среда, 17 июля 2019 г.

Virtual Testing One of the biggest problems with tackling…

Virtual Testing

One of the biggest problems with tackling Alzheimer’s disease is that the condition is often diagnosed so late that symptom-reducing therapies aren’t effective. Right now, the best test is to look at levels of an abnormal protein in the brain called amyloid, which can only be detected with an expensive brain scan or lumbar puncture. In search of a simpler solution, researchers realised that the first bit of the brain affected in Alzheimer’s is the part involved in navigation. Rather than getting people to wander the real world, they’ve monitored the movements of volunteers as they make their way through this virtual landscape. People with early stage dementia and high amyloid levels did a worse job of navigating around this virtual landscape than dementia patients with normal amyloid levels or healthy counterparts, revealing a potentially new way of spotting Alzheimer’s in its earliest stages when treatments are more likely to work.

Written by Kat Arney

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Strengite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Leveäniemi…

Strengite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral

Locality: Leveäniemi Mine, Svappavaara, Kiruna district, Kiruna, Norrbotten, Sweden

Specimen weight:118 gr.

Crystal size:Up to 4.5 mm wide

Overall size: 60mm x 35 mm x 30 mm

Photo Copyright © Minservice

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Iris Agate on Coral | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Photo…

Iris Agate on Coral | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


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ESA confirms asteroid will miss Earth in 2019

Asteroid Watch logo.

17 July 2019

Asteroid 2006 QV89, a small object 20 to 50 metres in diameter, was in the news lately because of a very small, 1-in-7000 chance of impact with Earth on 9 September 2019.


In the first known case of ruling out an asteroid impact through a ‘non-detection’, ESA and the European Southern Observatory have concluded that asteroid 2006 QV89 is not on a collision course this year – and the chance of any future impact is extremely remote.

Catching a glimpse

Asteroids come and go, quite literally, often frustrating astronomers. You can catch sight of a hurtling space rock, take some measurements to narrow down its orbit, and days later it’s gone – potentially remaining unobservable for decades.

In general, when an asteroid is found to have even a tiny chance of impacting Earth, further observations and measurements are taken. These ‘astrometric’ data refine our understanding of the asteroid’s path, improving our understanding of the risk it poses and often excluding any chance of collision altogether.

Orbit of asteroid 2006 QV89

However, the case of asteroid 2006 QV89 is peculiar. The object was discovered in August 2006 and then observed for only ten days. These observations suggested it had a 1-in-7000 chance of impacting Earth on 9 September 2019.

After the tenth day, the asteroid was unobservable and has not been seen since. Now, after more than a decade, we can predict its position with only very poor accuracy. As a result it is extremely difficult for astronomers to re-observe it, as no one knows exactly where to point a telescope.

Nevertheless, there is a way to obtain the information needed.

Nice to not see you

While we do not know 2006 QV89’s trajectory exactly, we do know where it would appear in the sky if it were on a collision course with our planet. Therefore, we can simply observe this small area of the sky to check that the asteroid is indeed, hopefully, not there.

This way, we have the chance to indirectly exclude any risk of an impact, even without actually seeing the asteroid.

Perseids over the VLT

This is precisely what ESA and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) did on 4 and 5 July, as part of the ongoing collaboration between the two organisations to observe high-risk asteroids using ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT).

Teams obtained very ‘deep’ images of a small area in the sky, where the asteroid would have been located if it were on track to impact Earth in September.

Nothing was seen.

The un-detection of asteroid 2006 QV18

The image above shows the region of the sky where asteroid 2006 QV80 would have been seen if on a collision course with Earth this year.

The three red crosses reveal the specific locations, where the asteroid could have appeared as a single, bright, round source, had it been on a collision course.

Visualisation of asteroid Itokawa

Even if the asteroid were smaller than expected, at only a few metres across, it would have been seen in the image. Any smaller than this and the VLT could not have spotted it, but it would also be considered harmless as any asteroid this size would burn up in Earth’s atmosphere.

