суббота, 15 июня 2019 г.

2019 June 15 Stereo Helene Image Credit: Cassini Imaging Team,…


2019 June 15


Stereo Helene
Image Credit: Cassini Imaging Team, ISS, JPL, ESA, NASA; Stereo Image by Roberto Beltramini


Explanation: Get out your red/blue glasses and float next to Helene, small, icy moon of Saturn. Appropriately named, Helene is one of four known Trojan moons, so called because it orbits at a Lagrange point. A Lagrange point is a gravitationally stable position near two massive bodies, in this case Saturn and larger moon Dione. In fact, irregularly shaped ( about 36 by 32 by 30 kilometers) Helene orbits at Dione’s leading Lagrange point while brotherly ice moon Polydeuces follows at Dione’s trailing Lagrange point. The sharp stereo anaglyph was constructed from two Cassini images captured during a close flyby in 2011. It shows part of the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Helene mottled with craters and gully-like features.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190615.html


Space Station Science Highlights: Week of June 10, 2019


ISS — Expedition 59 Mission patch.


June 14, 2019


Scientific investigations conducted on the International Space Station last week included work that could improve design of life support systems and help keep astronauts healthy on long missions. These types of investigations contribute valuable knowledge to NASA’s Artemis human exploration program. One of its goals is returning humans to the Moon by 2024 as a stepping stone to Mars.


Here are details on some of the scientific investigations the members of Expedition 59 conducted during the week of June 10:


Better management of fluids and gases



Image above: Hardware for the Capillary Structures investigation in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). This investigation studies using structures of specific shapes to manage fluid and gas mixtures and water recycling and carbon dioxide removal. This work benefits efforts to design lightweight, more reliable life support systems for future space missions. Image Credit: NASA.


The crew completed the current session for the ongoing Capillary Structures investigation, which studies using structures of specific shapes to manage fluid and gas mixtures. Current life-support systems on the space station require special equipment to separate liquids and gases, including rotating or moving devices that could cause contamination if they break or fail. This investigation looks at using different structures for water recycling and carbon dioxide removal systems, which could contribute to design of lightweight, more reliable life support systems for future space missions.


Getting their vitamins



Image above: These specially designed storage and growth packets contain engineered microbes for the BioNutrients investigation, which demonstrates a technology for on-demand production of nutrients during long-duration space missions. Image Credit: NASA.


BioNutrients demonstrates a technology to enable on-demand production of nutrients during long-duration space missions. Engineered microbes, such as yeast, generate carotenoids to supplement potential vitamin losses from food that is stored for a long time. During the five-year investigation, crew members intermittently activate specially designed storage and growth packets then freeze them for return to Earth for analysis. Last week, the crew processed eight packets for incubation and then placed them into Minus Eighty Degree Celsius Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI).


Waiting to exhale


Last week, the crew conducted the final session for Airway Monitoring. This investigation analyzes exhaled air to determine the occurrence and indicators of airway inflammation due to dust particles in the space station. During future crewed missions to the Moon and Mars, airway inflammation due to dust inhalation presents a risk, and this work helps in the development of countermeasures to that risk. It also supports crew member health on future longer-duration missions to the Moon and Mars by helping make these missions more self-sufficient in avoiding potential problems with dust inhalation.


Other investigations on which the crew performed work:


— The Astrobee free-flying robots test technology for assisting astronauts with routine chores and giving ground controllers additional eyes and ears on the space station: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=1891


— The Photobioreactor investigation demonstrates whether the biological processes of microalgae can serve as part of a hybrid life support system. This approach would help future long-duration exploration missions reduce the amount of supplies required from Earth: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7426



Image above: NASA astronaut Anne McClain using the Liquid Exchange Device to fill the Photobioreactor with medium and algae to begin the experiment. This investigation examines creating a hybrid life support system with microalgae, which could help future long-duration exploration missions by reducing the amount of consumables required from Earth. Image Credit: NASA.


