среда, 29 мая 2019 г.

Bryn Celli Ddu Prehistoric Burial Chamber, Anglesey, North Wales, 28.5.19.

Bryn Celli Ddu Prehistoric Burial Chamber, Anglesey, North Wales, 28.5.19.












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Ty-Gwyn Prehistoric Standing Stone, Anglesey, North Wales, 28.5.19.




Ty-Gwyn Prehistoric Standing Stone, Anglesey, North Wales, 28.5.19.


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Repairmail Ready to launch into the night sky over The…


Repairmail


Ready to launch into the night sky over The University of Maryland, this drone is carrying living cargo – a kidney for a patient in a nearby hospital. While organ transplants often face a race against cold ischaemia time – how long chilled tissue can survive without a blood supply, complicated by courier routes and aircraft schedules – drone delivery may be the answer. The unmanned aircraft has a suite of on-board sensors known as HOMAL, Human Organ Monitoring and Quality Apparatus for Long‐Distance Travel, allowing pilots on the ground to monitor the health of the organ as well as the flying conditions. Biopsies before and after test flights of up to three miles suggest organs remain in perfect health, raising hopes that drones may one day travel much further with their special deliveries.


Written by John Ankers



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Llanddyfnan Prehistoric Standing Stone, Anglesey, North Wales, 28.5.19.




Llanddyfnan Prehistoric Standing Stone, Anglesey, North Wales, 28.5.19.


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2019 May 29 M95: Spiral Galaxy with an Inner Ring Image Credit:…


2019 May 29


M95: Spiral Galaxy with an Inner Ring
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, ESO, Amateur Data; Processing & Copyright: Robert Gendler & Roberto Colombari


Explanation: Why do some spiral galaxies have a ring around the center? First and foremost, M95 is one of the closer examples of a big and beautiful barred spiral galaxy. Visible in the featured combination of images from Hubble and several ground based telescopes are sprawling spiral arms delineated by open clusters of bright blue stars, lanes of dark dust, the diffuse glow of billions of faint stars, and a short bar across the galaxy center. What intrigues many astronomers, however, is the circumnuclear ring around the galaxy center visible just outside the central bar. Although the long term stability of this ring remains a topic of research, observations indicate its present brightness is at least enhanced by transient bursts of star formation. M95, also known as NGC 3351, spans about 50,000 light-years, lies about 30 million light years away, and can be seen with a small telescope toward the constellation of the Lion (Leo).


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190529.html


Thai dinosaur is a cousin of T. rex…


Thai dinosaur is a cousin of T. rex http://www.geologypage.com/2019/05/thai-dinosaur-is-a-cousin-of-t-rex.html


Contact Metamorphism Vs. Regional Metamorphism…


Contact Metamorphism Vs. Regional Metamorphism http://www.geologypage.com/2019/05/contact-metamorphism-vs-regional-metamorphism.html


Lightning is not an obstacle for us!


ROSCOSMOS logo.


May 28, 2019



Soyuz-2.1b was struck by a lightning

The Russian rocket Soyuz-2.1b was struck by a lightning, ten seconds after its launch on Monday. Without consequences.



Soyuz-2.1b hit by a lightning

The images are impressive, but fortunately without consequences. On Monday, when the Russian rocket Soyuz-2.1b was launched from the Plessetsk cosmodrome (north), an extremely rare incident occurred. About ten seconds after takeoff, the craft was struck by lightning, as shown by a video published by the Roscosmos chief.



 Dimitri Rogozin post on Twitter

This unplanned encounter had no effect on the rocket, which carried the Glonass-M navigation satellite, explains RT. The Russian agency also said in a statement that the operation had gone perfectly. «Congratulations to Space Command for the successful launch of the Glonass! Lightning is not an obstacle for you! «Dimitri Rogozin reacted on Twitter.


Related article:


The launch of the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle with the Glonass-M spacecraft has been completed
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/05/the-launch-of-soyuz-21b-launch-vehicle.html


ROSCOSMOS website: https://www.roscosmos.ru/


Images, Video, Text, Credits: AFP/ROSCOSMOS/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


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Hubble Spies Curious Galaxy Moving a Little Closer


NASA — Hubble Space Telescope patch.


