вторник, 28 мая 2019 г.

Bullet Time Trained assassins swarm through our body, on the…

Bullet Time

Trained assassins swarm through our body, on the lookout for any unwelcome invaders. These specialised cells of our immune system are on the constant lookout for trouble, and have lethal techniques to see it off, but how do they make sure they only pick a fight with dangerous invaders, not our own healthy cells or helpful members of our personal microbiome? Keen to understand the details of how our immune system works so they can exploit it for new treatments such as cancer immunotherapy, researchers filmed one particular part: the membrane attack complex (MAC). The researchers watched as MACs assemble and fire deadly bullet holes in the skins of threatening cells over time (shown in the video), and saw that the process pauses, allowing potential victims one last chance to prove they’re harmless by displaying a particular protein, before striking a killing blow to those that can’t prove their allegiance.

Written by Anthony Lewis

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Russia — Astronomical fraud in the space sector


May 28, 2019

Several corruption scandals eclipse the major projects of the Russian space industry.

Billions flying, officials in prison and a leader fleeing abroad: the Russian space sector is at the heart of astronomical embezzlement that sullies the ambitions of the size of Russia found in space.

For years, Russia has been trying to repair this industry, a source of immense pride in the Soviet era and of which it remains a major world player, but which was ruined after the fall of the USSR and suffered several humiliating failures recently. But corruption scandals continue to explode and eclipse announcements of plans for new rockets or lunar stations.

«Billions are stolen» in the public conglomerate Roscosmos, which brings together the companies of the sector, summed up in mid-May the head of the Investigative Committee Alexander Bastrykine, quoted by the agency Ria Novosti. Investigations have been in progress for at least five years and are far from complete, he added.

Recent episode of this series: in April, the director general of the Institute for Research in the construction of space equipment Yuri Iaskin, left Russia for a European country where he announced his resignation, according to the daily Kommersant. An audit had just been launched within his company and he feared the discovery of malpractices, according to newspaper sources.

Roscosmos confirmed to AFP the resignation of Mr Iaskine, whose company is involved in the development of the Russian satellite navigation system Glonass, supposed to compete with the American GPS, without explaining the reason.

Big splashed projects

Hijackings have particularly affected the two major projects of the sector of the past decade: Glonass and the construction of a new cosmodrome, Vostochny, in the Russian Far East, supposed to replace Baikonur, Kazakhstan.

Beyond that, almost all major companies in the sector, including rocket builders Khrounichev and Progress, have been affected by financial scandals, sometimes leading to prison sentences for large-scale fraud.

The Court of Auditors estimated the various financial misappropriations within Roscosmos to 760 billion rubles (more than 10 billion euros) in 2017, which represents nearly 40% of the infringements discovered in all sectors of the Russian economy .

Roscosmos regularly asserts to cooperate with the ongoing investigations. «The eradication of corruption is one of the main objectives of management,» assured the conglomerate to AFP.

In mid-April, President Vladimir Putin called for «a progressive solution to the obvious problems that hinder the development of the space sector»: «The prices and deadlines that are set for carrying out space projects often have no basis» .

More money, more corruption

Redressing the space sector is a matter of prestige for the Kremlin, symbolizing its renewed pride and ability to occupy the top ranks in the world, especially in the context of the new Cold War with the United States.

Ruined in the 1990s, the sector was afloat thanks to foreign commercial contracts. «But there were still executives of a very high professional level and there were fewer accidents during the launches,» said Egorov.

The first module of the International Space Station (ISS), Zarya, was manufactured in Russia and launched in 1998 despite financial difficulties. Paradoxically, the situation deteriorated in the early 2000s, when these problems were resolved. The influx of public funds has fueled fraud and space research has stopped advancing, according to experts.

«An unshakeable ivory tower»

«Today, the space sector works with the principle: give us money and we will launch something … one day,» says Vitali Egorov, author of a popular blog on space, the Green Cat (zelenyikot.com).

Only the ISS is «an unshakeable ivory tower», but rather it plays «a political role» to maintain international cooperation and brings nothing new for scientific research, says the expert.

Analysts said Roscosmos chief executive Dmitry Rogozin, a former deputy prime minister known for his anti-Western statements and appointed a year ago, is struggling to deal with the sector’s problems.

