воскресенье, 28 июля 2019 г.

They mixed up Huns with Tocharians

I don’t yet have the genomes from the recent Ning et al. paper on the Iron Age nomads from the Shirenzigou site in the eastern Tian Shan. But I do have most of the previously published data featured in the paper, including the Damgaard et al. 2018 Hun and Saka samples from the western Tian Shan.
After reading the Ning et al. paper between the lines and running a few analyses of my own, it’s clear to me that most of the supposedly Tocharian-related Shirenzigou individuals actually share a very close relationship with the Tian Shan Huns, and indeed may have been their ancestors.
For instance, Ning et al. found that a large part of the ancestry of the Shirenzigou ancients could be modeled with the Tian Shan Huns, which was an anachronistic approach because the former are older than the latter. They also found that Ulchi-related ancestry was a key part of the genetic structure of eight out of the ten Shirenzigou individuals, and this likewise appears to be an important part of the genetic structure of the Tian Shan Huns.
Note the strong statistical fits in the Global25/nMonte and qpAdm mixture models below, respectively, which characterize these Huns as a two-way mixture between the Ulchi and the earlier Tian Shan Saka. Also keep in mind that the Saka too have significant Ulchi-related ancestry.



Hun_Tian_Shan
Saka_Tian_Shan,92
Ulchi,8

distance%=1.2553
Hun_Tian_Shan
Saka_Tian_Shan 0.928±0.009
Ulchi 0.072±0.009

chisq 4.409
tail prob 0.992464
Full output



Moreover, the Shirenzigou males belong to Y-haplogroups Q1a and R1b (two instances of each), and they share the latter with one of the Tian Shan Huns. The Y-haplogroup assignments for the other Tian Shan Huns end at R and R1, but that’s almost certainly due to missing data.
On the other hand, two Tian Shan Sakas belong to Y-haplogroup R1a but none to R1b, which fits with the pattern from currently available ancient DNA that R1a was more common than R1b in Saka-related groups, such as the Scythians and Sarmatians (see here).
This is all very interesting, because the Huns replaced the Saka in the western Tian Shan, and, considering their R1b and excess Ulchi-related ancestry, very likely moved into the region from the direction of Shirenzigou. Indeed, in my opinion a strong argument can now be made that the Iron Age population from the Shirenzigou region was likely to have taken part in the formation of the Hunnic confederacy.
So where does that leave the theory presented by Ning et al. that the Shirenzigou ancients may have been closely related, and perhaps even ancestral, to the Tocharians, simply because they packed a lot of Yamnaya-related and possibly proto-Tocharian Afanasievo ancestry, and were living close to the Tarim Basin, where Tocharian languages were subsequently first attested?
I’m not sure, but I now find it difficult to reconcile this theory with the fact that they were closely related, and probably ancestral, to the Huns. As far as I’m aware, the Huns cannot be linked to the Tocharians in any meaningful way.
Of course it’s possible that different Afanasievo/Yamnaya-related groups were living in the Tarim Basin and surrounds, and, as some merged with new populations pushing into the region from the east and adopted non-Indo-European languages, others retained their Tocharian speech and eventually split into communities speaking Tocharian A, B and apparently also C (see here).
But this has to be demonstrated directly with ancient DNA from archeological sites where Tocharian languages were attested. Till then, I’ll keep thinking that Ning et al. wrote a paper about Tocharians that really should’ve been a paper about Huns.
Here’s a famous wall painting of Tocharian princes from the cave of the sixteen sword-bearers in the Tarim Basin, dated to 432–538 AD. They don’t look like guys with a lot of Ulchi-related admixture to me, but I might be wrong. Feel free to let me know what you think in the comments below.



See also…
Almost everything you ever wanted to know about the Xiaohe-Gumugou cemeteries
The mystery of the Sintashta people
Late PIE ground zero now obvious; location of PIE homeland still uncertain, but…

Source


Dragon Installed to Station’s Harmony Module for Cargo Operations


SpaceX — Dragon CRS-18 Mission patch.


