суббота, 29 июня 2019 г.

2019 June 29 M83: The Thousand-Ruby Galaxx Image Credit: Subaru…


2019 June 29


M83: The Thousand-Ruby Galaxx
Image Credit: Subaru Telescope (NAOJ), Hubble Space Telescope,
European Southern ObservatoryProcessing & Copyright: Robert Gendler


Explanation: Big, bright, and beautiful, spiral galaxy M83 lies a mere twelve million light-years away, near the southeastern tip of the very long constellation Hydra. Prominent spiral arms traced by dark dust lanes and blue star clusters lend this galaxy its popular name, The Southern Pinwheel. But reddish star forming regions that dot the sweeping arms highlighted in this sparkling color composite also suggest another nickname, The Thousand-Ruby Galaxy. About 40,000 light-years across, M83 is a member of a group of galaxies that includes active galaxy Centaurus A. In fact, the core of M83 itself is bright at x-ray energies, showing a high concentration of neutron stars and black holes left from an intense burst of star formation. This sharp composite color image also features spiky foreground Milky Way stars and distant background galaxies. The image data was taken from the Subaru Telescope, the European Southern Observatory’s Wide Field Imager camera, and the Hubble Legacy Archive.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190629.html


On the origin of the Gravettians (Bennett et al. 2019 preprint)

Over at bioRxiv at this LINK. No major surprises, as far as I can see. From the preprint, emphasis is mine:



The Gravettian technocomplex was present in Europe from more than 30,000 years ago until the Last Glacial Maximum, but the source of this industry and the people who manufactured it remain unsettled. We use genome-wide analysis of a ~36,000-year-old Eastern European individual (BuranKaya3A) from Buran-Kaya III in Crimea, the earliest documented occurrence of the Gravettian, to investigate relationships between population structures of Upper Palaeolithic Europe and the origin and spread of the culture. We show BuranKaya3A to be genetically close to both contemporary occupants of the Eastern European plain and the producers of the classical Gravettian of Central Europe 6,000 years later. These results support an Eastern European origin of an Early Gravettian industry practiced by members of a distinct population, who contributed ancestry to individuals from much later Gravettian sites to the west.

The mitochondrial haplogroup of BuranKaya3A was determined to belong to an early branch of the N lineage, N1.

In addition, the N1 of BuranKaya3A carries three of the eight mutations occurring prior to N1b, a rare haplogroup most highly concentrated in the Near East, yet appearing broadly from western Eurasia to Africa. The descendants of the N1b node include N1b2, currently found only in Somalia [22], and N1b1b, found in nearly 10% of Ashkenazi Jewish haplogroups [23]. These three mutations allow us to place BuranKaya3A on a lineage apart from that which has been proposed to later enter Europe from Anatolia during the Neolithic (N1a1a) [24]. Among ancient samples, the mitochondrial sequence of an 11,000-year-old Epipalaeolithic Natufian from the Levant (“Natufian9”) [25] is also a later derivative of this N1b branch.

From the reads mapping to the Y chromosome, six out of six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that overlap with diagnostic sites for Y-haplogroup BT all carry the derived allele, allowing a minimum assignment to BT, which has origins in Africa, with additional derived alleles suggesting an eventual placement of CT or C, found in Asia and the Epipalaeolithic Near East [25]. Additional ancestral alleles make an assignment of C1a2 or C1b, which appear in UP Europe [1], unlikely (see Table S3 for a summary and comparative placement of Palaeolithic Y-haplogroups, and Supplementary Data 1 for a complete list of Y diagnostic SNPs).





Bennett et al., The origin of the Gravettians: genomic evidence from a 36,000-year-old Eastern European, bioRxiv, posted June 28, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/685404

Source


Known as the Horsehead Nebula – but you can call it…


Known as the Horsehead Nebula – but you can call it Starbiscuit.


Found by our Hubble Space Telescope, this beauty is part of a much larger complex in the constellation Orion.