The scientific community criticizes this graduate in journalism for his lack of knowledge of the sector. «He could have been an excellent spokesperson for Roscosmos,» Egorov said, while putting it in perspective: «Even Superman could not have handled this avalanche of problems.»

ROSCOSMOS website: https://www.roscosmos.ru/

S.P. KOROLEV ROCKET AND SPACE CORPORATION «ENERGIA»: https://www.energia.ru/english/

Image, Text, Credits: AFP/ROSCOSMOS/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

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Barclodiad y Gawres Prehistoric Passage Grave, Anglesey, North Wales, 28.5.19.A...

Barclodiad y Gawres Prehistoric Passage Grave, Anglesey, North Wales, 28.5.19.

A partially reconstructed prehistoric passage grave dating from around 2500 BCE.

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2019 May 28 Stars, Dust, and Gas near NGC 3572 Image Credit…

2019 May 28

Stars, Dust, and Gas near NGC 3572
Image Credit & Copyright: Andrew Campbell

Explanation: Star formation can be colorful. This chromatic cosmic portrait features glowing gas and dark dust near some recently formed stars of NGC 3572, a little-studied star cluster near the Carina Nebula. Stars from NGC 3572 are visible near the bottom of the image, while the expansive gas cloud above is likely what remains of their formation nebula. The image’s striking hues were created by featuring specific colors emitted by hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and blending them with images recorded through broadband filters in red, green, and blue. This nebula near NGC 3572 spans about 100 light years and lies about 9,000 light years away toward the southern constellation of the Ship’s Keel (Carina). Within a few million years the pictured gas will likely disperse, while gravitational encounters will likely disperse the cluster stars over about a billion years.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190528.html

Getting ready for Mars – on the Space Station

ISS — International Space Station logo.

27 May 2019

From disrupted biological clocks to radiation and contamination hazards, Europe is running experiments on the International Space Station to take human exploration one step closer to Mars.

Earth or Mars?

As a new week starts on planet Earth, continuous research in orbit brings new knowledge about the challenges of making a trip to the Red Planet a reality.

Martian rhythm

A crew on a journey to Mars would live outside of the 24-hour cycle of light and darkness we experience on Earth. So do astronauts on the Space Station who experience 16 sunrises and sunsets every day.

Scientists believe that such disruption has an impact on the astronauts’ biological clock. To see how long-duration spaceflight affects people, NASA astronaut Anne McClain wore two sensors – one on the forehead and another one on the chest – for 36 hours as part of the Circadian Rhythms experiment.

For the fifth and last time during her mission, Anne’s core body temperature and melatonin levels were monitored. Results will be compared to those taken on Earth before and after her mission to understand the effects and how to counteract them during deep space missions.

Anne’s rhythm in space

Strategies for adapting – or not – to new rhythms could shed light on sleep disorders and help people on Earth that live outside of the natural cycle, staying up late or working night shifts.  

The pass of time could also be an issue for a trip to Mars that would last over 500 days. Recent research shows that astronauts underestimate time in orbit, just as they have an altered perception of distance in space.

Canadian Space Agency astronaut David Saint-Jacques and NASA astronauts Anne McClain and Nick Hague gauged how long a visual target appears on a laptop screen and their reaction times to these prompts recorded to process speed and attention.

This was all part of the Time experiment, a relevant research because a misperception of time may cause delayed reactions and create risks for crew safety.

Oxidative Mars

Space takes its toll on the human body. An interplanetary mission to Mars will see astronauts ageing faster. The International Space Station provides a unique opportunity to both reproduce the effects of ageing and study the huge oxidative impact.

The European Nano Antioxidants experiment is seeking innovative antioxidants to stimulate cells in the battle against muscle loss. Living cells and ceramic particles were placed in the Kubik incubator for six days, housed in ESA’s Columbus module. Half of the samples were kept at close to zero gravity, while the rest were exposed to the same gravity as Earth.

International Space Station (ISS)

The cells are now frozen at –80°C and waiting for their ride home on 3 June aboard the SpaceX’s Dragon spacecraft. Findings from this research could aid the development of new supplements to support astronauts on missions to Mars.

