пятница, 26 июля 2019 г.

Neolithic burials, Iron Age site found in Germany’s North Rhine-Westphalia

Archaeologists of the Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe (LWL) have been excavating in Heek-Nienborg (Borken district in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) due to the expansion of an industrial estate. They not only uncovered an Iron Age settlement, but also unexpectedly discovered several graves from the Neolithic period.

Neolithic burials, Iron Age site found in Germany's North Rhine-Westphalia
The archaeologists surprisingly found several graves from the Neolithic period, which were provided
with numerous grave goods [Credit: LWL/I. Pepper]

Evidently, more than 5,000 years ago, people lived in the vicinity of today’s Heek. At least they buried their relatives here. Two dozen graves from the time of the so-called funnel beaker culture (3,400 — 2,850 BC) were found by LWL experts during their excavations.

«The discovery of such a cemetery is a stroke of luck,» says Dr. Bernhard Stapel of the LWL Archaeology for Westphalia. «It shows that many unknown testimonies of our ancestors are still hidden in the ground. The graves contained several grave goods, including richly decorated ceramic vessels of various shapes.»

The archaeologists were also able to recover axes and arrowheads made of flintstone. However, no bones have survived from the burials themselves.

«The soil here is very sandy,» explains LWL archaeologist and excavation director Dr. Ingo Pfeffer. «The sand extracts the calcium from the bones, causing them to dissolve more quickly. Therefore, we only have the grave goods and thus an insight into this long past culture. We can get a picture of life and death 5,000 years ago,» Pfeffer continues.

Neolithic burials, Iron Age site found in Germany's North Rhine-Westphalia
Since the ceramic vessels in the graves are very unstable, they are recovered
on site in a block [Credit: LWL/I. Pepper]

The ceramic vessels in particular, however, are very fragile. The damp sandy soil has also severely affected them. «That’s why we had to recover the vessels on site in a block,» explains conservationist Lina Pak. «In this process, the finds are carefully uncovered over a wide area and plastered with the surrounding soil. In this way it is possible to recover the objects as a whole and bring them to the restoration workshop.»

«There we can then remove the unstable ceramic from the block under controlled conditions and stabilize it,» says Pak. A total of ten such block excavations were carried out on the Heek-Nienborg excavation site. Pak has only just begun working on the blocks. «This will take some time. Such meticulous work takes a lot of time and patience.»

The archaeologists had originally only expected that they would investigate an Iron Age settlement. In 2016 and 2017, the LWL archaeologists had carried out several trial excavations on the area concerned. «We discovered traces of a settlement thousands of years old,» Pfeffer explains. Traces include the layouts of residential buildings or warehouses as well as waste pits. «We have now been able to investigate these first indications and document an entire settlement.»

On a total area of 2.5 hectares, the scientists uncovered traces of at least three Iron Age farmsteads. In addition, they found numerous pottery fragments, which allow an exact dating.

Neolithic burials, Iron Age site found in Germany's North Rhine-Westphalia
The first vessel has already been restored [Credit: LWL/L. Pak]

«As we had already suspected, the settlement dates from the Iron Age, i.e. from around 800 BC to the birth of Christ,» explains Stapel. «We were thus able to gain important insights into the settlement of the area around the Spelt river.»

The archaeologists’ excavations have now been completed. » We must now begin the follow-up work on the excavation,» says Pfeffer. «The vessels from the block excavations should also provide us with some exciting information about the Neolithic period here on site.

Source: Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe (LWL) [trsl. TANN, July 22, 2019]



Iron Age settlement found in Cambridgeshire

Earlier this year, OA East completed a seven-month excavation on the outskirts of Warboys, Cambridgeshire. This 4-hectare site produced late Iron Age, Roman and Saxon remains and hosted a team of volunteers.

Iron Age settlement found in Cambridgeshire
The experts were helped by volunteers from the Warboys Archaeology Group
[Credit: Oxford Archaeology East]

The excavation followed an evaluation of the site which was undertaken by OA East in May 2018. From this, it was suspected that were extensive Roman remains at the site, and the recovery of some characteristic pieces of worked antler and pottery hinted at some post-Roman activity.
Returning for the main excavation later that year, it soon became clear that the site was very rich in later prehistoric and Roman archaeology. These remains included a substantial late Iron Age settlement, containing several roundhouses which, unsurprisingly, had entrances that faced towards the east, therefore, conforming with the broader national trend. Three crouched inhumation burials were also discovered, with the absence of grave goods, and these perhaps form the corporeal remains of those who lived in the settlement.

