воскресенье, 21 июля 2019 г.

Image of the Week — July 22, 2019CIL:39009 -…


Image of the Week — July 22, 2019


CIL:39009 — http://cellimagelibrary.org/images/39009


Description: The developing wing bud of a four day chick embryo showing the pattern of spinal nerves growing into it. The nerves are made visible by staining a specific neural protein (3AIO monoclonal antibody, which has a neurofilament associated antigen). The wing bud itself is about 1 mm wide.


Authors: M. Cohn


Licensing: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 UK)


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Contacts Meet Corneas For those without 20/20 vision, contact…


Contacts Meet Corneas


For those without 20/20 vision, contact lenses offer greater freedom than glasses. But there is a downside, the risk of infection as harmful bacteria, such as Enterobacteriaceae, are delivered via the lenses into the eye. These bacteria cause infection by first penetrating through the surface of the cornea, the epithelium, to reach its underlying tissue or stroma. Researchers investigate how by infecting human corneal epithelial cells in a dish with the Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia marcescens. Using a variety of techniques, including scanning electron microscopy of the infected corneal epithelial cells (pictured), they found S. marcescens (purple) caused shape changes, such as spherical blebs, in line with the rapid cell death they also detected. Mutating genes in S. marcescens to impair its secretion of bacterial toxins called cytolysins uncovered a series of proteins required to bring about corneal damage. With this model, researchers can now dig deeper into the pathology of these infections.


Written by Lux Fatimathas



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2019 July 21 Moonquakes Surprisingly Common Image Credit: NASA,…


2019 July 21


Moonquakes Surprisingly Common
Image Credit: NASA, Apollo 11 Crew


Explanation: Why are there so many moonquakes? Analyses of seismometers left on the moon by the Apollo moon landings reveals a surprising number of moonquakes occurring within 100 kilometers of the surface. In fact, 62 moonquakes were detected in data recorded between 1972 and 1977. Many of these moonquakes are not only strong enough to move furniture in a lunar apartment, but the stiff rock of the moon continues to vibrate for many minutes, significantly longer than the softer rock earthquakes on Earth. The cause of the moonquakes remains unknown, but a leading hypothesis is the collapse of underground faults. Regardless of the source, future moon dwellings need to be built to withstand the frequent shakings. Pictured here 50 years ago today, Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin stands beside a recently deployed lunar seismometer, looking back toward the lunar landing module.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190721.html


Earth Blue, Rocket Red and Lunar Silver: A New Identity for Artemis Program to the Moon


NASA — ARTEMIS Program logo.


July 20, 2019


NASA has led the charge in space exploration for 60 years, and as we mark the 50th anniversary of the first Moon landing, the agency is preparing for its next giant leap with the Artemis program.



Image above: Artemis will light our way to Mars. The new Artemis identity draws bold inspiration from the Apollo program and forges its own path, showing how it will pursue lunar exploration like never before and pave the way to Mars. Image Credit: NASA.


Artemis, named after the twin sister of Apollo who is also the Goddess of the Moon and the hunt, encompasses all of our efforts to return humans to the Moon – which will prepare us and propel us on to Mars. Through the Artemis program, we will see the first woman and the next man walk on the surface of the Moon. As the “torch bringer,” literally and figuratively, Artemis will light our way to Mars.


With this in mind, NASA is unveiling the new Artemis program identity, a bold look that embodies the determination of the men and women who will carry our missions forward. They will explore regions of the Moon never visited before, unlock mysteries of the Universe and test the technology that will extend the bounds of humanity farther into the Solar System.


This new identity draws inspiration from the Apollo program logo and mission patch. Using an “A” as the primary visual and a trajectory from Earth to the Moon, we honor all that the Apollo program achieved. However, through Artemis we will forge our own path, pursue lunar exploration like never before, and pave the way to Mars.



With Earth Blue, Rocket Red and Lunar Silver for colors, every part of the identity has meaning:


— THE A: The A symbolizes an arrowhead from Artemis’ quiver and represents launch.


— TIP OF THE A: The tip of the A of Artemis points beyond the Moon and signifies that our efforts at the Moon are not the conclusion, but rather the preparation for all that lies beyond.


— EARTH CRESCENT: The crescent of the Earth at the bottom shows missions from humanity’s perspective. From Earth we go. Back to Earth all that we learn and develop will return. This crescent also visualizes Artemis’ bow as the source from which all energy and effort is sent.


