вторник, 4 июня 2019 г.

Reconstructed Roman Villa, Roman Wroxeter, Shropshire, 2.6.19.

Reconstructed Roman Villa, Roman Wroxeter, Shropshire, 2.6.19.

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The Realmonte Salt Mine in Sicily | #Geology #GeologyPage #Italy…

The Realmonte Salt Mine in Sicily | #Geology #GeologyPage #Italy #SaltMine

There are currently three salt mines Realmonte in the province of Agrigento and Racalmuto and Petralia, in the province of Palermo, managed by the company Italkali . The Realmonte field, overlooking the southern coast of Sicily, about four kilometers from Agrigento and a kilometer from Porto Empedocle.

Read more & More Photos: http://www.geologypage.com/2016/05/the-realmonte-salt-mine-in-sicily.html

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New mineral classification system captures Earth’s complex past…

New mineral classification system captures Earth’s complex past http://www.geologypage.com/2019/06/new-mineral-classification-system-captures-earths-complex-past.html

Severan Hut Circles, Vindolanda Roman Fort and Vicus, Hadrian’s Wall,...

Severan Hut Circles, Vindolanda Roman Fort and Vicus, Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland 31.5.19.

These hut circle foundations predate much of the Roman fort and may have served as residences for forced labour or the remains of displaced native homes.

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2019 June 4 SEIS: Listening for Marsquakes Image Credit: NASA,…

2019 June 4

SEIS: Listening for Marsquakes
Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, Mars Insight

Explanation: If you put your ear to Mars, what would you hear? To find out, and to explore the unknown interior of Mars, NASA’s Insight Lander deployed SEIS late last year, a sensitive seismometer that can detect marsquakes. In early April, after hearing the wind and motions initiated by the lander itself, SEIS recorded an unprecedented event that matches what was expected for a marsquake. This event can be heard on this YouTube video. Although Mars is not thought to have tectonic plates like the Earth, numerous faults are visible on the Martian surface which likely occurred as the hot interior of Mars cooled – and continues to cool. Were strong enough marsquakes to occur, SEIS could hear their rumbles reflected from large structures internal to Mars, like a liquid core, if one exists. Pictured last week, SEIS sits quietly on the Martian surface, taking in some Sun while light clouds are visible over the horizon.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190604.html

Heat conduction in the Interstellar Medium

Figure 1: Column density of neutral hydrogen with (top) and without (bottom) thermal conduction for a patch of the SN-driven ISM. In both cases the hot phase is dominating the volume with higher fractions for the simulations with thermal conduction. © MPA 

A team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, the University Observatory Munich, and collaborators have investigated the effect of heat conduction on the evolution of supernova blast waves and the structure of the supernova-driven interstellar medium (ISM). They find that thermal conduction has a strong impact on the volume filling fractions of cold, warm and hot gas. Thermal conduction also plays an important role for an accurate description of the hot ISM phase structure and the chemical composition of the cold phase of the turbulent ISM.

Thermal conduction is a fundamental physical process describing heat transport along a temperature gradient. The impact of this effect is measured by the conductivity constant. For every material on Earth the conductivity constant describes how efficiently it transports thermal energy. Iron, for example, has a very high conductivity and is very efficient in transporting heat since the electrons can move freely through the whole domain with only minimal losses due to interactions with atoms.

However, the situation in the ISM is very different. It is composed of very cold and dense regions with a lot of mass but covering little volume. The majority of the volume of the ISM is in the warm and hot phases at lower densities. The conductivity depends on the temperature itself and changes significantly over several orders of magnitude within the ISM. In the absence of any other process, however, thermal conduction alone can change the ISM structure, for example by evaporating cold clouds embedded in a hot medium.

A team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, the University Observatory in Munich, the University of Cologne and the Center for Computational Astrophysics in New York has investigated how heat conduction can change the properties of the supernova-driven ISM. Supernova explosions at the end of the life of massive stars are one of the most important feedback processes in the ISM driving turbulence and restoring the hot phase of the ISM.