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


The ancient croc that preyed on dinosaurs…


The ancient croc that preyed on dinosaurs http://www.geologypage.com/2019/06/the-ancient-croc-that-preyed-on-dinosaurs.html


Ice-squeezed aquifers might create marsquakes…


Ice-squeezed aquifers might create marsquakes http://www.geologypage.com/2019/06/ice-squeezed-aquifers-might-create-marsquakes.html


Space Station Science Highlights: Week of June 24, 2019


ISS — Expedition 59 Mission patch.


June 28, 2019


Crew members aboard the International Space Station conducted scientific investigations last week that studied DNA repair, protein crystallization, plant growth in space and more. The orbiting lab provides a platform for research and technology demonstrations in every field of science and increasingly supports commercial research and development. The station also contributes to Artemis, NASA’s program to return to the Moon.



Image above: From the International Space Station’s orbit 269 miles above the Indian Ocean southwest of Australia, this nighttime photograph captures the aurora australis, or «southern lights.» Russia’s Soyuz MS-12 crew ship is in the foreground and Progress 72 resupply ship in the background. Image Credit: NASA.


On June 25, NASA astronaut Anne McClain, Oleg Kononenko of the Russian space agency Roscosmos, and David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency departed the station and returned to Earth after 204 days in space. Here are details on some of the science conducted by the remaining members of Expedition 59 during the week of June 24:


Evaluating DNA damage and repair in space



Image above: NASA astronaut Christina Koch working on the Genes In Space-6 experiment. It sequences DNA samples using the Biomolecule Sequencer to help scientists understand how space radiation mutates DNA and assess the molecular level repair process. Image Credit: NASA.


The crew initiated part five of the Genes in Space-6 CRISPR biomolecule sequence run. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage caused by the increased exposure to radiation in space can affect the long-term health of astronauts. Genes in Space-6 determines the optimal DNA repair mechanisms that cells use in the spaceflight environment. The investigation evaluates the entire process in space for the first time by inducing DNA damage in cells and assessing mutation and repair at the molecular level using the miniPCR and the Biomolecule Sequencer tools aboard the space station.


Visit the Space Station in Virtual Reality



International Space Station (ISS). Image Credit: NASA

The ISS Experience creates a virtual reality film to educate a variety of audiences about life in the orbiting lab and science conducted there. Eight to 10 minute videos created from footage taken during the yearlong investigation cover different aspects of crew life, execution of science, and the international partnerships involved. It uses a Z-CAM V1 Pro Cinematic Virtual Reality (VR) 360-degree camera with nine 190° fisheye lenses. Last week marked a busy week for the project; the crew recorded the space station change of command ceremony, a crew dinner, a group workout with McClain and NASA astronaut Christina Koch, a movie night, and the departure from the space station of McClain, Kononenko and Saint-Jacques.


Protein crystals headed for analysis


The crew retrieved two JAXA PCG samples from the Freezer-Refrigerator of STirling cycle 2 (FROST2) facility last week for return to Earth. The investigation grew high quality protein crystals in microgravity for detailed structure analysis on the ground. This use of the orbiting lab to create high quality crystals advances use of the microgravity environment for production purposes. The detailed information on protein structures the investigation provides also supports design of new drugs to treat diseases and the study of unknown enzyme reactions.


Stocking Space-based Salad Bars



Image above: Canadian Space Agency astronaut David Saint-Jacques checks the Veg-04A plants. This experiment focuses on the impact of light quality and fertilizer on growth of a leafy crop as well as microbial food safety, nutritional value, taste acceptability by the crew, and the overall behavioral health benefits of having plants and fresh food in space. Image Credit: NASA.