As soon as humans leave the protective shield that is Earth’s atmosphere, space radiation becomes a serious concern, especially if headed to Mars. Radiation levels in space are up to 15 times higher than on Earth.

The Dosis-3D experiment helps understand space radiation and how it penetrates the Space Station walls. Eleven radiation detectors attached to the walls of Columbus record how much radiation gets through and help create a complete picture of space radiation inside the Station.

The latest data downlink on 21 May marked seven years of continuous measurements in space for Dosis-3D.

Resistant materials for the interplanetary journey

Radiation also has an impact on hardware. The ICE Cubes facility is ESA’s faster, lower cost answer to making science happen in space. One of the “cubes” – small modular containers slotted in the Columbus lab – is investigating commercial computer boards’ resistance to space radiation.

Bacteria and fungi can become a threat for both human health and equipment as they tend to build up in the constantly-recycled atmosphere of the International Space Station.

European researchers are addressing this contamination with the Matiss-2 experiment. This study aims to find better materials to build a space station or spacecraft, especially important on our way to Mars.

Unwanted bacteria

Scientists will analyse the materials to see how the bacteria formed biofilms that protect them from cleaning agents and also help them adhere to surfaces. This week David Saint-Jacques packed the seventh sample holder with anti-microbial surfaces to be shipped back to Earth for analysis.

ESA has demonstrated expertise in studying Mars from orbit, now we are looking to secure a safe landing, to rove across the surface and to drill underground to search for evidence of life. Our orbiters are already in place to provide data relay services for surface missions. The next logical step is to bring samples back to Earth, to provide access to Mars for scientists globally, and to better prepare for future human exploration of the Red Planet. This week we’re highlighting ESA’s contribution to Mars exploration as we ramp up to the launch of our second ExoMars mission, and look beyond to completing a Mars Sample Return mission. Join the conversation online with the hashtag #ExploreFarther.

Related links:

Circadian Rhythms:

Time experiment:

Nano Antioxidants experiment:

European space laboratory Columbus:

International Space Station (ISS):

Images, Animation, Text, Credits: ESA/NASA/A. Gerst/Gianni Ciofani.

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Europe to Mars – and back!

ESA & ROSCOSMOS — ExoMars Mission patch.

27 May 2019

Europe has been in orbit around Mars for more than 15 years and is almost a year away from launching its first rover mission, but ambitions are already running high to go one step further: returning a sample from the Red Planet.

Europe to Mars — and back

Has there ever been life on Mars? Reconstructing the history of our neighbouring planet and understanding how its evolution diverged from that of Earth is at the heart of Mars exploration missions.

ESA’s first journey on this quest began 16 years ago – on 2 June 2003, with the launch of Mars Express. The orbiter has imaged almost all of the planet’s surface to date and continues to return a wealth of scientific data, including evidence for its wetter past. And where there was water there may have been life.

Mars Express in numbers

In 2016, ESA and Roscomos launched the 3.7 tonne ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), the heaviest spacecraft operating at Mars today. Dedicated to analysing the planet’s atmosphere in greater detail than ever, it is making a census of the gases present and to find out if any have a biological or geological origin. The spacecraft is also providing a global map of water distribution in terms of water-ice or water-hydrated minerals in the shallow sub-surface of Mars.

TGO is also a key provider of data-relay services to NASA’s Insight lander and Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. It will be the primary communications relay for the second ExoMars mission, which comprises a rover and surface science platform. It is on track for launching in July 2020 and will arrive at Mars in March 2021. TGO is already getting ready for the new arrival: next month it will make adjustments to its orbit to ensure it will be in the correct position to support the entry, descent and landing of the descent module.

After driving off the surface platform and studying its surrounds, the rover, named Rosalind Franklin, will locate scientifically interesting sites to examine. It will retrieve samples from 2 m below the ground, where they are protected from the harsh radiation that bombards the surface, for analysis in its highly advanced onboard laboratory to search for evidence of life.

 Mars Sample Return – overview

NASA’s 2020 Mars rover will also land in early 2021 to explore the delta of an ancient river. Alongside its own scientific goals, it will collect and store soil samples in pen-sized canisters, ready for a future pickup and return to Earth – the next logical step in the robotic exploration of Mars.