— TRAJECTORY: The trajectory moves from left to right through the crossbar of the “A” opposite that of Apollo. Thus highlighting the distinct differences in our return to the Moon. The trajectory is red to symbolize our path to Mars.


— MOON: The Moon is our next destination and a stepping stone for Mars. It is the focus of all Artemis efforts.


Download: Artemis Program identity: https://images.nasa.gov/details-2560x1440_Artemis-Mark-Full-Color.html


We go now to the Moon, not as a destination, but as a proving ground for all the technology, science, and human exploration efforts that will be critical for missions to Mars. On the lunar surface we will pursue water ice and other natural resources that will further enable deep space travel. From the Moon, humanity will take the next giant leap to Mars.


Related links:


Artemis: https://www.nasa.gov/subject/16957/artemis


Moon to Mars: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/moon-to-mars/


Image (mentioned), Animation (NASA), Text, Credits: NASA/Jason Townsend.


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Soyuz Spaceship Docks, Station Crew Expanding to Six


ROSCOSMOS — Soyuz MS-13 Mission patch.


July 20, 2019


The Soyuz spacecraft carrying NASA astronaut Andrew Morgan, Luca Parmitano of ESA (European Space Agency) and Alexander Skvortsov of the Russian space agency Roscosmos docked to the International Space Station at 6:48 p.m. EDT while both spacecraft were flying about 250 miles over southern Russian, northeast of the Black Sea.



Image above: July 20, 2019: International Space Station Configuration. Four spaceships are docked at the space station including Northrop Grumman’s Cygnus space freighter and Russia’s Progress 72 resupply ship and the Soyuz MS-12 and MS-13 crew ships. Image Credit: NASA.


Aboard the space station, NASA astronauts Nick Hague, Christina Koch and Expedition 60 Commander Alexey Ovchinin of Roscosmos will welcome the new crew members when the hatches between the two spacecraft are opened following standard pressurization and leak checks.



Soyuz MS 13 docking

The hatch opening targeted for 8:50 p.m. and welcome ceremony to follow live on NASA TV and the agency’s website beginning at 8 p.m.


Hatches Open, Expedition 60 Crew at Full Staff


NASA astronaut Andrew Morgan, Luca Parmitano of ESA (European Space Agency) and Alexander Skvortsov of the Russian space agency Roscosmos joined Expedition 60 Commander Alexey Ovchinin of Roscosmos and NASA astronauts Nick Hague and Christina Koch aboard the International Space Station when the hatches between the Soyuz spacecraft and the orbiting laboratory officially opened at 9:04 p.m. EDT.



Soyuz MS-13 hatch opening

The arrival restores the station’s crew complement to six. The Expedition 60 crew will spend more than six months conducting about 250 science investigations in fields such as biology, Earth science, human research, physical sciences, and technology development. Work on the unique microgravity laboratory advances scientific knowledge and demonstrates new technologies, making research breakthroughs that will enable long-duration human and robotic exploration of the Moon and Mars.


One of those key technology developments will be the arrival and installation of the second docking port for commercial crew spacecraft – SpaceX’s Crew Dragon and Boeing’s Starliner. International Docking Adapter-3 (IDA-3) is set to launch to the station on SpaceX Dragon’s 18th commercial resupply services mission.



Image above: The expanded six-member Expedition 60 crew gathers in the Zvezda service module for a crew greeting ceremony with family, friends and mission officials on the ground. In the front row from left, are Flight Engineers Luca Parmitano, Alexander Skvortsov and Andrew Morgan. In the back are Flight Engineer Nick Hague, Commander Alexey Ovchinin and Flight ENgineer Christina Koch. Image Credit: NASA TV.


Some of the investigations they will conduct are sponsored by the U.S. National Laboratory on the space station, which Congress designated in 2005 to maximize its use for improving quality of life on Earth. Highlights of upcoming investigations the crew will facilitate on the orbiting laboratory in the unique microgravity environment include the growth of moss aboard the station, a platform to attempt successful printing of biological tissues and bio-mining in space.


Parmitano and Skvortsov are scheduled to remain aboard the station with Koch until February 2020, leaving Morgan on station for an extended stay. Hague and Ovchinin are set to return to Earth on Oct. 3.