The team has performed detailed resolution tests of individual supernovae exploding at various ambient densities, simultaneously following the chemical evolution and non-equilibrium low temperature cooling. Based on these results, the impact of thermal conduction on the structure of the ISM has been simulated in high-resolution, periodic ISM boxes with solar neighborhood conditions and supernova rates. A multi-phase ISM is developing rapidly in all cases. However, the total volume filled by the hot phase changes strongly from 30 to 40 per cent in the absence of thermal conduction to 70 – 80 per cent in the presence of thermal conduction, also resulting in a differently structured morphology (Fig. 1).

Figure 2: Phase Diagram of temperature and density for the turbulent box simulations shown in Fig. 1. The colorbar shows the particle count. The top plot shows the run without conduction, the bottom plot with conduction. Thermal conduction results in more gas at high temperatures as well as very low temperatures and high densities. © MPA

Why is the impact so strong? Thermal conduction is a physical process, which can redistribute thermal energy within the ISM from hot to colder gas. Due to the conservation of energy this leads to a mass flux from colder to warmer gas, which increases the mass of the hot phase and also its volume.

Heat conduction not only influences the hot phase of the ISM, it also changes the physical properties of the cold phase. The conductivity constant is smaller at lower temperatures and the cooling times in this regime are much shorter (a few hundred to thousand years).There is still energy transport from the warm phase towards the cold regime but due to the short cooling times it is directly ‘cooled’ away and the mass flux from the cold to the warm phase is suppressed. Therefore, the researchers find less mass in the warm phase of the ISM and more in the cold phase in the runs with thermal conduction (Fig. 2). Thermal conduction leads to an extended high-density tail with maximum densities that can be a factor of 10 higher compared to the simulations without thermal conduction. As a result, the fraction of molecular hydrogen, which forms at low temperatures and high densities, can increase by up to a factor of four in the presence of thermal conduction.

The results highlight that thermal conduction has to be taken into account for an accurate model of the multi-phase ISM.


Ulrich Steinwandel, Ben Moster & Thorsten Naab

Original publication

1. Steinwandel, Moster, Naab, Walch & Hu

Supernova explosions in the galactic multi-phase ISM: resolution requirements, chemical evolution and thermal conduction

in preparation

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HERA Mission XIX Departs for Mars Moon Phobos

NASA — HERA Mission XIX (C5M2) patch.

June 3, 2019

While NASA is planning a human mission to the Moon in 2024, researchers on the ground are preparing the most precious cargo that will be aboard: the human body and mind. By studying the effects of isolation and confinement in ground-based analogs, scientists are learning how to counter the hazards of human spaceflight without leaving Earth.

The 19th Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) analog mission “departed” on May 24 for a trip to Phobos, the larger of the two moons of Mars. HERA XIX, also known as C5M2 (Campaign 5, Mission 2), is the second of four planned missions in the mock spacecraft located at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston.

Image above: The HERA XIX crew completed training and is ready for a 45-day mock mission to Phobos. Crewmembers are Barret Schlegelmilch, Christian Clark, Ana Mosquera and Julie Mason. Image Credit: NASA.

“Some of this research is conducted to look at their levels of autonomy,” Human Research Program’s Flight Analogs Project Manager, Lisa Spence said. In a real mission, the crew will be very far from Earth which will cause communications delays. The crew must work together with only sporadic input from Mission Control. These HERA simulations help provide research data for autonomous conditions.

NASA’s Human Research Program requires the crews of all four C5 missions to conduct the same experiments, which enables researchers to identify patterns and variances in the research data. The C5 crewmembers will have less privacy in their crew quarters and in the hygiene module, and less “free volume” in which to work.

Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) module. Image Credit: NASA

The HERA Mission Control Center is just outside of the mock spacecraft in Building 220 of JSC. The crew will be monitored while in mission for physiological and psychological effects of extended isolation and confinement, team dynamics, and conflict resolution.

Crewmembers for C5M2 are Barret Schlegelmilch of Kent, Washington; Christian Clark of Honoloula, Hawaii; Ana Mosquera of Washington, D.C.; and Julie Mason of Huntsville, Alabama. Banumathi Cole of Charlottesville, Virginia trained with the crew as a backup member. The crewmembers will live in the HERA spacecraft for 45 days without actually leaving JSC.

