarities. During their first moonwalk, Conrad and Bean deployed the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments package (ALSEP). Powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, the five science instruments (seismometer, atmospheric sensor, solar wind spectrometer, lunar dust collector and magnetic field sensor) were the most advanced ever to be carried to another celestial body, and they sent back groundbreaking data on the lunar environment from November 1969 to September 1977. When Mars 2020 alights at Jezero Crater, it also will be equipped with the most advanced science instruments ever to travel to another world.

"The science instruments we carry benefit not only from advances in technology, but the hard lessons learned by those missions of exploration, including Apollo, that preceded us," said Ken Farley, project scientist for Mars 2020 from Caltech in Pasadena. "Our seven state-of-the-art science tools will help us acquire the most information possible about Martian geology, atmosphere, environmental conditions, and potential biosignatures, giving us insight into the Red Planet like never before."


Image above: Apollo 12 astronauts (left to right) lunar module pilot Alan Bean, command module pilot Richard Gordon and commander Charles “Pete” Conrad Jr. relax during a flight rehearsal in the Apollo mission simulator. Image Credit: NASA.

Return to Sender

During their second moonwalk, Conrad and Bean reached the Surveyor 3 lander — one of the robotic missions that explored the Moon in advance of astronauts. They not only collected images and samples of the lunar surface surrounding the spacecraft, but cut, sawed and hacked parts off the three-legged spacecraft, including Surveyor's TV camera and its surface-soil sampling scoop.

"NASA wanted to see what happened to materials that were exposed to the lunar environment for an extended period," said McNamee. "To this day, the samples of Surveyor 3, which endured 31 months at the Ocean of Storms, are our best and only demonstrations of the natural processes that can affect spacecraft components left on the Moon."


Image above: A graphic novel chronicling the historic flight of Apollo 12. Image Credits: NASA/PPG.

One of Mars 2020's major mission goals is to seek signs of past microscopic life, collecting the most compelling rock core and Martian dust samples. Subsequent missions, currently under consideration by NASA, would send spacecraft to Mars to collect these samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis. To help engineers design spacesuits to shield astronauts from the elements, NASA is sending five samples of spacesuit material along with one of Mars 2020's science instruments, called Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC). A piece of an astronaut's helmet and four kinds of fabric are mounted on the calibration target for this instrument. Scientists will use SHERLOC, as well as a camera that photographs visible light, to study how the materials degrade in ultraviolet radiation. It will mark the first time spacesuit material has been sent to Mars for testing and will provide a vital comparison for ongoing testing at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

Robots First, Astronauts Later

Just as NASA's Surveyor missions helped blaze a trail for Neil and Buzz on Apollo 11, Pete and Al on 12, as well as Al and Ed (Apollo 14), Dave and Jim (Apollo 15), John and Charlie (Apollo 16), and Gene and Harrison (Apollo 17), Mars 2020 is helping set the tone for future crewed missions to Mars.

Mars 2020's landing system includes a suite of sensors that will document the descent to the surface in never-seen-before detail so that future robotic and crewed missions factor those details into their landings. When on the surface, the rover's MOXIE instrument is designed to demonstrate that converting Martian carbon dioxide to pure oxygen is possible, and RIMFAX could teach us how to use ground-penetrating radar so that future missions can use it to find sources of fresh water.

"Isaac Newton once wrote, 'If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants,'" said McNamee. "When Mars 2020 flies, it will allow us to see farther into the geologic history of the Red Planet than ever before — and that is happening because we too are standing on the shoulders of giants — giants like the crew of Apollo 12."

The launch period for Mars 2020 opens on July 17, 2020. It will land at Mars' Jezero Crater on Feb. 18, 2021.

Related links:

Surveyor 3 lander: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/surveyor-3/in-depth/

Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC): https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/instruments/sherloc/

Apollo: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/index.html

Apollo 12: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/apollo-12

Apollo 14: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/missions/apollo14.html

Apollo 15: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/missions/apollo15.html

Apollo 16: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/missions/apollo16.html

Apollo 17: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/missions/apollo17.html

MOXIE: https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/instruments/moxie/

RIMFAX: https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/instruments/rimfax/

Mars 2020 Rover: http://www.nasa.gov/mars2020

Moon to Mars: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/moon-to-mars/

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/Alana Johnson/JPL/DC Agle.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

* This article was originally published here

Cairnbaan Prehistoric Rock Art, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 23.11.19.

Cairnbaan Prehistoric Rock Art, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 23.11.19.



* This article was originally published here

Sunset handmade canon hr26

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Channel: UFO Odessa  

Sunset on 27 May 2019 near Odessa city Ukraine. Закат с рук, Куяльник 27 мая 2019.

Video length: 4:55
Category: Entertainment
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Scientists at the Kavli Institute have identified hot gas around the most luminous quasar at an epoch when the universe was less than 4 billion years old.

Left panel: Residual visibilities showing the signal present only on very large scales. This indicates the presence of very extended hot gas. Right panel: Map of the quasar field showing the detection of a negative SZ 'bowl' (on smaller scales) to the southwest of the quasar. Hi-res image

Scientists at the Kavli Institute have identified hot gas around a galaxy which hosts one of the most luminous quasars in the Universe, seen at an epoch when the Universe was less than 4 billion years old (a redshift of 1.7). Quasars are supermassive black holes which are accreting matter at a high rate.

Models of galaxy evolution invoke negative feedback from quasars onto their host galaxies to explain the so-called 'quenching' of star formation in galaxies, which turns blue, star forming galaxies into red, passive ones. In one such feedback scenario, it is thought that the black hole at the centre of the galaxy injects thermal energy into the galaxy’s halo, reducing the accretion of fresh gas into the galaxy and eventually suppressing star formation (due to a lack of gas available inside the galaxy to form stars).

The newly-detected hot gas is distributed on very large scales (hundreds of kilo-parsecs) and can be distinguished from the galaxy's normal emission using interferometers such as the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) which are sensitive to a large range of spatial scales.

The hot gas has a low density and is therefore difficult to detect using standard techniques. A second approach, using the so-called Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, looks for imprints in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) caused by the hot gas. The team found indications of these imprints in the CMB around HE0515-4414, which is the most luminous quasar at redshift 1.7 (when the universe was less than 4 billion years old).

Refining the observational setup of ALMA in forthcoming observations will allow astronomers to probe the very extended hot gas with higher sensitivity. With these measurements, we will be able to carry out detailed tests of the effectiveness of halo heating in quenching star formation inside galaxies, and test different models of galaxy evolution.

This investigation was led by Simcha Brownson, a PhD student at the Kavli Institute, and the results were published in this week's issue of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society - https://academic.oup.com/mnras/advance-article/doi/10.1093/mnras/stz2945/5602606?guestAccessKey=a3ceea43-506b-4eeb-84f8-6e30ed8fda4f or https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.02088





* This article was originally published here

Cigar shaped UFO

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Channel: Terry's Theories  

Cigar shaped UFO spotted during a recording of a meteor shower in Wyoming on Aug. 8 2019.What do you believe we are looking at here. Please donate a dime nickel or a dollar it would be a wonderful help. https://www.paypal.com/paypalme2/Franklin1275?locale.x=en_US
Source video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5uiAx3Golhg

Video length: 1:56
Category: Science & Technology
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