May 28, 2019



This Hubble image stars Messier 90, a beautiful spiral galaxy located roughly 60 million light-years from the Milky Way in the constellation of Virgo (the Virgin). The galaxy is part of the Virgo Cluster, a gathering of galaxies that is over 1,200 strong.


This image combines infrared, ultraviolet and visible light gathered by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. This camera was operational between 1994 and 2010, producing images with an unusual staircase-like shape as seen here. This is because the camera was made up of four light detectors with overlapping fields of view, one of which gave a higher magnification than the other three. When the four images are combined together in one picture, the high-magnification image needs to be reduced in size in order for the image to align properly. This produces an image with a layout that looks like steps.


Messier 90 is remarkable; it is one of the few galaxies seen to be traveling toward the Milky Way, not away from it. The galaxy’s light reveals this incoming motion in a phenomenon known as blueshift. In simple terms, the galaxy is compressing the wavelength of its light as it moves towards us, like a slinky being squashed when you push on one end. This increases the frequency of the light and shifts it towards the blue end of the spectrum. As our universe is expanding, almost all of the galaxies we see in the universe are moving away from us, and we therefore see their light more towards the red end of the spectrum, known as redshift. Messier 90, however, appears to be a rare exception.


Astronomers think that this blueshift is likely caused by the cluster’s colossal mass accelerating its members to high velocities on bizarre and peculiar orbits, sending them whirling around on odd paths that take them both towards and away from us over time. While the cluster itself is moving away from us, some of its constituent galaxies, such as Messier 90, are moving faster than the cluster as a whole, making it so that, from Earth, we see the galaxy heading towards us. However, some are also moving in the opposite direction within the cluster, and thus seem to be streaking away from us at very high velocity.



Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

Messier 90 is featured in Hubble’s Messier catalog, which includes some of the most fascinating objects that can be observed from Earth’s Northern Hemisphere. See the NASA-processed image and other Messier objects at: https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-s-messier-catalog.


For more information about Hubble, visit:


http://hubblesite.org/


http://www.nasa.gov/hubble


http://www.spacetelescope.org/


Text Credits: ESA (European Space Agency)/NASA/Rob Garner/Image, Animation, Credits: ESA/Hubble & NASA, W. Sargent et al.


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North African ancestry in a British Bell Beaker?

A new thesis uploaded to the University of Huddersfield Repository suggests that there might be «Near Eastern/North African ancestry in a Bell Beaker individual from northeastern England» (see here).
If true, this wouldn’t be a shocking outcome, but certainly an interesting one. Do any of the British Beakers in the Global25 datasheets show this type of ancestry?
See also…
A Bell Beaker superhighway
The Boscombe Bowmen
Migration of the Bell Beakers—but not from Iberia (Olalde et al. 2018)
Source


A Wrinkle in Space-Time: The Eclipse That “Proved” Einstein Right

One hundred years ago a total solar eclipse turned an obscure scientist into a household name. You might have heard of him — his name is Albert Einstein. But how did a solar eclipse propel him to fame?


First, it would be good to know a couple things about general relativity. (Wait, don’t go! We’ll keep this to the basics!)


image

A decade before he finished general relativity, Einstein published his special theory of relativity, which demonstrates how space and time are interwoven as a single structure he dubbed “space-time.” General relativity extended the foundation of special relativity to include gravity. Einstein realized that gravitational fields can be understood as bends and curves in space-time that affect the motions of objects including stars, planets — and even light.


For everyday situations the centuries-old description of gravity by Isaac Newton does just fine. However, general relativity must be accounted for when we study places with strong gravity, like black holes or neutron stars, or when we need very precise measurements, like pinpointing a position on Earth to within a few feet. That makes it hard to test!


image

A prediction of general relativity is that light passing by an object feels a slight “tug”, causing the light’s path to bend slightly. The more mass the object has, the more the light will be deflected. This sets up one of the tests that Einstein suggested — measuring how starlight bends around the Sun, the strongest source of gravity in our neighborhood. Starlight that passes near the edge of the Sun on its way to Earth is deflected, altering by a small amount where those stars appear to be. How much? By about the width of a dime if you saw it at a mile and a quarter away! But how can you observe faint stars near the brilliant Sun? During a total solar eclipse!


image

That’s where the May 29, 1919, total solar eclipse comes in. Two teams were dispatched to locations in the path of totality — the places on Earth where the Moon will appear to completely cover the face of the Sun during an eclipse. One team went to South America and another to Africa.