The Mars Sample Return concept needs three different missions and an international effort; Europe is a key partner and NASA’s 2020 rover is just the first step. ESA is studying concepts for a small and agile ‘fetch’ rover to recover the stored samples and carry them to a football-sized canister to launch from a NASA-led landing platform and Mars ascent vehicle. A third mission would be an ESA-led spacecraft sent from Earth to Mars orbit that will locate the orbiting canister, capture it and return it safely to Earth.

The Earth return orbiter will use technological heritage from ESA’s most recently launched science mission, BepiColombo: both use electric propulsion and multi-stage detachable modules. To catch the canister of samples, it will also use technological heritage in autonomous rendezvous from the European-built Automated Transfer Vehicles that supplied the International Space Station with cargo, fuel and oxygen.

Mars Sample Return overview infographic

Like the return of Moon rocks to Earth, bringing back samples of Mars will be a defining moment in space exploration. In this first Mars Sample Return mission, around 500 grams of material could be collected from diverse sites. Once returned to Earth, the samples would be curated in special facilities, ensuring compliance with planetary protection requirements. Bringing samples back to Earth will facilitate studies that are simply not possible in the miniaturised rover laboratories – however sophisticated – and, perhaps more importantly, will enable future discoveries as analytical techniques improve over time.

Looking in further ahead, the martian environment needs to be better understood before humans visit the Red Planet. Returned samples would not just be of scientific value but would help assess hazards related to the dust in the soil – relevant for human health issues and for operating engineering equipment in a dusty environment. The samples would also help inform how to use resources on the planet, an essential aspect of creating a self-sufficient environment for long-duration stays on Mars.

Europe is also participating in JAXA’s Martian Moons Exploration mission that will survey the two moons of Mars and bring a sample from Phobos back to Earth, to better understand the origin of the planet’s moons.

Inside the ExoMars rover

“While we continue to maximise the science return from our two Mars orbiters, we are also gearing up for a safe landing and roving across the planet’s surface,” says David Parker, ESA’s Director of Human and Robotic Exploration.

“To secure our future in Mars exploration, looking towards human exploration of the Red Planet, we are already planning the next logical steps – a robotic sample return mission as the first round-trip to the surface of Mars. NASA’s 2020 rover mission will soon be in place as the first step of this challenging mission. Now we want to finish it.”

ESA has demonstrated expertise in studying Mars from orbit, now we are looking to secure a safe landing, to rove across the surface and to drill underground to search for evidence of life. Our orbiters are already in place to provide data relay services for surface missions. The next logical step is to bring samples back to Earth, to provide access to Mars for scientists globally, and to better prepare for future human exploration of the Red Planet. This week we’re highlighting ESA’s contribution to Mars exploration as we ramp up to the launch of our second ExoMars mission, and look beyond to completing a Mars Sample Return mission. Join the conversation online with the hashtag  #ExploreFarther.

Related links:

Robotic exploration of Mars: http://exploration.esa.int/

ExoMars: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Exploration/ExoMars

European Space Agency (ESA)/S. Poletti/K. Oldenburg/ATG Medialab.

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link

CMS hunts for dark photons coming from the Higgs boson

CERN — Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) logo.

27 May, 2019

The CMS collaboration has searched for collision events in which the Higgs boson transforms into a photon and a hypothetical dark photon

Image above: A proton–proton collision event featuring a muon–antimuon pair (red), a photon (green), and large missing transverse momentum. (Image: CERN).

They know it’s there but they don’t know what it’s made of. That pretty much sums up scientists’ knowledge of dark matter. This knowledge comes from observations of the universe, which indicate that the invisible form of matter is about five to six times more abundant than visible matter.

One idea is that dark matter comprises dark particles that interact with each other through a mediator particle called the dark photon, named in analogy with the ordinary photon that acts as a mediator between electrically charged particles. A dark photon would also interact weakly with the known particles described by the Standard Model of particle physics, including the Higgs boson.

At the Large Hadron Collider Physics (LHCP) conference, happening this week in Puebla, Mexico, the CMS collaboration reported the results of its latest search for dark photons.