Iron Age settlement found in Cambridgeshire
Six skeletons were found at the site [Credit: Oxford Archaeology East]

Following the Roman conquest, it appears that the British people living at this settlement were early adopters of Roman pottery. It also seems that there was a reorganisation of the settlement area, with the establishment of a large boundary ditch and the creation of rectangular plots across the, by then abandoned, late Iron Age houses.
Two trackways appear to converge to the west of the excavation area, which was perhaps the centre of the settlement, which now lies beneath the local football club. The more substantial of these trackways had roadside ditches, which were maintained throughout the Roman period, and it therefore seems to represent the principal route in and out of the settlement. It was also clear that throughout the Roman period, this settlement gradually expanded along the line of this arterial route to eventually form a characteristic ‘ladder enclosure’.

Iron Age settlement found in Cambridgeshire
Archaeologists believe the Romans deliberately buried this horse as an offering to the gods
[Credit: Oxford Archaeology East]

As is often the case, the Roman settlement contained abundant evidence for rural activities and industry in the form of kilns, slag, and crucible fragments, copious amounts of pottery wasters, and a very large corn dryer with a 4.6m diameter. Possible ‘craft areas’ defined by cobble surfaces also lay adjacent to the main trackway.
In addition, outside the main occupation area, there was evidence for burial, in the form of both cremations and inhumations, the latter of which comprised six north/south orientated skeletons. It doesn’t end there, however, as we also seem to have stumbled upon a shrine, comprising a circular structure and an associated rectangular enclosure, within which were three neo-natal burials. Other evidence for possible ‘ritual’ activity included the deliberate deposition of cattle skulls within individual pits and ditch terminals.

Iron Age settlement found in Cambridgeshire
A later Roman or early Saxon child was found buried with a bead necklace and bone-carved
hairpin in the shape of an axe [Credit: Oxford Archaeology East]

Interestingly, there was some evidence for later Roman or even early post-Roman activity, as two large rectangular posthole structures were present, which post-dated the main Roman trackway. Three extended east/west-aligned adult inhumations and an accompanying juvenile burial might also date to this period and were buried with a bead necklace and a bone-carved hairpin in the shape of an axe.
However, it is worth noting that activity dating to the fifth and sixth centuries is very rare and, whilst the evaluation produced possible fifth-century pottery, we’ll have to wait to see what the finds specialists come up with regarding the possible continuation of occupation into this period.

Iron Age settlement found in Cambridgeshire
Roman jug found at the site [Credit: Oxford Archaeology East]

Whilst there was no evidence for Saxon structures dating to sixth to seventh centuries, it seems likely that the site was associated with industry or craft production during this period, on the basis of recovered artefacts.

This material included pottery, beads, worked antler, and metalworking residues, much of which came from the upper fills of Roman features. However, after the seventh century, virtually all activity at the site ended and the land was given over to agriculture.

Source: Oxford Archaeology [July 23, 2019]



Finds from Celtic grave found in Zurich analyzed

The tree coffin burial of a Celtic woman, which was discovered in March 2017 during construction work on the Kern school building, was examined by the Archaeology City of Zurich in an interdisciplinary evaluation. The bones and the unusual burial objects were carefully documented, salvaged, preserved and evaluated. Thus the grave can be assigned to the Late Iron Age around 200 BC. Of the artefacts that have been found, a string of glass beads in particular is unique in its form: it is fastened between two fibulae (clasps) and fitted with precious glass and amber beads.

Finds from Celtic grave found in Zurich analyzed
Reconstruction of the grave with tree coffin [Credit: Amt für Städtebau, City of Zurich]

The now completed interdisciplinary evaluation of the archaeology department of the city of Zurich paints a fairly accurate picture of the deceased. The examination of the skeleton and especially the teeth shows, among other things, that she died at the age of about 40, did little physical work during her lifetime and probably ate a relatively large amount of starchy or sweetened food.