To provide a healthy, nutritious diet on long-duration exploration missions, astronauts need to produce fresh foods during flight to supplement their standard pre-packaged food supply. The Veg-04A investigation, a project to develop the ability to produce fresh food in space, focuses on how light quality and fertilizer affect growth of Mizuna mustard, a leafy green crop. It also looks at microbial food safety, nutritional value, taste acceptability by the crew, and the overall behavioral health benefits of having plants and fresh food in space. Last week, the crew performed a water check and measured harvested leaves using the Mass Measurement Device.


Other investigations on which the crew performed work:


— The Photobioreactor investigation demonstrates whether the biological processes of microalgae can serve as part of a hybrid life support system. This approach would help future long-duration exploration missions reduce the amount of supplies that must be brought from Earth: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7426


— STaARS BioScience-11 manufactures nanoparticle drug delivery systems for chronic conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This investigation is sponsored by the ISS National Lab, which is managed by the Center for the Advancement for Science in Space (CASIS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7941



Image above: Flight Engineer Nick Hague works on the Capillary Structures experiment, which demonstrates the flow of fluid and gas mixtures using surface tension and fluid dynamics. The fluid physics study is helping NASA evaluate technologies for a lightweight, advanced life support system that can recover water and remove carbon dioxide in space. Image Credit: NASA.


— The Capillary Structures investigation studies using structures of specific shapes to manage fluid and gas mixtures: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7329


— Probiotics examines the effects of beneficial bacteria or probiotics on the intestinal microbiota and immune function of crew members on long-duration space missions: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=2047


— Vascular Echo examines changes in blood vessels and the heart in space and recovery following return to Earth. Results could provide insight into developing countermeasures to help maintain crew member health on long voyages such as to the Moon or Mars: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1664


— Standard Measures captures a consistent and simple set of measures from crew members throughout the ISS Program in order to characterize adaptive responses to and risks of living in space: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7711
 
— Food Acceptability examines changes in the appeal of food aboard the space station during long-duration missions. “Menu fatigue” from repeatedly consuming a limited choice of foods may contribute to the loss of body mass often experienced by crew members, potentially affecting astronaut health, especially as mission length increases: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7562



Space to Ground: Back on Terra Firma: 06/28/2019

Related links:


Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html


Artemis: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/what-is-artemis/


Genes in Space-6: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7893


The ISS Experience: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7877


JAXA PCG: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=151


Veg-04A: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7896


Spot the Station: https://spotthestation.nasa.gov/


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA/Michael Johnson/Jorge Sotomayor, Lead Increment Scientist Expeditions 59/60.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Hubble Catches a Bounty of Stars and Cosmic Dust


NASA — Hubble Space Telescope patch.


June 28, 2019



This Hubble Space Telescope image shows the spiral galaxy Messier 98, which is located about 45 million light-years away in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice’s Hair). The galaxy was discovered in 1781 by the French astronomer Pierre Méchain, a colleague of Charles Messier, and is one of the faintest objects in Messier’s astronomical catalog.


Messier 98 is estimated to contain about a trillion stars, and is full of cosmic dust — visible here as a web of red-brown stretching across the frame — and hydrogen gas. This abundance of star-forming material means that Messier 98 is producing stellar newborns at a high rate; the galaxy shows the characteristic signs of stars springing to life throughout its bright center and whirling arms.


This image of Messier 98 was taken in 1995 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, an instrument that was installed on Hubble from 1993 until 2009. These observations were taken in infrared and visible light as part of a study of galaxy cores within the Virgo Cluster, and feature a portion of the galaxy near the center.



Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

Messier 98 is included in Hubble’s Messier catalog, which highlights some of the most fascinating objects that can be observed from Earth’s Northern Hemisphere. See the NASA-processed image and other Messier objects at: https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-s-messier-catalog.


For more information about Hubble, visit:


http://hubblesite.org/


http://www.nasa.gov/hubble


http://www.spacetelescope.org/


Text Credits: ESA (European Space Agency)/NASA/Rob Garner/Image, Animation, Credits: ESA/Hubble & NASA, V. Rubin et al.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Station Deploying Microsatellites as New Crew Prepares for July 20 Launch


ISS — Expedition 60 Mission patch.