Planetary Defence at ESA

Find out more about ESA’s work to detect risky asteroids, and one day even to mitigate the risk they pose, here: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Safety/Risky_asteroids

Learn all about the potentially hazardous asteroids in the solar system and ESA’s evolving risk list here: http://neo.ssa.esa.int/

And stay up-to-date by signing up for the monthly asteroid newsletter: http://neo.ssa.esa.int/subscribe-to-services

ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT): https://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/paranal-observatory/vlt/

Hera mission – studying asteroid deflection: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Safety/Hera

ESA Space Safety: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Safety

Images, Animation, Video, Text, Credits: ESA/S. Guisard/ESO/O. Hainaut/JAXA, ESO/L. Calçada/M. Kornmesser/Nick Risinger (skysurvey.org).

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2019 July 17 Apollo 11: Descent to the Moon Video Credit: NASA,…

2019 July 17

Apollo 11: Descent to the Moon
Video Credit: NASA, Apollo Flight Journal Compilation & Copyright: W. David Woods

Explanation: It had never been done before. But with the words “You’re Go for landing”, 50 years ago this Saturday, Apollo 11 astronauts Aldrin and Armstrong were cleared to make the first try. The next few minutes would contain more than a bit of drama, as an unexpected boulder field and an unacceptably sloping crater loomed below. With fuel dwindling, Armstrong coolly rocketed the lander above the lunar surface as he looked for a clear and flat place to land. With only seconds of fuel remaining, and with the help of Aldrin and mission control calling out data, Armstrong finally found a safe spot – and put the Eagle down. Many people on Earth listening to the live audio felt great relief on hearing “The Eagle has landed”, and great pride knowing that for the first time ever, human beings were on the Moon. Combined in the featured descent video are two audio feeds, a video feed similar to what the astronauts saw, captions of the dialog, and data including the tilt of the Eagle lander. The video concludes with the panorama of the lunar landscape visible outside the Eagle. A few hours later, hundreds of millions of people across planet Earth, drawn together as a single species, watched fellow humans walk on the Moon.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190717.html

We Like Big Rockets and We Cannot Lie: Saturn V vs. SLS

On this day 50 years ago, human beings embarked on a journey to set foot on another world for the very first time


At 9:32 a.m. EDT, millions watched as Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins lifted off from Launch Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, flying high on the most powerful rocket ever built: the mighty Saturn V.


As we prepare to return humans to the lunar surface with our Artemis program, we’re planning to make history again with a similarly unprecedented rocket, the Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS will be our first exploration-class vehicle since the Saturn V took American astronauts to the Moon a decade ago. With its superior lift capability, the SLS will expand our reach into the solar system, allowing astronauts aboard our Orion spacecraft to explore multiple, deep-space destinations including near-Earth asteroids, the Moon and ultimately Mars.


So, how does the Saturn V measure up half a century later? Let’s take a look.

Mission Profiles: From Apollo to Artemis 

Saturn V


Every human who has ever stepped foot on the Moon made it there on a Saturn V rocket. The Saturn rockets were the driving force behind our Apollo program that was designed to land humans on the Moon and return them safely back to Earth.


Developed at our Marshall Space Flight Center in the 1960s, the Saturn V rocket (V for the Roman numeral “5”)  launched for the first time uncrewed during the Apollo 4 mission on November 9, 1967. One year later, it lifted off for its first crewed mission during Apollo 8. On this mission, astronauts orbited the Moon but did not land. Then, on July 16, 1969, the Apollo 11 mission was the first Saturn V flight to land astronauts on the Moon. In total, this powerful rocket completed 13 successful missions, landing humans on the lunar surface six times before lifting off for the last time in 1973.

Space Launch System (SLS) 


Just as the Saturn V was the rocket of the Apollo generation, the Space Launch System will be the driving force behind a new era of spaceflight: the Artemis generation.


During our Artemis missions, SLS will take humanity farther than ever before. It is the vehicle that will return our astronauts to the Moon by 2024, transporting the first woman and the next man to a destination never before explored – the lunar South Pole. Over time, the rocket will evolve into increasingly more powerful configurations to provide the foundation for human exploration beyond Earth’s orbit to deep space destinations, including Mars.

SLS will take flight for the first time during Artemis 1 where it will travel 280,000 miles from Earth – farther into deep space than any spacecraft built for humans has ever ventured.

Size: From Big to BIGGER 

Saturn V


The Saturn V was big. 

In fact, the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center is one of the largest buildings in the world by volume and was built specifically for assembling the massive rocket. At a height of 363 feet, the Saturn V rocket was about the size of a 36-story building and 60 feet taller than the Statue of Liberty!