Finds from Celtic grave found in Zurich analyzed
Excavation of a Celtic grave at the Kernschulhaus 2017 [Credit: Office for Urban
Development, City of Zurich]

A specialist determined the order of the layers of clothing on the basis of the textile, fur and leather remains preserved in the tomb. Thus the woman probably wore a dress made of fine sheep’s wool, over it another woollen cloth and a coat made of sheepskin.

Finds from Celtic grave found in Zurich analyzed
Block recovery of the pectoral jewellery with glass beads and fibulae
[Credit: Martin Bachmann, Kantonsarchäologie Zürich]

An isotope analysis also allows statements to be made about the woman’s way of life. She grew up in the region of the present Canton of Zurich, presumably in the Limmat Valley, and was therefore also buried in her region of origin.

Finds from Celtic grave found in Zurich analyzed
Exposed grave with jewellery and grave goods [Credit: Office for Urban
Development, City of Zurich]

The comprehensive investigations into the Celtic woman’s clothing, jewellery and living conditions enabled the archaeologists to create a detailed picture of her life. What could not be attributed directly to archaeological evidence from the grave was derived from findings from other investigations.

Finds from Celtic grave found in Zurich analyzed
Portraits of the Celts from Kernstrasse in Zurich [Credit: Office for Urban
Development, City of Zurich]

The Celtic man, whose grave with sword, shield and lance had already been discovered in 1903 during the construction of the Kern Gymnasium, also had his lifestyle assessed according to the current state of knowledge. His complete warrior equipment also shows him as a high-ranking individual. Since he had also been buried in the same decades as the woman, it is quite possible that the two knew each other.

Finds from Celtic grave found in Zurich analyzed
Reconstruction of the pectoral jewellery with glass beads and fibulae
[Credit: Office for Urban Development, City of Zurich]

The newly discovered grave complements today’s picture of Celtic settlement history in the Zurich area. For a long time, Zurich was regarded as a Roman foundation. Archaeological excavations and evaluations in recent years, however, have provided evidence of a Celtic urban settlement on the Lindenhof Hill dating back to the first half of the 1st century BC, at least half a century before the arrival of the Romans.

Finds from Celtic grave found in Zurich analyzed
Restored objects (belt necklace, bracelet, fibulae, glass and amber beads)
[Credit: Martin Bachmann, Kantonsarchäologie Zürich]

This early city then merged seamlessly into the Roman «Turicum». The two graves at the Kern-Schulhaus are about 100 years older than this first settlement on the Lindenhof and probably belonged to one of several smaller settlements around Zurich, probably in Sihlfeld, which has not yet been discovered.

Source: Office for Urban Development, City of Zurich [trsl. by TANN, July 23, 2019]



Royalty theory to ‘brutally-killed’ Rosemarkie Man

A Pictish man who was «brutally killed» 1,400 years ago could have been royalty, say researchers. Archaeologists found the man’s skeleton buried in a recess of a cave at Rosemarkie in the Black Isle.

Royalty theory to 'brutally-killed' Rosemarkie Man
The Pictish man’s skeleton was discovered during a cave excavation in the Black Isle
[Credit: RoseMarkie Caves Project]

In 2017, scientists made a facial reconstruction of the man during a forensic examination of his remains, which found he had severe injuries. New analysis has shown he had a high-protein diet suggesting he ate foods enjoyed by people of high status.
The Pict was discovered in a cross-legged position with stones weighing down his limbs while his head had been battered multiple times. Analysis carried out on behalf of the Rosemarkie Caves Project now suggests he was a prominent member of the community, such as royalty or a chieftain. The findings show he had a high-protein diet, which researchers have few other examples of during that period.

Royalty theory to 'brutally-killed' Rosemarkie Man
A facial reconstruction of Rosemarkie Man was made in 2017
[Credit: Dundee University]

Simon Gunn, founder of the project, said: «He was a big, strong fella — built like a rugby player — very heavily built above the waist. It’s rather peculiar that he had a very high-protein diet throughout his life, to the extent that it’s as if he had been eating nothing but suckling pigs. He was a bit special, that could be royalty or a chieftain. Obviously he had a rather brutal death, but he was buried quite carefully in that cave.»
Mr Gunn added he was only aware of two examples of people in Scotland around that time having a similar diet. A bone sample sent for radiocarbon dating indicates that he died sometime between 430 and 630.