July 28, 2019


Two days after its launch from Florida, the SpaceX Dragon cargo spacecraft was installed on the Earth-facing side of the International Space Station’s Harmony module at 12:01 p.m. EDT.


The 18th contracted commercial resupply mission from SpaceX (CRS-18) delivers more than 5,000 pounds of research, crew supplies and hardware to the orbiting laboratory.



Image above: July 27, 2019: International Space Station Configuration. Five spaceships are parked at the space station including the SpaceX Dragon cargo craft, Northrop Grumman’s Cygnus space freighter, the Progress 72 resupply ship and the Soyuz MS-12 and MS-13 crew ships. Image Credit: NASA.


A key item in Dragon’s unpressurized cargo section is International Docking Adapter-3 (IDA-3). Flight controllers at mission control in Houston will use the robotic arm to extract IDA-3 from Dragon and position it over Pressurized Mating Adapter-3, on the space-facing side of the Harmony module. NASA astronauts Nick Hague and  Andrew Morgan, who arrived at the station Saturday, July 20, will conduct a spacewalk in mid-August to install the docking port, connect power and data cables, and set up a high-definition camera on a boom arm.


Robotics flight control teams from NASA and the Canadian Space Agency will move the docking port into position remotely before the astronauts perform the final installation steps. IDA-3 and IDA-2, which was installed in the summer of 2016, provide a new standardized and automated docking system for future spacecraft, including upcoming commercial spacecraft that will transport astronauts through contracts with NASA.



SpaceX CRS-18 Dragon berthing

Video above: The SpaceX Dragon CRS-18 cargo spacecraft was berthed to the International Space Station’s Harmony module on 27 July 2019, at 16:01 UTC (12:01 EDT). The spacecraft was captured with the International Space Station’s robotic Canadarm2 by NASA astronauts Nick Hague and Christina Koch, on 27 July 2019, at 13:11 UTC (09:11 EDT). The CRS-18 Dragon spacecraft was launched by a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex 40 (SLC-40) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, on 25 July 2019 at 22:01 UTC (18:01 EDT). The CRS-18 Dragon spacecraft previously supported the CRS-6 mission in April 2015 and the CRS-13 mission in December 2017. Video Credits: NASA TV/SciNews.


Here’s some of the science arriving at station:


Effects of Microgravity on Microglia 3D Models


Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) – adult cells genetically programmed to return to an embryonic stem cell-like state – have the ability to develop into any cell type in the human body, potentially providing an unlimited source of human cells for therapeutic purposes. Space Tango-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells examines how specialized white blood cells derived from iPSCs of patients with Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis grow and move in 3D cultures, and any changes in gene expression that occur as a result of exposure to a microgravity environment. Results could lead to the development of potential therapies.


Mechanisms of Moss in Microgravity


Space Moss compares mosses grown aboard the space station with those grown on Earth to determine how microgravity affects its growth, development, and other characteristics. Tiny plants without roots, mosses need only a small area for growth, an advantage for their potential use in space and future bases on the Moon or Mars. This investigation also could yield information that aids in engineering other plants to grow better on the Moon and Mars, as well as on Earth.


After Dragon spends approximately one month attached to the space station, the spacecraft will return to Earth with cargo and research.