Related links:


Expedition 60: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition60/index.html


NASA Television: http://www.nasa.gov/live


Moon and Mars: https://www.nasa.gov/specials/moon2mars/


Commercial crew: http://www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew


Commercial resupply services: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-updates-broadcast-of-next-space-station-resupply-launch-prelaunch-activities


U.S. National Laboratory: https://www.iss-casis.org/


Moss: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7892


Printing of biological: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=7599


Bio-mining: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7566


Extended stay: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-announces-first-flight-record-setting-mission


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia/NASA TV/SciNews.


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July 20, 1969: People around the world tune their radios and…


July 20, 1969: People around the world tune their radios and television sets to watch humans step foot on the Moon for the first time.


Gather ‘round with us today and experience history as it unfolded 50 years ago.


Watch NASA TV at 4:02 p.m. EDT as we replay the original live broadcast of the Apollo 11 Moon landing. 



Then, at 10:38 p.m. EDT, watch the replay of the original live broadcast of the first steps on the Moon, as the world watched it in 1969: 



Three Expedition 60 Crew Members Heading to Station on Apollo 50th


ROSCOSMOS — Soyuz MS-13 Mission patch.


July 20, 2019



Image above: Expedition 60 crewmembers Drew Morgan, Alexander Skvortsov and Luca Parmitano launch aboard the Soyuz MS-13 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Image Credits: NASA/Joel Kowsky.


Fifty years to the day that astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin stepped on the Moon in a giant leap for humanity, NASA astronaut Andrew Morgan, Luca Parmitano of ESA (European Space Agency) and Alexander Skvortsov of the Russian space agency Roscosmos will arrive Saturday for their mission aboard the International Space Station, where humans have lived and worked continuously for more than 18 years, begin a six-hour journey to the International Space Station.



Soyuz MS-13 launch

The Soyuz MS-13 spacecraft carrying Morgan, Luca Parmitano of ESA (European Space Agency) and Alexander Skvortsov of the Russian space agency Roscosmos launched at 12:28 p.m. EDT July 20 (9:28 p.m. Kazakhstan time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and has safely reached orbit.  At the time of launch, the station was flying about 254 miles over southern Russia between Kazakhstan and Mongolia, 646 miles ahead of the Soyuz as it left the launch pad.



Image above: The Expedition 60 crew members (from top to bottom) Luca Parmitano, Andrew Morgan and Alexander Skvortsov wave bye before boarding their Soyuz MS-13 spacecraft in Kazakhstan. Image Credit: Roscosmos/NASA.


The crew has begun their six-hour trip to the orbital laboratory where they will live and work for their mission. Coverage of the Soyuz docking to the International Space Station will begin on NASA TV and the agency’s website at 6 p.m., with the spacecraft docking expected at 6:50 p.m.


Coverage of the hatch opening between the Soyuz and the space station will begin at 8 p.m.


Related links:


NASA Television: http://www.nasa.gov/live


Expedition 60: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition60/index.html


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia/Roscosmos/SciNews.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Tiangong-2 space station ends mission



CNSA —  China National Space Administration logo.


July 20, 2019



Artist’s rendering of the Tiangong 2 space station

The Tiangong-2 space station ended its mission by re-entering the atmosphere over the South Pacific Ocean, on 19 July 2019, at around 13:06 UTC.



Tiangong-2 space station ends mission

Tiangong-2 (天宫二号 or “Heavenly Palace 2”) was launched on 15 September 2016 by a Long March-2F launch vehicle. On 18 October 2016, astronauts Jing Haipeng and Chen Dong entered Tiangong-2 for a 30-day mission, the longest Chinese human space mission to date.


Related articles:


The Chinese space station will fall from the sky like Easter eggs
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/03/the-chinese-space-station-will-fall.html


Chinese space station risks crashing in France
http://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.ch/2018/03/chinese-space-station-risks-crashing-in.html


Uncontrolled crash on Earth of a Chinese space station
http://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.ch/2017/10/uncontrolled-crash-on-earth-of-chinese.html


For more information about China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), visit: http://english.spacechina.com/n16421/index.html


For more information about China National Space Administration (CNSA). visit: http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/


Image, Video, Text, Credits: Credits: China Central Television (CCTV),China Global Television Network (CGTN), China National Space Administration (CNSA)/SciNews.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


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