Space Launch System (SLS)


Measured at just 41 feet shy of the Saturn V, the initial SLS rocket will stand at a height of 322 feet. Because this rocket will evolve into heavier lift capacities to facilitate crew and cargo missions beyond Earth’s orbit, its size will evolve as well. When the SLS reaches its maximum lift capability, it will stand at a height of 384 feet, making it the tallest rocket in the world.

Power: Turning Up the Heat 

Saturn V

For the 1960s, the Saturn V rocket was a beast – to say the least.

Fully fueled for liftoff, the Saturn V weighed 6.2 million pounds and generated 7.6 million pounds of thrust at launch. That is more power than 85 Hoover Dams! This thrust came from five F-1 engines that made up the rocket’s first stage. With this lift capability, the Saturn V had the ability to send 130 tons (about 10 school buses) into low-Earth orbit and about 50 tons (about 4 school buses) to the Moon.

Space Launch System (SLS)


Photo of SLS rocket booster test

Unlike the Saturn V, our SLS rocket will evolve over time into increasingly more powerful versions of itself to accommodate missions to the Moon and then beyond to Mars.


The first SLS vehicle, called Block 1, will weigh 5.75 million pounds and produce 8.8 million pounds of thrust at time of launch. That’s 15 percent more than the Saturn V produced during liftoff! It will also send more than 26 tons  beyond the Moon. Powered by a pair of five-segment boosters and four RS-25 engines, the rocket will reach the period of greatest atmospheric force within 90 seconds!


Following Block 1, the SLS will evolve five more times to reach its final stage, Block 2 Cargo. At this stage, the rocket will provide 11.9 million pounds of thrust and will be the workhorse vehicle for sending cargo to the Moon, Mars and other deep space destinations. SLS Block 2 will be designed to lift more than 45 tons to deep space. With its unprecedented power and capabilities, SLS is the only rocket that can send our Orion spacecraft, astronauts and large cargo to the Moon on a single mission.

Build: How the Rockets Stack Up

Saturn V


The Saturn V was designed as a multi-stage system rocket, with three core stages. When one system ran out of fuel, it separated from the spacecraft and the next stage took over. The first stage, which was the most powerful, lifted the rocket off of Earth’s surface to an altitude of 68 kilometers (42 miles). This took only 2 minutes and 47 seconds! The first stage separated, allowing the second stage to fire and carry the rest of the stack almost into orbit. The third stage placed the Apollo spacecraft and service module into Earth orbit and pushed it toward the Moon. After the first two stages separated, they fell into the ocean for recovery. The third stage either stayed in space or crashed into the Moon.

Space Launch System (SLS)

Much like the Saturn V, our Space Launch System is also a multi-stage rocket. Its three stages (the solid rocket boosters, core stage and upper stage) will each take turns thrusting the spacecraft on its trajectory and separating after each individual stage has exhausted its fuel. In later, more powerful versions of the SLS, the third stage will carry both the Orion crew module and a deep space habitat module.

A New Era of Space Exploration 

Just as the Saturn V and Apollo era signified a new age of exploration and technological advancements, the Space Launch System and Artemis missions will bring the United States into a new age of space travel and scientific discovery.

Join us in celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing and hear about our future plans to go forward to the Moon and on to Mars by tuning in to a special two-hour live NASA Television broadcast at 1 p.m. ET on Friday, July 19. Watch the program at www.nasa.gov/live.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

50 Years Ago Apollo 11 Launches Into History

NASA — Apollo 11 Mission patch.

July 16, 2019

Image above: At 9:32 a.m. EDT, July 16, 1969, Apollo 11 launched from Florida, taking commander Neil Armstrong, lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin and command module pilot Michael Collins on a mission for the history books – a mission to become the first humans to land on another celestial body.  Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to set foot on the Moon, while Michael Collins remained aboard the command module in lunar orbit.

50 Years Ago: The Journey to the Moon Begins

An estimated one million people gathered on the beaches of central Florida to witness first-hand the launch of Apollo 11, while more than 500 million people around the world watched the event live on television. Officially named as a crew just six months earlier, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin, and Command Module Pilot (CMP) Michael Collins were prepared to undertake the historic mission. Previous Apollo crews had tested the spacecraft in Earth orbit and around the Moon, and only two months earlier, Apollo 10 had completed a dress rehearsal to sort out all the unknowns for the lunar landing. Now it was time to attempt the landing itself.