On eclipse day, the sky vexed both teams, with rain in Africa and clouds in South America. The teams had only mere minutes of totality during which to take their photographs, or they would lose the opportunity until the next total solar eclipse in 1921! However, the weather cleared at both sites long enough for the teams to take images of the stars during totality.


image

The teams took two sets of photographs of the same patch of sky – one set during the eclipse and another set a few months before or after, when the Sun was out of the way. By comparing these two sets of photographs, researchers could see if the apparent star positions changed as predicted by Einstein. This is shown with the effect exaggerated in the image above.


A few months after the eclipse, when the teams sorted out their measurements, the results demonstrated that general relativity correctly predicted the positions of the stars. Newspapers across the globe announced that the controversial theory was proven (even though that’s not quite how science works). It was this success that propelled Einstein into the public eye.


image

The solar eclipse wasn’t the first test of general relativity. For more than two centuries, astronomers had known that Mercury’s orbit was a little off. Its perihelion — the point during its orbit when it is closest to the Sun — was changing faster than Newton’s laws predicted. General relativity easily explains it, though, because Mercury is so close to the Sun that its orbit is affected by the Sun’s dent in space-time, causing the discrepancy.  


In fact, we still test general relativity today under different conditions and in different situations to see whether or not it holds up. So far, it has passed every test we’ve thrown at it.


Curious to know where we need general relativity to understand objects in space? Tune into our Tumblr tomorrow to find out!


image

You can also read more about how our understanding of the universe has changed during the past 100 years, from Einstein’s formulation of gravity through the discovery of dark energy in our Cosmic Times newspaper series.


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


Chandra Finds Stellar Duos Banished from Galaxies


NASA — Chandra X-ray Observatory patch.


May 28, 2019


Scientists have found evidence that pairs of stars have been kicked out of their host galaxies. This discovery, made using data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, is one of the clearest examples of stellar pairs being expelled from their galactic base.


Astronomers use the term «binary» system to refer to pairs of stars orbiting around each other. These stellar pairs can consist of combinations of stars like our Sun, or more exotic and denser varieties such as neutron stars or even black holes.



Image above: Binary stars ejected from Fornax cluster. Image Credits: NASA/CXC/Nanjing University/X. Jin et al.


Neutron stars form when a massive star explodes as a supernova and the core of the star collapses onto itself. Under certain conditions, these gargantuan blasts that create the neutron star are not symmetric. The recoil effect can kick the star with such force that it is expelled from the galaxy where it resides. These new Chandra results show that sometimes a companion star is forced to exit the galaxy as well.


«It’s like a guest that’s asked to leave a party with a rowdy friend,» said Xiangyu Jin of McGill University in Montreal, Canada, who led the study. «The companion star in this situation is dragged out of the galaxy simply because it’s in orbit with the star that went supernova.»


How do astronomers look for these banished pairs? If the companion star is close enough, then matter from it will swirl toward the denser neutron star and form a disk around the neutron star. The strong gravitational forces from the neutron star cause the material in this disk to move more rapidly as it approaches the neutron star, and frictional forces in the disk heat the gaseous disk to tens of millions of degrees. At these temperatures, the disk glows in X-ray light.


Jin and her collaborators found signatures of so-called X-ray binaries outside of galaxies in a comprehensive study of the Fornax galaxy cluster made with Chandra data taken between 1999 and 2015. This cluster is relatively nearby at a distance of some 60 million light years from Earth in the constellation sharing its name.


By combining the large Chandra dataset with optical observations, researchers made a census of X-ray sources within about 600,000 light years of the central galaxy in the Fornax cluster. Astronomers concluded that about 30 sources in the Fornax cluster were likely to be pairs of stars that had been kicked out of the center of their host galaxies.


