четверг, 9 мая 2019 г.

On the Hook Our gut plays host to a whole community of…


On the Hook


Our gut plays host to a whole community of microbes, including many harmless commensals, that may even be beneficial. To avoid destruction by our immune system, they need to communicate with their host’s cells, and recent research may have uncovered a way for some bacteria to do this. Segmented filamentous bacteria closely associate with the intestinal epithelial cells lining the gut, latching onto them with a hook-like protrusion (pictured, as a computer reconstruction, overlaid onto a microscopy image). Electron microscopy revealed that membrane spheres, known as vesicles, are formed where bacterium and host meet, and carry antigens, protein markers of bacterial identity, back into the host cell. Antigens are typically used by the immune system to recognise and target foreign cells, but delivering them this way may alter the immune system’s reaction, protecting the bacteria. Nicknamed MATE, this ingenious process is revealing previously-unknown mechanisms for determining friend from foe.


Written by Emmanuelle Briolat



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2019 May 9 Messier 5 Image Credit & Copyright: Adam Block,…


2019 May 9


Messier 5
Image Credit & Copyright: Adam Block, Mt. Lemmon SkyCenter, University of Arizona


Explanation: “Beautiful Nebula discovered between the Balance [Libra] & the Serpent [Serpens] …” begins the description of the 5th entry in 18th century astronomer Charles Messier’s famous catalog of nebulae and star clusters. Though it appeared to Messier to be fuzzy and round and without stars, Messier 5 (M5) is now known to be a globular star cluster, 100,000 stars or more, bound by gravity and packed into a region around 165 light-years in diameter. It lies some 25,000 light-years away. Roaming the halo of our galaxy, globular star clusters are ancient members of the Milky Way. M5 is one of the oldest globulars, its stars estimated to be nearly 13 billion years old. The beautiful star cluster is a popular target for earthbound telescopes. Even close to its dense core, the cluster’s red and blue giant stars, and rejuvenated blue stragglers stand out with yellowish and blue hues in this sharp color image.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190509.html


A Field of Galaxies Seen by Spitzer and Hubble


This deep-field view of the sky, taken by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, is dominated by galaxies — including some very faint, very distant ones — circled in red. The bottom right inset shows one of those distant galaxies, made visible thanks to a long-duration observation by Spitzer. The wide-field view also includes data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope. The Spitzer observations came from the GREATS survey, short for GOODS Re-ionization Era wide-Area Treasury from Spitzer. GOODS is itself an acronym: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology, also in Pasadena. Caltech manages JPL for NASA. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. The Space Telescope Science Institute conducts Hubble science operations. The institute is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., Washington, D.C.  Credit NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA/Spitzer/P. Oesch/S. De Barros/ I.Labbe 



This artist’s illustration shows what one of the very first galaxies in the universe might have looked like. High levels of violent star formation and star death would have illuminated the gas filling the space between stars, making the galaxy largely opaque and without a clear structure. Credit: James Josephides (Swinburne Astronomy Productions)





NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed that some of the universe’s earliest galaxies were brighter than expected. The excess light is a byproduct of the galaxies releasing incredibly high amounts of ionizing radiation. The finding offers clues to the cause of the Epoch of Reionization, a major cosmic event that transformed the universe from being mostly opaque to the brilliant starscape seen today.


In a new study, researchers report on observations of some of the first galaxies to form in the universe, less than 1 billion years after the big bang (or a little more than 13 billion years ago). The data show that in a few specific wavelengths of infrared light, the galaxies are considerably brighter than scientists anticipated. The study is the first to confirm this phenomenon for a large sampling of galaxies from this period, showing that these were not special cases of excessive brightness, but that even average galaxies present at that time were much brighter in these wavelengths than galaxies we see today.


No one knows for sure when the first stars in our universe burst to life. But evidence suggests that between about 100 million and 200 million years after the big bang, the universe was filled mostly with neutral hydrogen gas that had perhaps just begun to coalesce into stars, which then began to form the first galaxies. By about 1 billion years after the big bang, the universe had become a sparkling firmament. Something else had changed, too: Electrons of the omnipresent neutral hydrogen gas had been stripped away in a process known as ionization. The Epoch of Reionization — the changeover from a universe full of neutral hydrogen to one filled with ionized hydrogen — is well documented.