Images above: Top: Apollo 11 crew of (left to right) Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin. Bottom: Apollo 11 crew patch. Images Credit: NASA.

The astronauts’ day on July 16, 1969, began with a 4 AM wake-up call from Chief of the Astronaut Office Donald K. “Deke” Slayton. After the traditional prelaunch breakfast with Slayton and backup CMP William A. Anders, the crewmembers donned their spacesuits and took the Astrovan to Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) Launch Pad 39A. Workers in the White Room assisted them into their seats in the Command Module (CM) Columbia, Armstrong into the left hand couch, Collins into the right, and finally Aldrin into the middle. After the pad workers closed the hatch to the capsule, the astronauts settled in for the final two hours of the trouble-free countdown. As Armstrong noted just before liftoff, “It’s been a real smooth countdown.”

Images above: Top: Prelaunch breakfast in crew quarters (left to right) Anders, Armstrong, Collins, Aldrin, and Slayton. Bottom: Apollo 11 astronauts (left to right) Aldrin, Collins, and Armstrong leaving crew quarters to enterthe Astrovan for the ride to Launch Pad 39A. Images Credit: NASA.

At precisely 9:32 AM EDT, Apollo 11 lifted off from Launch Pad 39A to begin humanity’s first attempt at a lunar landing. Engineers in KSC’s Firing Room 1 who had managed the countdown handed over control of the flight to the Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), now the Johnson Space Center in Houston, as soon as the rocket cleared the launch tower. In MCC, the Green Team led by Flight Director Clifford E. Charlesworth took over control of the mission. The Capcom, or capsule communicator, the astronaut in MCC who spoke directly with the crew, during launch was Bruce McCandless. The three stages of the Saturn V performed flawlessly and successfully placed Apollo 11 into low Earth orbit. For the next two and a half hours, as the Apollo spacecraft still attached to its S-IVB third stage orbited the Earth, the astronauts and MCC verified that all systems were functioning properly. McCandless then called up to the crew, “Apollo 11, you’re go for TLI,” the Trans Lunar Injection, the second burn of the third stage engine to send them on their way to the Moon.

Liftoff of Apollo 11. Images Credit: NASA

Images above: Top: Flight Director Charlesworth in MCC during Apollo 11 launch. Bottom: Engineers in KSC’s Firing Room watch the launch after Apollo 11 cleared the launch tower. Images Credit: NASA.

Images above: Top: A ring of condensation forms around the Saturn V rocket as it compresses the air around it during the launch of Apollo 11, framed with an American flag in the foreground. Middle: A view of a low pressure system taken during Apollo 11’s first orbit around the Earth. Bottom: Collins inside the CM during its first orbit around the Earth. Images Credit: NASA.

Two hours and 44 minutes after liftoff, the third stage engine ignited for the six-minute TLI burn, increasing the spacecraft’s velocity to more than 24,000 miles per hour, enough to escape Earth’s gravity. Armstrong called down to the ground after the burn, “That Saturn gave us a magnificent ride.  It was beautiful.” A little over three hours after launch, and already more than 3,000 miles from Earth, the Command and Service Module (CSM) separated from the spent third stage to begin the transposition and docking maneuver. Collins flew the CSM Columbia out to a distance of about 100 feet and turned it around to face the now exposed LM Eagle still tucked into the top of the third stage. He slowly guided Columbia to a docking with Eagle, then extracted it from the third stage which was sent on a path past the Moon and into orbit around the Sun. During the maneuver, the spacecraft had traveled another three thousand miles away from Earth.

Images above: Top: The LM Eagle still in the third stage during the transposition and docking maneuver, as seen from the CM Columbia. Bottom: Aldrin inside the LM Eagle during the first activation, on the way to the Moon. Images Credit: NASA.

During the rest of their first day in space, MCC informed the crew that because the launch and TLI had been so precise, the planned first midcourse correction would not be needed. The astronauts were finally able to remove the spacesuits they’d been wearing since before launch. Armstrong called down with birthday wishes for the state of California (200 years old) and for Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight (stated as “not that old”). In MCC, Flight Director Eugene F. Kranz’s White Team of controllers took over, with astronaut Charles M. Duke as the new Capcom. The astronauts provided a pleasant surprise with an unscheduled 16-minute color television broadcast, treating viewers on Earth with spectacular scenes of their home planet. They then placed their spacecraft in the Passive Thermal Control (PTC) or barbecue mode, rotating at three revolutions per hour, to evenly distribute temperature extremes. Finally, about 13 hours after launch and a very long day, the crew began its first sleep period, with Apollo 11 about 63,000 miles from Earth.