Royalty theory to 'brutally-killed' Rosemarkie Man
The cave in the Black Isle, Ross-shire where a pictish man was found
[Credit: Dundee University]

The man, known to archaeologists as Rosemarkie Man, stood at 5ft 6ins and was aged about 30 at the time of his death. His skeleton had no injuries other than those inflicted during his death. This suggests he was not a warrior or engaged in arduous labour.

Mr Gunn also said the cave burial could have been a way to place his body at an «entrance to the underworld» as part of a ritual.

Forensic anthropologist Dame Sue Black previously led a University of Dundee team in an examination of his injuries. The team concluded he suffered a brutal death.

Source: BBC News Website [July 24, 2019]



Large Hellenistic sanctuary complex unearthed in Cyprus

The Department of Antiquities of the Ministry of Transport, Communications and Works has announced the completion of the 2019 excavation season at the location of Pachyammos, Geroskipou (Plot 223) under the direction of Archaeological Officer Dr Eustathios Raptou, for the purposes of a development project for the construction of a hotel unit.

Large Hellenistic sanctuary complex unearthed in Cyprus
View of the ‘peristyle in antis’ temple [Credit: Dept. of Antiquities,
Republic of Cyprus]

Investigations in the area began in 2015, initially with small trial trenches, with the work accelerating during in the past few months. Following the completion of the last season (June 2019), it has with relative certainty become clear that the remains uncovered belong to a large sanctuary complex of the Hellenistic period, which unfortunately has been seriously disturbed through the centuries, after its abandonment.
Although mostly only the foundations of the buildings have been preserved to date, it has become clear from the architectural remains that the sanctuary complex comprises a Greek style temple ‘peristyle in antis’ surrounded by a ‘peribolos’ wall, or an enclosure.  The temple occupies the southeastern side of the complex.  On its northeastern side, there was a large courtyard or an atrium, surrounded by long stoas, possibly provided with colonnades and a series of rooms. Investigations have up to now revealed only the eastern side (almost in its entirety) and parts of the northern and western sides, where investigations need to be continued further.

Large Hellenistic sanctuary complex unearthed in Cyprus
The series of rooms from northwest [Credit: Dept. of Antiquities,
Republic of Cyprus]

In the northwestern corner of the courtyard, the foundation of a massive structure, almost square in plan, has been uncovered made from unworked stones. It is believed that this structure is the foundation of a cistern, since a partially preserved aqueduct leads into it.  The aqueduct consists of a long wall with debris from stone channels and clay water pipes. It runs across the plot under investigation in a northeasterly to southwesterly direction and has been uncovered over a distance of tens of meters. Along its course, to the north of the courtyard, a second cistern foundation has been revealed, which partly preserves the hydraulic plaster that coated the bottom of the cistern. Clay pipes extend from this structure along both sides of the cistern, running parallel to the aqueduct.
The organization of the space and the typology of the buildings refer to a Greek type sanctuary built during the Ptolemaic period, probably on the remains of a preexisting local sanctuary from which slight evidence has come to light during the excavation. The discovery of important hydraulic installations indicates an increased need for and extensive use of large quantities of water, perhaps suggesting the existence of groves and gardens related to the cults in antiquity.

Large Hellenistic sanctuary complex unearthed in Cyprus
The stone foundation of a cistern. The walls of the aqueduct are visible at the ends
[Credit: Dept. of Antiquities, Republic of Cyprus]

The above views are preliminary, and only the continuation of investigations and study of the finds will allow us to draw firm conclusions concerning this important archaeological discovery.

In recent consultation with the Archbishop, it was decided that the uncovered archaeological site should be preserved as a unit within its natural environment together with the coastal protection zone, at a safe distance from the hotel and within a green zone. The Department of Antiquities will continue the excavations to reveal the archaeological remains.