Related articles:


Dragon Captured With New Science Experiments
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/07/dragon-captured-with-new-science.html


Dragon Reaches Orbit, Astronauts Prepare for Saturday Capture
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/07/dragon-reaches-orbit-astronauts-prepare.html


SpaceX Falcon 9 Successfully Launches CRS-18
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/07/spacex-falcon-9-successfully-launches.html


Related links:


Canadarm2: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/tag/canadarm2/


Space Tango-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7976


Space Moss: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7892


International Docking Adapter-3: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/meet-the-international-docking-adapter


Harmony module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/harmony


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Image (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


They mixed up Tocharians with Huns

I don’t yet have the genomes from the recent Ning et al. paper on the Iron Age nomads from the Shirenzigou site in the eastern Tian Shan. But I do have most of the previously published data featured in the paper, including the Damgaard et al. 2018 Hun and Saka samples from the western Tian Shan.
After reading the Ning et al. paper between the lines and running a few analyses of my own, it’s clear to me that most of the supposedly Tocharian-related Shirenzigou individuals actually share a very close relationship with the Tian Shan Huns, and indeed may have been their direct ancestors.
For instance, Ning et al. found that a large part of the ancestry of the Shirenzigou ancients could be modeled with the Tian Shan Huns, which was an anachronistic approach because the former are older than the latter. They also found that Ulchi-related ancestry was a key part of the genetic structure of eight out of the ten Shirenzigou individuals, and this likewise appears to be an important part of the genetic structure of the Tian Shan Huns.
Note the strong statistical fits in the Global25/nMonte and qpAdm mixture models below, respectively, which characterize these Huns as a two-way mixture between the Ulchi and the earlier Tian Shan Saka.



Hun_Tian_Shan
Saka_Tian_Shan,88.2
Ulchi,11.8

distance%=1.5421
Hun_Tian_Shan
Saka_Tian_Shan 0.893±0.009
Ulchi 0.107±0.009

chisq 9.034
tail prob 0.82888
Full output



Moreover, the Shirenzigou males belong to Y-haplogroups Q1a and R1b (two instances of each), and they share the latter with one of the Tian Shan Huns. The Y-haplogroup assignments for the other Tian Shan Huns end at R and R1, but that’s almost certainly due to missing data.
On the other hand, two Tian Shan Sakas belong to Y-haplogroup R1a but none to R1b, which fits with the pattern from currently available ancient DNA that R1a was more common than R1b in Saka-related groups, such as the Scythians and Sarmatians (see here).
This is all very interesting, because the Huns replaced the Saka in the western Tian Shan, and, considering their R1b and excess Ulchi-like ancestry, very likely moved into the region from the direction of Shirenzigou. Indeed, in my opinion a strong argument can now be made that the Iron Age population from the Shirenzigou region were likely to have taken part in the formation of the Hunnic confederacy.
So where does that leave the theory presented by Ning et al. that the Shirenzigou ancients may have been closely related, and perhaps even ancestral, to the Tocharians, simply because they packed a lot of Yamnaya-related and possibly proto-Tocharian Afanasievo ancestry, and were living close to the Tarim Basin, where Tocharian languages were subsequently first attested?
I’m not sure, but I now find it difficult to reconcile this theory with the fact that they were closely related, and probably ancestral, to the Huns. As far as I’m aware, the Huns are more likely to have spoken a Turkic language, rather than anything Indo-European like Tocharian.
Of course it’s possible that different Afanasievo/Yamnaya-related groups were living in the Tarim Basin and surrounds, and, as some merged with new populations pushing into the region from the east and adopted non-Indo-European languages, others retained their Tocharian speech and eventually split into communities speaking Tocharian A, B and apparently also C (see here).
But this has to be demonstrated directly with ancient DNA from archeological sites in the Tarim Basin where Tocharian languages were attested. Till then, I’ll keep thinking that Ning et al. wrote a paper about Tocharians that really should’ve been a paper about Huns.
Here’s a famous wall painting of Tocharian princes from the cave of the sixteen sword-bearers in the Tarim Basin, dated to 432–538 AD. They don’t look like guys with a lot of Ulchi-related admixture to me, but I might be wrong. Feel free to let me know what you think in the comments below.