“It’s critically important we’re able to find suitable volunteers, people who mimic or emulate the type of people that we select for astronauts. That’s very important to us,” Spence said.

Image above: Ana Mosquera enters the HERA habitat ready for a 45-day mission followed by one of her four crewmates, Christian Clark. Image Credit: NASA.

Campaign 5 is the second campaign to utilize 45-day missions. Longer mission length allows for more mission-like crew effects and more data points relevant to longer duration spaceflight missions. The next two Campaign 5 missions are scheduled as follows: Mission 3 will begin in August 2019 and Mission 4 will begin in January 2020.

Analog missions like HERA allow researchers to gather more data on more test subjects, within the confines of Earth. One goal of these missions is to look for possible safeguards from the hazards of life in space, and contribute to sustained human presence on the Moon.

The NASA HRP Test Subject Screening group is accepting resumes for healthy, non-smoking volunteers, ages 30 to 55 for future missions. Volunteers will be compensated and must pass a physical and psychological assessment to qualify. Volunteers wishing to become test subjects should go to this website to fill out a quick survey and find further instructions: https://herastudy.jsc.nasa.gov

For more information on NASA’s Human Research Program, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/hrp

NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP) is dedicated to discovering the best methods and technologies to support safe, productive human space travel. HRP enables space exploration by reducing the risks to astronaut health and performance using ground research facilities, the International Space Station, and analog environments. This leads to the development and delivery of an exploration biomedical program focused on: informing human health, performance, and habitability standards; developing countermeasures and risk mitigation solutions; and advancing habitability and medical support technologies. HRP supports innovative, scientific human research by funding more than 300 research grants to respected universities, hospitals, and NASA centers to over 200 researchers in more than 30 states.

Related links:

Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA): http://www.nasa.gov/analogs/hera

Moon to Mars: https://www.nasa.gov/specials/moon2mars/

Humans in Space: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/humans-in-space

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Kelli Mars/Human Research Program Strategic Communications/Monica Edwards/Laurie Abadie.

Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link

Space Station Science Highlights: Week of May 27, 2019

ISS — Expedition 59 Mission patch.

June 3, 2019

Science experiments conducted on the International Space Station last week included installation of new monitoring tools, research on the immune system in space, and validating manual back-up navigation systems. These and many other investigations on the space station support NASA’s Moon to Mars program and its initial goal of returning humans to the Moon by 2024.

Image above: NASA astronaut Nick Hague exercises while astronaut Christina Koch works in the rodent habitat on an investigation examining the effects of spaceflight on the function of antibody production and immune memory using a mouse model. Image Credit: NASA.

Here are details on some of the scientific investigations that the members of Expedition 59 conducted during the week of May 27:

Testing immune response in real time

RR-12, Tetanus Antibody Response by B cells in Space (TARBIS), examines the effects of spaceflight on antibody production and immune memory. Previous research shows that spaceflight has a dramatic influence on immune response, but scientists have yet to determine how it affects an inflight challenge to the body’s immune system. This investigation may advance development of measures to counter such effects and help maintain crew health during future long-duration space missions. Last week, the crew stowed Habitat 1 for return on the SpaceX Dragon currently docked to the station.

Animation above: Preparations for the (MVP Cell-01) investigation on how spaceflight affects the biology of musculoskeletal disease. Developing therapeutics to prevent bone and cartilage degradation in space could help protect astronauts on future long-term missions. Animation Credit: NASA.

Navigating the old-fashioned way

The crew performed lunar sightings for the Sextant Navigation investigation, which tests using a hand-held sextant on a spacecraft, focusing on stability and star sighting opportunities. While not intended as a replacement for primary navigation systems, the sextant offers another option for crews to navigate a spacecraft home should radio communications and main spacecraft computers become compromised. The sextant sighting technique is flexible and independent of vehicle type. Results from this investigation support development of emergency navigation methods for future Orion exploration missions.