The collaboration used a large proton–proton collision dataset, collected during the Large Hadron Collider’s second run, to search for instances in which the Higgs boson might transform, or “decay”, into a photon and a massless dark photon. They focused on cases in which the boson is produced together with a Z boson that itself decays into electrons or their heavier cousins known as muons.

Such instances are expected to be extremely rare, and finding them requires deducing the presence of the potential dark photon, which particle detectors won’t see. For this, researchers add up the momenta of the detected particles in the transverse direction – that is, at right angles to the colliding beams of protons – and identify any missing momentum needed to reach a total value of zero. Such missing transverse momentum indicates an undetected particle.

Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Animation Credit: CERN

But there’s another step to distinguish between a possible dark photon and known particles. This entails estimating the mass of the particle that decays into the detected photon and the undetected particle. If the missing transverse momentum is carried by a dark photon produced in the decay of the Higgs boson, that mass should correspond to the Higgs-boson mass.

The CMS collaboration followed this approach but found no signal of dark photons. However, the collaboration placed upper bounds on the likelihood that a signal would have been seen.

Another null result? Yes, but results such as these and the ATLAS results on supersymmetry also presented this week in Puebla, while not finding new particles or ruling out their existence, are much needed to guide future work, both experimental and theoretical.

For more details about this result, see the CMS website: https://cms.cern/news/no-sign-dark-light-higgs-boson


CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s largest and most respected centres for scientific research. Its business is fundamental physics, finding out what the Universe is made of and how it works. At CERN, the world’s largest and most complex scientific instruments are used to study the basic constituents of matter — the fundamental particles. By studying what happens when these particles collide, physicists learn about the laws of Nature.

The instruments used at CERN are particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before they are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions.

Founded in 1954, the CERN Laboratory sits astride the Franco–Swiss border near Geneva. It was one of Europe’s first joint ventures and now has 23 Member States.

Related links:

Dark matter: https://home.cern/science/physics/dark-matter

Standard Model: https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model

Higgs boson: https://home.cern/science/physics/higgs-boson

Z boson: https://home.cern/science/physics/z-boson

Large Hadron Collider Physics (LHCP): https://indico.cern.ch/event/687651/

Large Hadron Collider (LHC): https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider

ATLAS results on supersymmetry: https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/05/atlas-surveys-new-supersymmetry.html

For more information about European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Visit: https://home.cern/

Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: CERN/Ana Lopes.

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Took a walk around the strange and remote ice age features of Brimham Rocks in Yorkshire...

Took a walk around the strange and remote ice age features of Brimham Rocks in Yorkshire today. It’s a surreal landscape and it must have been just as strange to our prehistoric ancestors.

Brimham Rocks Photoset 1, Yorkshire, 27.5.19.

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Green Obsidian : What is green obsidian?…

Green Obsidian : What is green obsidian? http://www.geologypage.com/2019/05/green-obsidian.html

A family of comets reopens the debate about the origin of Earth’s water

Where did the Earth’s water come from? Although comets, with their icy nuclei, seem like ideal candidates, analyses have so far shown that their water differs from that in our oceans. Now, however, an international team, bringing together CNRS researchers at the Laboratory for Studies of Radiation and Matter in Astrophysics and Atmospheres (Paris Observatory — PSL/CNRS/ Sorbonne University/University of Cergy-Pontoise) and the Laboratory of Space Studies and Instrumentation in Astrophysics (Paris Observatory — PSL/CNRS/Sorbonne University/University of Paris), has found that one family of comets, the hyperactive comets, contains water similar to terrestrial water. The study, published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, is based in particular on measurements of comet 46P/Wirtanen carried out by SOFIA, NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy.

A family of comets reopens the debate about the origin of Earth's water
The comet 46P/Wirtanen on January 3, 2019
[Credit: Nicolas Biver]

According to the standard theory, the Earth is thought to have formed from the collision of small celestial bodies known as planetesimals. Since such bodies were poor in water, Earth’s water must have been delivered either by a larger planetesimal or by a shower of smaller objects such as asteroids or comets.
To trace the source of terrestrial water, researchers study isotopic ratios, and in particular the ratio in water of deuterium to hydrogen, known as the D/H ratio (deuterium is a heavier form of hydrogen). As a comet approaches the Sun, its ice sublimes, forming an atmosphere of water vapour that can be analysed remotely. However, the D/H ratios of comets measured so far have generally been twice to three times that of ocean water, which implies that comets only delivered around 10% of the Earth’s water.