— The ISS Experience documents daily life aboard the space station through a virtual reality film to educate a variety of audiences about life in the orbiting lab and science conducted there: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7877


— Food Acceptability examines changes in the appeal of food aboard the space station during long-duration missions. “Menu fatigue” from repeatedly consuming a limited choice of foods may contribute to the loss of body mass often experienced by crew members, potentially affecting astronaut health, especially as mission length increases: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7562


— Veg-04 focuses on how light quality and fertilizer affect growth of a leafy crop, along with microbial food safety, nutritional value, taste acceptability by the crew, and the overall behavioral health benefits of having plants and fresh food in space: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7896


— Probiotics examines the effects of beneficial bacteria or probiotics on the intestinal microbiota and immune function of crew members on long-duration space missions: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=2047


— FLUIDICS uses a sphere in microgravity to represent a spacecraft’s fuel tank in order to analyze slosh and wave turbulence of a fluid. Results could support development of better fuel systems for satellites and future spacecraft: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=2043


— Standard Measures captures a consistent and simple set of measures from crew members throughout the ISS Program in order to characterize adaptive responses to and risks of living in space: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7711



Space to Ground: Open for Business: 06/14/2019

Related links:


Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html


Capillary Structures: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7329


BioNutrients: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7400


Eighty Degree Celsius Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=56


Airway Monitoring: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1067


Artemis: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/what-is-artemis/


Spot the Station: https://spotthestation.nasa.gov/


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video (NASA), Text, Credits: NASA/Michael Johnson/Jorge Sotomayor, Lead Increment Scientist Expeditions 59/60.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


NASA to Partner with American Industry to Supply Artemis Moon Missions


NASA logo.


June 14, 2019


In the latest step in sending astronauts to the lunar surface within five years, NASA issued a draft solicitation June 14 to industry seeking comments for a future opportunity for American companies to deliver cargo and other supplies to the Gateway in lunar orbit.



Image above: Artist concept of the logistics module docked to Gateway in lunar orbit. NASA will seek solicitations from American companies to deliver cargo and other supplies to the lunar outpost that will support human exploration of the Moon by 2024.
Image Credit: NASA.


The first logistics service to the orbital outpost is expected to deliver science, cargo and other supplies in support of the agency’s new Artemis lunar exploration program, which includes sending the first woman and the next man to the surface of the Moon by 2024.


Last fall, NASA asked American companies for ideas on how to best supply the Gateway, which will be located in an orbit around the Moon about 250,000 miles from Earth. The Gateway will be a command and service module for missions to the lunar surface and eventually, exploration farther into the solar system. Following up on that initial request for information, today NASA published a draft solicitation for industry comments on its logistics approach, which are due July 10, 2019.


“We’re asking industry to provide a spacecraft to deliver cargo and other supplies to the Gateway. It will dock to the orbital outpost, but will be responsible for generating its own power,” said Marshall Smith, director, human lunar exploration programs at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “We’re using the Moon as a proving ground for Mars to develop the technologies and systems we need for exploration farther into the solar system, so we look forward to seeing how industry responds to our upcoming solicitation, and potentially awarding multiple contracts for this lunar service.”


This latest call is mirroring similar cargo resupply services the agency pioneered with industry closer to home. NASA led the way for commercialization of low-Earth orbit, and is now providing new opportunities for private companies in deep space.


“The Gateway, and specifically our logistics supply requirements, enables the deep space supply chain, taking the next step toward further commercialization of space,” said Mark Wiese, NASA’s Gateway logistics element manager at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. “In addition to delivering cargo, science and other supplies to the Gateway with these services, there’s potential for an extension to industry to deliver other elements of our lunar architecture with this solicitation.”



Lunar Gateway. Animation Credit: NASA

A formal solicitation for a firm-fixed price contract is expected this summer. NASA anticipates the maximum contract award for all Gateway services over the course of 15 years will be valued at $7 billion.