Growing crystals, inspiring the next generation

Image above: NASA astronaut Nick Hague works on the CASIS PCG 14 investigation, which teaches middle and high school students about the capabilities and constraints of conducting an experiment in microgravity and helps inspire the next generation of explorers. Image Credit: NASA.

A number of investigations have shown that crystals grow larger and with fewer imperfections in microgravity. One of the latest investigations, CASIS PCG 14, explores closed-system crystallization of inorganic salts from aqueous solutions using evaporation, and examines translation of a previously optimized thermal-gradient inorganic salt crystallization procedure to other systems. Middle and high school students competed to grow the highest-quality ground-based crystals, and experts in crystallography selected those with the fewest imperfections to fly on the space station. Such student-led investigations encourage and inspire the next generation of researchers and explorers for future missions. The crew disassembled the two PCG-14 sample jars last week to photograph crystal growth on the membrane interface.

New tool installed while another ends its mission

The crew recently installed an important new monitoring tool on the space station. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3) on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) observes the complex dynamics of the Earth’s atmospheric carbon cycle. Its space-based measurements help to improve the understanding of surface carbon dioxide sources and sinks on a regional scale, as well as the processes controlling their seasonal variability.

Image above: The red circle indicates the location of the Space Communications and Navigation Testbed (SCAN Testbed) during its deployment on the outside of the space station. Image Credit: NASA.

The Space Communications and Navigation Testbed (SCAN Testbed) allowed mission planners to change radio functions post-launch, making it possible to adapt to increased data flow, potentially resolve problems with the communications system, and otherwise support an ongoing mission. Upon its completion, the crew packed the investigation into the Dragon capsule for disposal.

Other investigations on which the crew performed work:

— Rodent Research-12 (RR-12) examines the effects of spaceflight on the function of antibody production and immune memory using a mouse model: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7868

— At Home in Space assesses astronaut adaptation in order to support development of adaptive strategies to help crew members handle the isolated and confined environment of a space craft. Creating a sense of home in space could help improve astronaut health, well-being and performance on long-duration missions: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1727

— Residual Momentum and Tank Dynamics in Microgravity Environment (Furphy) tests the transfer of fluids from a rigid to a collapsible tank that expands as it fills. This capability supports future space exploration by making it possible to fuel small spacecraft in orbit instead of prior to launch, potentially saving launch mass and volume: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7842

— The ISS Experience documents daily life aboard the space station through a virtual reality film to educate a variety of audiences about life in the orbiting lab and science conducted there: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7877

— MicroAlgae studies the effects of microgravity on Haematococcus pluvialis. This tiny freshwater algae can produce astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant that could be useful as a food supplement on long space missions: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7689

— Veggie PONDS uses a newly developed passive nutrient delivery system and the Veggie Cell plant growth facility to cultivate lettuce and greens on the space station for on-orbit consumption and analysis on Earth: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7581

— Micro-14 extends previous studies on the yeast Candida albicans, seeking to define mechanisms behind its cellular adaptation to spaceflight, potentially contributing to maintenance of crew member health during long-duration spaceflight: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7642

— Probiotics studies using beneficial bacteria or probiotics to improve the intestinal microbiota and immune function in crew members on long-duration space missions: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=2047

Space to Ground: Saluting an Icon: 05/31/2019

Related links:

Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html

RR-12: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7868

Sextant Navigation: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7646

CASIS PCG 14: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7809

Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1786

Space Communications and Navigation Testbed (SCAN Testbed): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=156

MVP Cell-01: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7663

Spot the Station: https://spotthestation.nasa.gov/

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Video (NASA), Text, Credits: NASA/Michael Johnson/Jorge Sotomayor, Lead Increment Scientist Expeditions 59/60.

Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link

Dragon Resupply Ship Leaves Station, Heads for Pacific Splashdown

SpaceX — Dragon CRS-17 Mission patch.