It has also been decided that any architectural plans of the development project should be modified in close cooperation with the Department of Antiquities and must be adapted to the archaeological finds so as to guarantee the unity of the archaeological site and its harmonious coexistence with the project.

Finally, the archaeological site will be made accessible to the public and its protection will be ensured, by not permitting extensions or additions of new buildings to the project in the future.

Source: Department of Antiquities, Republic of Cyprus [July 24, 2019]



Dragon Reaches Orbit, Astronauts Prepare for Saturday Capture

ISS — Expedition 60 Mission patch.

July 26, 2019

Dragon’s solar arrays have deployed and the spacecraft is safely in orbit following a launch on the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket at 6:01 p.m. EDT from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, carrying more than 5,000 pounds of research, hardware and supplies to the International Space Station. Dragon is scheduled to arrive at the orbiting laboratory Saturday, July 27.

Image above: NASA astronaut Christina Koch trains on the robotics workstation inside the cupola to capture the SpaceX Dragon cargo craft. Image Credit: NASA.

NASA astronauts Nick Hague will grapple Dragon with Christina Koch acting as a backup. NASA’s Andrew Morgan will assist the duo by monitoring telemetry during Dragon’s approach. The station crew will monitor Dragon vehicle functions during rendezvous. After Dragon capture, ground commands will be sent from mission control in Houston for the station’s arm to rotate and install it on the bottom of the station’s Harmony module.

Image above: Mission Controllers in Houston watch the SpaceX Dragon cargo craft launch atop the Falcon 9 rocket from Florida on its way to the space station. Image Credit: NASA.

Mission coverage is as follows:

— 8:30 a.m. – Dragon rendezvous, grapple and berthing. Capture is scheduled for approximately 10 a.m.

— 12 p.m. – Dragon installation to the nadir port of the Harmony module of the station

This delivery, SpaceX’s 18th cargo flight to the space station under NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services contract, will support dozens of new and existing investigations. NASA’s research and development work aboard the space station contributes to the agency’s deep space exploration plans, including returning astronauts to the Moon’s surface in five years.

International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: NASA

Highlights of space station research that will be facilitated by Dragon spacecraft’s arrival are:

— The BioFabrication Facility is designed to print organ-like tissues in microgravity, acting as a stepping- stone in a long-term plan to manufacture whole human organs in space using refined biological 3D printing techniques:

— A Goodyear Tire investigation is pushing the limits of silica fillers for tire applications. A better understanding of silica morphology and the relationship between silica structure and its properties could improve the silica design process, silica rubber formulation, and tire manufacturing and performance on the ground:

— The Space Tango – Induced Stem Cells investigation will take cells from patients with Parkinson’s disease and Multiple Sclerosis to be cultured on the space station to examine cell to cell interactions that occur in neurodegenerative disease:

— The Cell Science-02 investigation is comparing the ability of two different bone inducing growth factors, one novel and one currently used in bone healing therapies, to stimulate growth, differentiation and related cellular functions of osteoblast in the microgravity environment:

Related article:

SpaceX Falcon 9 Successfully Launches CRS-18

Related links:

Commercial Resupply Services: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/launch/index.html

Expedition 60: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition60/index.html

NASA TV: https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/#public and https://www.nasa.gov/nasalive

SpaceX: https://www.nasa.gov/spacex

Docking Adapter-3 (IDA-3): https://www.nasa.gov/feature/meet-the-international-docking-adapter

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link

‘Spinster’s Rock’ Prehistoric Portal Dolmen, Cornwall, 25.7.19.

‘Spinster’s Rock’ Prehistoric Portal Dolmen, Cornwall, 25.7.19.

Source link

‘Zennor Quoit’ Prehistoric Dolmen, Zennor, Cornwall, 23.7.19.A first visit...

‘Zennor Quoit’ Prehistoric Dolmen, Zennor, Cornwall, 23.7.19.

A first visit for me and quite a surprise.

Perhaps one of the least visited of the Cornwall Prehistoric Quoits, Zennor is a monster and largely intact. At some point in the last few hundred years there was an attempt at turning it into a cattle hut and hence the strange arrangement of standing stones where the forecourt should be. The capstone is massive and it’s an impressive sight up close. Worth the visit!

Source link


https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...