Before this universe-wide transformation, long-wavelength forms of light, such as radio waves and visible light, traversed the universe more or less unencumbered. But shorter wavelengths of light — including ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays — were stopped short by neutral hydrogen atoms. These collisions would strip the neutral hydrogen atoms of their electrons, ionizing them.


But what could have possibly produced enough ionizing radiation to affect all the hydrogen in the universe? Was it individual stars? Giant galaxies? If either were the culprit, those early cosmic colonizers would have been different than most modern stars and galaxies, which typically don’t release high amounts of ionizing radiation. Then again, perhaps something else entirely caused the event, such as quasars — galaxies with incredibly bright centers powered by huge amounts of material orbiting supermassive black holes.


«It’s one of the biggest open questions in observational cosmology,» said Stephane De Barros, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. «We know it happened, but what caused it? These new findings could be a big clue.»

Looking for Light


To peer back in time to the era just before the Epoch of Reionization ended, Spitzer stared at two regions of the sky for more than 200 hours each, allowing the space telescope to collect light that had traveled for more than 13 billion years to reach us.


As some of the longest science observations ever carried out by Spitzer, they were part of an observing campaign called GREATS, short for GOODS Re-ionization Era wide-Area Treasury from Spitzer. GOODS (itself an acronym: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey) is another campaign that performed the first observations of some GREATS targets. The study, published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, also used archival data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

Using these ultra-deep observations by Spitzer, the team of astronomers observed 135 distant galaxies and found that they were all particularly bright in two specific wavelengths of infrared light produced by ionizing radiation interacting with hydrogen and oxygen gases within the galaxies. This implies that these galaxies were dominated by young, massive stars composed mostly of hydrogen and helium. They contain very small amounts of «heavy» elements (like nitrogen, carbon and oxygen) compared to stars found in average modern galaxies.


These stars were not the first stars to form in the universe (those would have been composed of hydrogen and helium only) but were still members of a very early generation of stars. The Epoch of Reionization wasn’t an instantaneous event, so while the new results are not enough to close the book on this cosmic event, they do provide new details about how the universe evolved at this time and how the transition played out.


«We did not expect that Spitzer, with a mirror no larger than a Hula-Hoop, would be capable of seeing galaxies so close to the dawn of time,» said Michael Werner, Spitzer’s project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. «But nature is full of surprises, and the unexpected brightness of these early galaxies, together with Spitzer’s superb performance, puts them within range of our small but powerful observatory.»


NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, set to launch in 2021, will study the universe in many of the same wavelengths observed by Spitzer. But where Spitzer’s primary mirror is only 85 centimeters (33.4 inches) in diameter, Webb’s is 6.5 meters (21 feet) — about 7.5 times larger — enabling Webb to study these galaxies in far greater detail. In fact, Webb will try to detect light from the first stars and galaxies in the universe. The new study shows that due to their brightness in those infrared wavelengths, the galaxies observed by Spitzer will be easier for Webb to study than previously thought.


«These results by Spitzer are certainly another step in solving the mystery of cosmic reionization,» said Pascal Oesch, an assistant professor at the University of Geneva and a co-author on the study. «We now know that the physical conditions in these early galaxies were very different than in typical galaxies today. It will be the job of the James Webb Space Telescope to work out the detailed reasons why.»


JPL manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at Caltech in Pasadena. Space operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at IPAC at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

News Media Contact

Calla Cofield
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
626-808-2469
calla.e.cofield@jpl.nasa.gov







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Iron Rose with Adularia | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Iron Rose with Adularia | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Fibbia, Tessin, Switzerland


Size: 5 x 4 x 3 cm


Photo Copyright © Anton Watzl Minerals


Geology Page

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The fossilization process of dinosaur remains…


The fossilization process of dinosaur remains http://www.geologypage.com/2019/05/the-fossilization-process-of-dinosaur-remains.html


What does Earth’s core have in common with salad dressing?…


What does Earth’s core have in common with salad dressing? http://www.geologypage.com/2019/05/what-does-earths-core-have-in-common-with-salad-dressing.html


Moldavite : What is Moldavite Gemstones? How Moldavite is…


Moldavite : What is Moldavite Gemstones? How Moldavite is Formed? http://www.geologypage.com/2019/05/moldavite.html


InSight Sees Drifting Clouds on Mars


NASA — InSight Mission patch.