June 3, 2019

Dragon Resupply Ship Leaves Station, Heads for Pacific Splashdown

The SpaceX Dragon cargo spacecraft was released from the International Space Station at 12:01 p.m. EDT after flight controllers in Houston delivered remote commands to the station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm. Expedition 59 Flight Engineer David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency monitored Dragon’s systems as it departed the microgravity laboratory.

Next up, Dragon will fire its thrusters to move a safe distance from the station and execute a deorbit burn around 4:56 p.m. to leave orbit. Splashdown down is targeted for approximately 5:55 p.m. EDT (2:55 p.m. PDT).

Dragon Resupply Ship Leaves Station, Heads for Pacific Splashdown

Dragon was detached from the Earth-facing port of the Harmony module at 8:30 a.m. after flight controllers at mission control in Houston delivered remote commands to the station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm. Expedition 59 Flight Engineer David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency will back up the operation and monitor Dragon’s systems as it departs the orbital laboratory.

Image above: Dragon attached to Canadarm2 robotic arm just before being released. Image Credits: NASA TV/ISS-HD Live/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

After firing its thrusters to move a safe distance away from the station, Dragon will execute a deorbit burn around 4:56 p.m. to leave orbit, as it heads for a parachute-assisted splashdown in the Pacific Ocean, 202 miles southwest of Long Beach, California, at approximately 5:48 p.m. (2:48 p.m. PDT). There will be no live coverage of deorbit burn or splashdown.

Image above: Dragon released from Canadarm2 robotic arm. Image Credits: NASA TV/ISS-HD Live/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Dragon launched on the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket May 4 from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, and arrived at the station two days later with almost 5,500 pounds of science, supplies and cargo on SpaceX’s 17th commercial resupply mission to the station for NASA.

Related links:

Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html

Harmony module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/harmony

Canadarm2: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/mobile-servicing-system.html

SpaceX Dragon: https://www.nasa.gov/spacex

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Video (NASA TV), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link

Hurricanes Have No Place to Hide, Thanks to Better Satellite Forecasts


If you’ve ever looked at a hurricane forecast, you’re probably familiar with “cones of uncertainty,” the funnel-shaped maps showing a hurricane’s predicted path. Thirty years ago, a hurricane forecast five days before it made landfall might have a cone of uncertainty covering most of the East Coast. The result? A great deal of uncertainty about who should evacuate, where it was safe to go, and where to station emergency responders and their equipment.


Over the years, hurricane forecasters have succeeded in shrinking the cone of uncertainty for hurricane tracks, with the help of data from satellites. Polar-orbiting satellites, which fly nearly directly above the North and South Poles, are especially important in helping cut down on forecast error.


The orbiting electronic eyeballs key to these improvements: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) fleet. A collaborative effort between NOAA and NASA, the satellites circle Earth, taking crucial measurements that inform the global, regional and specialized forecast models that have been so critical to hurricane track forecasts.


The forecast successes keep rolling in. From Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria in 2017 through Hurricanes Florence and Michael in 2018, improved forecasts helped manage coastlines, which translated into countless lives and property saved. In September 2018, with the help of this data, forecasters knew a week ahead of time where and when Hurricane Florence would hit. Early warnings were precise enough that emergency planners could order evacuations in time — with minimal road clogging.  The evacuations that did not have to take place, where residents remained safe from the hurricane’s fury, were equally valuable.


The satellite benefits come even after the storms make landfall. Using satellite data, scientists and forecasters monitor flooding and even power outages. Satellite imagery helped track power outages in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria and in the Key West area after Hurricane Irma, which gave relief workers information about where the power grid was restored – and which regions still lacked electricity. 


Flood maps showed the huge extent of flooding from Hurricane Harvey and were used for weeks after the storm to monitor changes and speed up recovery decisions and the deployment of aid and relief teams.


As the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season kicks off, the JPSS satellites, NOAA-20 and Suomi-NPP, are ready to track hurricanes and tropical cyclones as they form, intensify and travel across the ocean – our eyes in the sky for severe storms. 

For more about JPSS, follow @JPSSProgram on Twitter and facebook.com/JPSS.Program, or @NOAASatellites on Twitter and facebook.com/NOAASatellites.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...