Overnight, Flight Director Glynn S. Lunney’s Black Team of controllers, with astronaut Ronald E. Evans as Capcom, watched over the spacecraft’s systems. By the time the astronauts awoke, now almost 110,000 miles from Earth, Charlesworth’s Green Team was back on console. Capcom McCandless provided a morning news update to the crew, including a status of the Soviet Luna 15 robotic spacecraft that had launched three days before Apollo 11 and was still on its way to the Moon. About the time Apollo 11 reached the halfway mark in distance between Earth and Moon, the following light-hearted exchange took place between backup Apollo 11 Commander James A. Lovell in MCC and Armstrong aboard Columbia:

Lovell: Is the Commander aboard? This is Jim Lovell calling Apollo 11.

Armstrong: This is the Commander.

Lovell: I was a little worried. This is the backup Commander still standing by. You haven’t given me the word yet. Are you Go?

Armstrong: You’ve lost your chance to take this one, Jim.

Lovell: Okay. I concede.

The crew conducted the only midcourse correction needed during the coast to the Moon, a three-second burn of the Service Propulsion System (SPS) engine to lower the closest point to the Moon from 200 miles to 69 miles. McCandless informed the astronauts that Luna 15 had entered an elliptical orbit around the Moon, but that its objectives were still not clear.

Image above: Photographs taken from Apollo 11 showing the receding Earth (top to bottom) shortly after the transposition and docking maneuver; from 113,000 miles; from 144,300 miles; and from 234,800 miles. Images Credit: NASA.

The crew conducted a scheduled TV broadcast from about 150,000 miles, showing views of a much smaller Earth with Armstrong providing a detailed description of the planet. He then turned the camera inside the cabin for views of the astronauts and showing viewers their food pantry, concluding with filming the Apollo 11 mission patch on their flight suits. The broadcast lasted 35 minutes. The crew soon after settled down for its second night’s sleep in space, which MCC extended since another midcourse correction the next morning was not needed as their trajectory remained very precise.

In Houston, astronaut Frank Borman and Christopher C. Kraft, Director of Flight Crew Operations, held a press conference about Luna 15. NASA managers were concerned that with Luna 15 now in orbit around the Moon and its objectives still not clear, it might interfere in some way with Apollo 11. Borman had visited Moscow earlier in July and met with Academician Mstislav V. Keldysh, President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Taking advantage of this new acquaintance, Borman telephoned Keldysh and expressed NASA’s concerns. Keldysh assured Borman that Luna 15 would not interfere with Apollo 11 and in an unprecedented action in American-Soviet space relations he telegraphed Luna 15’s precise orbital parameters to Borman. The Soviets didn’t divulge Luna 15’s true intentions, stating only that it would stay in lunar orbit for two days.

The major activity for Apollo 11’s third day in space was the first activation and inspection of the LM Eagle, which the crew televised to the ground from about 201,000 miles away. Armstrong described the status of the docking mechanism, “Mike must have done a smooth job in that docking. There isn’t a dent or a mark on the probe” – a compliment of Collins’ excellent piloting skills. When they opened the hatch to Eagle, the lights came on automatically, prompting Capcom Duke to say, “How about that. Just like the refrigerator.” Aldrin floated into the LM, taking the TV camera with him, and provided viewers with an excellent tour of all of its systems, as well as the astronauts’ spacesuit helmet visors and backpacks. The broadcast lasted one hour and 36 minutes, after which Aldrin and Armstrong returned to Columbia and closed the hatches. Soon after, Apollo 11 passed into the Moon’s gravitational sphere of influence, 214,086 miles from Earth and 38,929 miles from the Moon. The crew settled down for its third sleep period of the flight.