June 28, 2019


A satellite deployer ejected a CubeSat into Earth orbit last night from outside the International Space Station’s Kibo laboratory module. Today, the three Expedition 60 crewmembers explored microgravity’s effect on humans and plants to support longer spaceflight missions.


The RED-EYE microsatellite is orbiting Earth today to demonstrate satellite communications and attitude control technologies. NASA Flight Engineer Nick Hague installed the satellite inside Kibo’s airlock last week for a safe deployment outside the orbiting lab. The SpaceX Dragon resupply ship delivered the CubeSat to the station May 6.



Image above: The next crew to launch to the space station is in Russia training for a July 20 launch to their new home in space. From left are, Expedition 60-61 crewmembers Andrew Morgan, Alexander Skvortsov and Luca Parmitano. Image Credits: ROSCOSMOS/NASA.


Hague is readying more CubeSats today for deployment later next week outside Kibo. They will orbit Earth demonstrating space tasks such as weather observations, satellite maneuvers and Earth photography. Students and engineers from around the world designed the series of seven microsatellites.


NASA astronaut Christina Koch watered plants growing inside Europe’s Columbus laboratory module for the Veg-04 space gardening study. Afterward, she replaced fuel bottles to support flame and fuel research in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module’s Combustion Integrated Rack.



CubeSats deployment. Animation Credit: NASA

Commander Alexey Ovchinin spent Friday morning exploring tools and techniques future cosmonauts could use when controlling a spacecraft or a robot on a planetary surface. The two-time station resident then spent the afternoon working on life support systems and plumbing tasks in the station’s Russian segment.


Back on Earth, two veteran station crewmembers and a first-time space-flyer are wrapping up tests in Russia to certify for their July 20 launch to the orbiting lab. NASA astronaut Andrew Morgan is in final mission training with experienced space residents Luca Parmitano of the European Agency and Alexander Skvortsov of Roscosmos. The trio will liftoff aboard the Soyuz MS-13 crew ship from Kazakhstan 50 years to the day when Neil Armstrong first stepped on the Moon.


Related links:


Expedition 60: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition60/index.html


Kibo laboratory module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/japan-kibo-laboratory


RED-EYE: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7530


CubeSats: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cubesats/index.html


Columbus laboratory module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/europe-columbus-laboratory


Veg-04: https://go.nasa.gov/2Kpic4W


Destiny laboratory module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/us-destiny-laboratory


Combustion Integrated Rack: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=317


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


New study of the 2014 Oso landslide…


New study of the 2014 Oso landslide http://www.geologypage.com/2019/06/new-study-of-the-2014-oso-landslide.html


Contradictory effect of earthquakes on submarine slopes…


Contradictory effect of earthquakes on submarine slopes http://www.geologypage.com/2019/06/contradictory-effect-of-earthquakes-on-submarine-slopes.html


Study reveals key factor in Himalayan earthquake rupture…


Study reveals key factor in Himalayan earthquake rupture http://www.geologypage.com/2019/06/study-reveals-key-factor-in-himalayan-earthquake-rupture.html


Blue color tones in fossilized prehistoric feathers…


Blue color tones in fossilized prehistoric feathers http://www.geologypage.com/2019/06/blue-color-tones-in-fossilized-prehistoric-feathers.html


Tooth enamel analyses offer insights into the diet and habitat…


Tooth enamel analyses offer insights into the diet and habitat of T.rex relative tarbosaurus http://www.geologypage.com/2019/06/tooth-enamel-analyses-offer-insights-into-the-diet-and-habitat-of-t-rex-relative-tarbosaurus.html


Cavansite With Calcite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Cavansite With Calcite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Wagholi Quarry, Pune (Poonah), Maharashtra, India


Size: 1.5 × 1 × 1 cm


Photo Copyright © Ashwini Minerals /e-rocks. com


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