See also…
Almost everything you ever wanted to know about the Xiaohe-Gumugou cemeteries
The mystery of the Sintashta people
Late PIE ground zero now obvious; location of PIE homeland still uncertain, but…

Source


2019 July 28 The North America Nebula in Infrared Image Credit…


2019 July 28


The North America Nebula in Infrared
Image Credit & Copyright: NASA, JPL-Caltech, L. Rebull (SSC, Caltech); Optical Rollover: DSS, D. De Martin


Explanation: The North America Nebula can do what most North Americans cannot – form stars. Precisely where in the nebula these stars are forming has been mostly obscured by some of the nebula’s thick dust that is opaque to visible light. However, a view of the North America Nebula in infrared light by the orbiting Spitzer Space Telescope has peered through much of the dust and uncovered thousands of newly formed stars. Rolling your cursor over the above scientifically-colored infrared image will bring up a corresponding optical image of the same region for comparison. The infrared image neatly captures young stars in many stages of formation, from being imbedded in dense knots of gas and dust, to being surrounded by disks and emitted jets, to being clear of their birth cocoons. The North America Nebula (NGC 7000) spans about 50 light years and lies about 1,500 light years away toward the constellation of the Swan (Cygnus). Still, of all the stars known in the North America Nebula, which massive stars emit the energetic light that gives the ionized red glow is still debated.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190728.html


Flawless. Gorgeous. Stellar. You probably think this post is…


Flawless. Gorgeous. Stellar. 


You probably think this post is about you. Well, it could be. 


In this image taken by our Hubble Space Telescope, we see a spiral galaxy with arms that widen as they whirl outward from its bright core, slowly fading into the emptiness of space. Click here to learn more about this beautiful galaxy that resides 70 million light-years away. 


Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, L. Ho


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


Long March-2C launches new Yaogan-30 satellites


CASC — China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation logo.


July 27, 2019



Image above: A Long March 2C rocket lifted off at 0357 GMT Friday (11:57 p.m. EDT Thursday) with three Yaogan 30 satellites for the Chinese military. The grid fins are visible on the gray section of the rocket at the top of the first stage. Image Credit: Xinhua.


A Chinese Long March 2C rocket launches with three Yaogan 30-05 surveillance satellites for the Chinese military.



Long March-2C launches new Yaogan-30 satellites

A Long March-2C launch vehicle launched a new group of Yaogan-30 remote sensing satellites from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Sichuan Province, southwest China, on 26 July 2019, at 03:57 UTC (11:57 local time). According to official sources, the satellites have entered the planned orbits, and will be used for electromagnetic environment detection and related technological tests.



The three satellites confirmed as deployed – via CCTV, China

Tracking data published by the U.S. military indicated the Long March 2C rocket achieved a 370-mile-high (600-kilometer) orbit with an inclination of 35 degrees to the equator. The orbit matches that of four previous triplets of Yaogan 30 satellites in late 2017 and early 2018, which also flew into space aboard Long March 2C rockets from Xichang.



Yaogan-30 satellite. Image Credit: Günter Space Page

The Yaogan series of satellites are believed to be operated by the Chinese military for intelligence-gathering purposes.


Some analysts suggested the 12 Yaogan 30-01, 30-02, 30-03 and 30-04 satellites launched in 2017 and 2018 could be testing new electronic eavesdropping equipment or helping the Chinese military track U.S. and other foreign naval deployments.


China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC): http://english.spacechina.com/n16421/index.html


China National Space Administration (CNSA): http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/


Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: Credits: China Central Television (CCTV)/SciNews/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Image of the Week — July 29, 2019CIL:12656 -…


Image of the Week — July 29, 2019


CIL:12656 — http://cellimagelibrary.org/images/12656


Description: Scanning EM of a 24 hr (prim-5) Zebrafish embryo, fractured to reveal the neural tube, notochord and anterior faces of the myotomes. Specimens were chemically fixed critically point dried, and sputter coated with gold/palladium. This image is part of a series taken by Bryan Crawford while he was at the University of Washington. They are part of the Zebrafish–The Living Laboratory CD made available by Mark Cooper and described in Methods in Cell Biology Volume 77, 2004, Pages 439-457.