While the crew slept, MCC decided that a planned midcourse correction that day would also not be required and they extended the crew’s rest. Shortly after they woke for their fourth day in space, Apollo 11 crossed into the Moon’s shadow and they could observe the solar corona. They could see the Moon’s surface lit by Earthshine, and for the first time they could see stars and constellations clearly. Capcom astronaut and backup Apollo 11 LMP Fred W. Haise read up the morning news to the crew. An item of interest was that in its reporting of the mission, the Soviet newspaper Pravda called Armstrong the “Czar of The Ship.” The Soviet press was indicating that Luna 15 would accomplish everything that all previous Luna spacecraft had done, the first public hint that it might be trying to return samples from the Moon. Armstrong provided the following description of the Moon, which the astronauts were seeing for the first time:

The view of the Moon that we’ve been having recently is really spectacular. It fills about three-quarters of the hatch window, and of course, we can see the entire circumference, even though part of it is in complete shadow and part of it’s in Earthshine. It’s a view worth the price of the trip.

Images above: Three views of the lunar far side. Top: Crater Glazenap. Middle: Crater King. Bottom: Looking toward the Moon’s limb over the rim of Crater Mendeleev. Images Credit: NASA.

Shortly after, as Apollo 8 and 10 had done before, Apollo 11 sailed behind the Moon and all contact with Earth was cut off. Eight minutes later, they fired the SPS engine for the six-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion-1 (LOI-1) burn, and Apollo 11 entered into an elliptical lunar orbit. As Apollo 11 came around from the backside of the Moon, the crewmembers saw their first Earthrise and Aldrin reported their status to MCC, “The LOI-1 burn just nominal as all getout, and everything’s looking good.” A few minutes later, the astronauts got their first view of the approach to their landing site in the Sea of Tranquility, which was still in darkness. By the time of the landing the next day, the Sun will have risen at the landing site, the low angle illumination providing optimal lighting for the landing. Of the approach Armstrong commented, “It looks very much like the pictures, but like the difference between watching a real football game and one on TV. There’s no substitute for actually being here.”

Images above: Two views of the Moon from Apollo 11’s first TV broadcast from lunar orbit.
Top: The Crater Langrenus. Bottom: The Mare Fecunditatis. Images Credit: NASA.

During their second lunar orbit, the crew televised views of the Moon across much of the near side (clip 1, clip 2, clip 3). At the end of that revolution, and once again behind the Moon, they fired the SPS engine for the 17-second LOI-2 burn to circularize their orbit. Armstrong and Aldrin entered the LM Eagle for the second time to begin activation and transfer of equipment such as cameras. Aldrin reported that he could see the entire landing area as they flew over it. They returned to Columbia and the entire crew settled down for its first sleep period in lunar orbit. It was also their final night before attempting the first Moon landing the next day.

Related links:

50th Anniversary Apollo 11 TV broadcast: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1nVlMg27cik

Apollo: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/index.html

Apollo 10: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-apollo-10-clears-the-way-for-the-first-moon-landing

Apollo 11: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/apollo-11.html

Soviet Luna 15 robotic spacecraft: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-national-goal-nears-fulfillment

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Yvette Smith/Kelli Mars/JSC/John Uri.

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Remnants of Roman dwelling found in centre of Bulgaria’s Plovdiv

A team from heating energy distribution firm EVN Toplofikatsiya has found remnants of a Roman dwelling with a clay pipeline, as well as a grave, during excavations in the centre of Bulgaria’s second city Plovdiv, the company said in a media statement early this week.

Remnants of Roman dwelling found in centre of Bulgaria’s Plovdiv
Credit: EVN

The find was made in Plovdiv’s GM Dimitrov Street, near the intersection with Tsar Assen Street. According to experts, the archaeological find dates from the second to the fourth century CE, EVN said.
The company said that the excavation work was being done to connect a building to the heat transmission network. The site is to be examined by experts from the Ministry of Culture. Work on the construction of the heating pipeline may continue if the ministry’s experts issue a permit.

Remnants of Roman dwelling found in centre of Bulgaria’s Plovdiv
Credit: EVN

The examination of the site is being done under the guidance of archaeologist Maya Martinova from the Regional Archaeological Museum in Plovdiv. This is not the first time that Plovdiv-headquartered EVN Toplofikatsiya has made a significant archaeological discovery.
In 2012, a team from the company uncovered an early Christian tomb, dating from the fourth century CE, with frescoes depicting Jesus.

EVN Toplofikatsiya financed archaeological work on the site, and the ancient tomb can be seen at the Regional Archaeological Museum in Plovdiv.

Source: The Sofia Globe [July 11, 2019]




https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...