«Rather than being tethered to a particular galaxy, these pairs of stars now exist in the space between galaxies, or are on their way out of their home galaxy,» said co-author Meicun Hou, from Nanjing University in China.


The team also found about another 150 sources that appear to be outside the stellar boundaries of the galaxies within the cluster. These were determined, however, to have origins other than expulsion. One possibility is that they reside in the halos, or far outer reaches, of the Fornax cluster’s central galaxy, where they were formed. A second possibility is that they are X-ray binaries that were pulled away from a galaxy by the gravitational force of a nearby galaxy during a flyby, or X-ray binaries left behind as part of the remnants of a galaxy stripped of most of its stars by a galactic collision. Such interactions are expected to be relatively common in a crowded region like the one in the Fornax cluster.



Chandra X-ray Observatory. Animation Credits: NASA/CXC

«This is like the end of a party, where the people attending head off in different directions, and only the hosts are left behind,» said co-author Zhenlin Zhu, also of Nanjing University. «In the case of Fornax, the extreme case is that the original galaxies don’t really exist any more.»


The Chandra observations involved a total exposure time of 15 days, enabling the team to discover 1,177 X-ray sources within their search region, which covers 29 galaxies in the Fornax cluster. The team estimated how many of these sources likely belong to galaxies in the cluster, and how many are much more distant sources not contained in the cluster. This left them with about 180 sources located well outside the main stellar regions of galaxies in the cluster.


«While we are very excited about what we found, our data suggest that there may be many more of these evicted binaries that are too faint to be seen in the Chandra data,» said co-author Zhiyuan Li, also of Nanjing University. «We will need longer Chandra observations to detect this population of fainter sources.»


A paper describing these results appears in the May 1st, 2019 issue of The Astrophysical Journal and appears online: https://arxiv.org/abs/1902.03733.


NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.


Read more from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory: http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/19_releases/press_052819.html


For more Chandra images, multimedia and related materials, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/chandra


Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Lee Mohon/Marshall Space Flight Center/Molly Porter/Chandra X-ray Center/Megan Watzke.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Station Readies for Spacewalk, Begins Packing Dragon With Science


ISS — Expedition 59 Mission patch.


May 28, 2019


Two Expedition 59 cosmonauts are finalizing reviews before Wednesday morning’s spacewalk for maintenance outside the International Space Station. Meanwhile, the orbital residents are also readying completed experiments for return to Earth inside the SpaceX Dragon cargo craft next week.


Commander Oleg Kononenko is set to begin his fifth career spacewalk Wednesday at 11:44 a.m. EDT. He will lead first-time spacewalker Alexey Ovchinin during the six-hour-15-minute excursion on the Russian segment of the orbital lab. They will retrieve experiment hardware, clean lab windows and jettison old cables among other tasks.



Image above: Expedition 59 Flight Engineers Christina Koch of NASA and Alexey Ovchinin of Roscosmos ready a pair of Russian Orlan spacesuits inside the Pirs docking compartment’s airlock. Image Credit: NASA.


The duo reviewed their spacewalk tasks and worksites alongside NASA astronaut Christina Koch this morning. Koch will assist the pair with their Russian Orlan spacesuits in the Pirs airlock before and after Wednesday’s spacewalk.


The SpaceX Dragon launched a multitude of life science experiments studying immunology, crystallography, microphysiology and other space phenomena to the station May 4. The completed research samples and science hardware will now return to Earth inside Dragon after it departs the station’s Harmony module June 3. NASA Flight Engineer Anne McClain is readying the commercial space freighter for departure and beginning the work to pack the finalized experiments for analysis in labs across the globe.



International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: NASA

Astronauts Nick Hague and David Saint-Jacques spent Tuesday maintaining station systems and hardware. Hague first measured airflow in the Japan’s Kibo laboratory module before routing power cables in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module. Saint-Jacques reconfigured a robotics computer and routed communication cables then checked components on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device.


Related links:


Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html


SpaceX Dragon: https://www.nasa.gov/spacex


Immunology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7868


Crystallography: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7809


Microphysiology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7819


Kibo laboratory module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/japan-kibo-laboratory


Destiny laboratory module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/us-destiny-laboratory


Advanced Resistive Exercise Device: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=973


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


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