Authors: Bryan Crawford


Licensing: Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike: This image is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share Alike License.


Archive link


Hayabusa2 second touchdown on asteroid Ryugu


JAXA — Hayabusa2 Mission patch.


July 27, 2019


On July 11, the Hayabusa2 spacecraft performed a 2nd touchdown on the surface of asteroid Ryugu. The touchdown occurred at 10:06 JST at the onboard time and was successful. Below we show images taken before and after the touchdown. As this is a quick bulletin, more detailed information will be given in the future.



Hayabusa2’s second touchdown on asteroid Ryugu

Video above:JAXA’s Asteroid Explorer “Hayabusa2” performed a second touchdown to collect a sample from asteroid Ryugu on 11 July 2019. The video was created from images captured with Hayabusa2’s CAM-H at intervals between 0.5s and 5s and played back at 10x speed.
The first image was taken at an altitude of about 8.5m and the last is from an altitude of about 150m. Video Credits: JAXA, University of Tokyo, Kochi University, Rikkyo University, Nagoya University, Chiba Institute of Technology, Meiji University, Aizu University, AIST/SciNews.


Images taken with the Optical Navigation Camera – Wide angle (ONC-W1)


Immediately after touchdown, we captured images with the ONC-W1. Here are two bulletin images from this camera.



Image take on July 11 2019 at 10:06:32 JST (onboard time) with the ONC-W1.
(Image credit ※: JAXA, University of Tokyo, Kochi University, Rikkyo University, Nagoya University, Chiba Institute of Technology, Meiji University, University of Aizu and AIST.)



This image was taken on July 11 2019 at 10:08:53 JST (onboard time) with the ONC-W1.
(Image credit ※: JAXA, University of Tokyo, Kochi University, Rikkyo University, Nagoya University, Chiba Institute of Technology, Meiji University, University of Aizu and AIST.)


Images from the Small Monitor Camera (CAM-H)


CAM-H operated before and after touchdown, capturing images 4 seconds before touchdown, the moment of touchdown and 4 seconds after touchdown. (CAM-H is the camera that was developed and installed on Hayabusa2 through public donations. The field of view is downwards beside the sampler horn.)



Image taken 4 seconds before touchdown with CAM-H (image credit: JAXA).



Image taken 4 seconds after touchdown with CAM-H (image credit: JAXA).


Cooperation: Kimura lab., Tokyo University of Science (The technology for CAM-H is the result of previous collaborative research between JAXA and the Tokyo University of Science.)


Related links:


Hayabusa2 Project: http://www.hayabusa2.jaxa.jp/en/


JAXA: https://global.jaxa.jp/


Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: JAXA.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Underwater glacial melting is occurring at higher rates than…


Underwater glacial melting is occurring at higher rates than modeling predicts http://www.geologypage.com/2019/07/underwater-glacial-melting-is-occurring-at-higher-rates-than-modeling-predicts.html


Research could protect cities in active earthquake zones…


Research could protect cities in active earthquake zones http://www.geologypage.com/2019/07/research-could-protect-cities-in-active-earthquake-zones.html


Careful analysis of volcano’s plumbing system may give tips on…


Careful analysis of volcano’s plumbing system may give tips on pending eruptions http://www.geologypage.com/2019/07/careful-analysis-of-volcanos-plumbing-system-may-give-tips-on-pending-eruptions.html


World’s smallest fossil monkey found in Amazon jungle…


World’s smallest fossil monkey found in Amazon jungle http://www.geologypage.com/2019/07/worlds-smallest-fossil-monkey-found-in-amazon-jungle.html


Men-an-Tol Prehistoric Stone Setting, Penzance, Cornwall, 23.7.19.

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The underground spaces (fogou and chambers) of Carn Euny Iron Age Settlement, Penzance,...

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