NASA will host an industry day forum in Florida on June 26 to answer questions and explain the proposed approach for logistic deliveries. Additional details about that opportunity for industry are available online: https://www.fbo.gov/spg/NASA/KSC/OPDC20220/80KSC019R0002-DRAFT/listing.html


This announcement comes on the heels of other recent agency efforts to accelerate its Moon to Mars exploration plans. At the end of May, NASA awarded a contract to Maxar Technologies to build, launch, and demonstrate in space the power and propulsion element of the Gateway. And ahead of sending astronauts to the Moon, the agency will use a series of commercial Moon deliveries to send a suite of science instruments and technology demonstrations to the surface to continue studying Earth’s nearest neighbor. NASA is also working with 11 companies to study the proposed architecture for a new integrated human landing system, which would be staged at the Gateway for missions to the lunar surface.


Charged with returning to the Moon within five years, NASA’s lunar exploration plans are based on a two-phase approach: the first is focused on speed – landing on the Moon by 2024 – while the second will establish a sustained human presence on and around the Moon by 2028. The agency will use what we learn on the Moon to prepare for the next giant leap – sending astronauts to Mars.


For more information about NASA’s Moon to Mars exploration plans, visit: https://www.nasa.gov/moontomars


Related articles and links:


Artemis: https://www.nasa.gov/subject/16957/artemis


NASA Selects First Commercial Moon Landing Services for Artemis Program
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/05/nasa-selects-first-commercial-moon.html


NASA Taps 11 American Companies to Advance Human Lunar Landers https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/05/nasa-taps-11-american-companies-to.html


Sending American Astronauts to Moon in 2024: NASA Accepts Challenge https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/04/sending-american-astronauts-to-moon-in.html


Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Anna Heiney/KSC/Laura Aguiar.


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Today’s Advanced Research Goes From Free-flying Robots to Anti-Gravity Pants


ISS — Expedition 59 Mission patch.


June 14, 2019


Robotics, combustion and human research were the primary focus of today’s science schedule aboard the International Space Station. The Expedition 59 crewmembers also checked out U.S. spacesuits and specialized pants designed to counteract some of the effects of living in microgravity.


Astrobee, a tiny cube-shaped free-flying robotic assistant, is being tested aboard the orbital lab for its sighting and motion abilities. Flight Engineer David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) set up Astrobee for more mobility tests today inside the Japanese Kibo laboratory module. The device may support routine maintenance tasks and lab monitoring capabilities. Northrop Grumman’s Cygnus space freighter delivered Astrobee to the station April 19.



Image above: NASA astronaut Anne McClain checks out the new Astrobee robotics hardware earlier this year inside the Japanese Kibo laboratory module. Image Credit: NASA.


The safe observation of how fuels and materials burn in microgravity takes place in the space station’s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The research takes place in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module and may help engineers design more fuel-efficient spacecraft engines and safer, less flammable environments. NASA astronaut Christina Koch replaced a burner and igniter tip in the CIR to maintain continuing combustion research operations.


Flight Engineer Anne McClain of NASA attached cuffs to her legs and sensors to her chest for a series of blood pressure checks and ultrasound scans today. The Vascular Echo biomedical study from CSA, ongoing since March 2015, analyzes an astronaut’s cardiovascular system for conditions such as arterial stiffness.



International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: NASA

U.S. spacesuits continue to be serviced after a set of three spacewalks that took place earlier this year. Astronaut Nick Hague cleaned the suit’s cooling loops, cycled their pressure valves and tested water samples inside the Quest airlock where U.S. spacewalks are staged.


Cosmonauts Oleg Kononenko and Alexey Ovchinin have been training this week to use the Lower Body Negative Pressure suit. The Russian suit, also known as Chibis, counteracts the upward fluid shifts in the human body caused by microgravity. This may alleviate the head and eye pressure reported by astronauts. An easily recognizable symptom of these fluid shifts that all crews experience is “puffy face.”


Related links:


Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html


Astrobee: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=1891


Kibo laboratory module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/japan-kibo-laboratory


Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=317


U.S. Destiny laboratory module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/us-destiny-laboratory


Vascular Echo: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1664


Lower Body Negative Pressure suit: https://blogs.nasa.gov/ISS_Science_Blog/2015/06/02/rubber-vacuum-pants-that-suck/


Fluid shifts: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1126


Quest airlock: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/joint-quest-airlock


Spacewalks: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/spacewalks/


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


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