A family of comets reopens the debate about the origin of Earth's water
Scientists at work aboard a Boeing 747 SOFIA [Credit: Nicolas Baker/
IRAP/NASA/CNRS Phototheque]

When comet 46P/Wirtanen approached the Earth in December 2018 it was analysed using the SOFIA airborne observatory, carried aboard a Boeing aircraft. This was the third comet found to exhibit the same D/H ratio as terrestrial water. Like the two previous comets, it belongs to the category of hyperactive comets which, as they approach the Sun, release more water than the surface area of their nucleus should allow. The excess is produced by ice-rich particles present in their atmosphere.
Intrigued, the researchers determined the active fraction (i.e. the fraction of the nucleus surface area required to produce the amount of water present in their atmosphere) of all comets with a known D/H ratio. They found that there was an inverse correlation between the active fraction and the D/H ratio of the water vapour: the more a comet tends towards hyperactivity (i.e. an active fraction exceeding 1), the more its D/H ratio decreases and approaches that of the Earth.

Hyperactive comets, whose water vapour is partially derived from icy grains expelled into their atmosphere, thus have a D/H ratio similar to that of terrestrial water, unlike comets whose gas halo is produced only by surface ice. The researchers suggest that the D/H ratios measured in the atmosphere of the latter are not necessarily indicative of the ice present in their nucleus. If this hypothesis is correct, the water in all cometary nuclei may in fact be very similar to terrestrial water, reopening the debate on the origin of Earth’s oceans.

Source: CNRS [May 23, 2019]



The launch of the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle with the Glonass-M spacecraft has been...

GLONASS Navigation Satellites patch.

May 27, 2019

Soyuz-2.1b carrying GLONASS-M lift-off. Image Credits: Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga

On Monday, May 27, at 09:23 hours Moscow time from the State test cosmodrome Plesetsk in the Arkhangelsk region combat crew of the Space Forces VCS launched a successful launch of a Soyuz-2.1b medium-range space rocket with the Russian navigation spacecraft Glonass-M «.

The launch of the launch vehicle and the launching of the spacecraft into the calculated orbit took place in the normal mode.

Soyuz-2.1b launches GLONASS-M, 27 May 2019

Three minutes after the launch, the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle was taken to escort by means of the ground-based automated control complex of the German Titov Main Test Space Center.

At the estimated time, the Glonass-M spacecraft was launched into the target orbit by the Fregat upper stage and accepted for control of ground-based facilities of the Space Forces VKS.

A stable telemetric connection is established and maintained with the spacecraft. The on-board systems of the Glonass-M spacecraft are functioning normally.

GLONASS-M satellite. Image Credit: J. Huart

According to official sources, the navigation satellite was placed into the desired orbit and is functioning normally. GLONASS-M (ГЛОНАСС-М), also known as Uragan-M (Ураган-М) is part of the Russian GLONASS satellite navigation system.

This is the first launch of a space rocket from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in 2019.

More information:

Flight tests of the Soyuz-2 space launch complex began at the Plesetsk cosmodrome on November 8, 2004. Over the past fourteen years, 37 launches of Soyuz-2 rocket launchers of modernization stages 1A, 1B and 1B have been conducted from the northern cosmodrome.

The Glonass-M spacecraft launched into orbit has replenished the orbital grouping of the Russian Glonass Global Navigation Satellite System and is at the stage of entry into the system. At present, the Glonass orbital group comprises 27 spacecraft, of which one spacecraft of the new generation, Glonass-K, is undergoing flight tests and one Glonass-M spacecraft is in orbital reserve.

Roscosmos Press Release: https://www.roscosmos.ru/26378/

For more information about GLONASS network, visit: http://www.russianspaceweb.com/uragan.html

Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: Roscosmos/SciNews/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

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‘Brimham Rocks’ Ice Age Features Photoset 2, Yorkshire, 27.5.19.

‘Brimham Rocks’ Ice Age Features Photoset 2, Yorkshire, 27.5.19.

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https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...