May 8, 2019



NASA’s InSight Mars Lander used its Instrument Context Camera beneath the lander’s deck to image these drifting clouds at sunset on the Red Planet. This image was taken on April 25, 2019, the 145th Martian day, or sol, of the mission, starting at around 6:30 p.m. Mars local time.


Related article:


For InSight, Dust Cleanings Will Yield New Science
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/05/for-insight-dust-cleanings-will-yield.html


InSight Mars Lander: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/insight/main/index.html


Image, Text, Credit: NASA.


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New Clues About How Ancient Galaxies Lit up the Universe


NASA — Spitzer Space Telescope patch.


May 8, 2019



Image above: This deep-field view of the sky (center) taken by NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes is dominated by galaxies — including some very faint, very distant ones — circled in red. The bottom right inset shows the light collected from one of those galaxies during a long-duration observation. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA/Spitzer/P. Oesch/S. De Barros/I.Labbe.


NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed that some of the universe’s earliest galaxies were brighter than expected. The excess light is a byproduct of the galaxies releasing incredibly high amounts of ionizing radiation. The finding offers clues to the cause of the Epoch of Reionization, a major cosmic event that transformed the universe from being mostly opaque to the brilliant starscape seen today.


In a new study, researchers report on observations of some of the first galaxies to form in the universe, less than 1 billion years after the big bang (or a little more than 13 billion years ago). The data show that in a few specific wavelengths of infrared light, the galaxies are considerably brighter than scientists anticipated. The study is the first to confirm this phenomenon for a large sampling of galaxies from this period, showing that these were not special cases of excessive brightness, but that even average galaxies present at that time were much brighter in these wavelengths than galaxies we see today.


No one knows for sure when the first stars in our universe burst to life. But evidence suggests that between about 100 million and 200 million years after the big bang, the universe was filled mostly with neutral hydrogen gas that had perhaps just begun to coalesce into stars, which then began to form the first galaxies. By about 1 billion years after the big bang, the universe had become a sparkling firmament. Something else had changed, too: Electrons of the omnipresent neutral hydrogen gas had been stripped away in a process known as ionization. The Epoch of Reionization — the changeover from a universe full of neutral hydrogen to one filled with ionized hydrogen — is well documented.


Before this universe-wide transformation, long-wavelength forms of light, such as radio waves and visible light, traversed the universe more or less unencumbered. But shorter wavelengths of light — including ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays — were stopped short by neutral hydrogen atoms. These collisions would strip the neutral hydrogen atoms of their electrons, ionizing them.



Image above: This artist’s illustration shows what one of the very first galaxies in the universe might have looked like. High levels of violent star formation and star death would have illuminated the gas filling the space between stars, making the galaxy largely opaque and without a clear structure. Image Credits: James Josephides (Swinburne Astronomy Productions).


But what could have possibly produced enough ionizing radiation to affect all the hydrogen in the universe? Was it individual stars? Giant galaxies? If either were the culprit, those early cosmic colonizers would have been different than most modern stars and galaxies, which typically don’t release high amounts of ionizing radiation. Then again, perhaps something else entirely caused the event, such as quasars — galaxies with incredibly bright centers powered by huge amounts of material orbiting supermassive black holes.


«It’s one of the biggest open questions in observational cosmology,» said Stephane De Barros, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. «We know it happened, but what caused it? These new findings could be a big clue.»


Looking for Light


To peer back in time to the era just before the Epoch of Reionization ended, Spitzer stared at two regions of the sky for more than 200 hours each, allowing the space telescope to collect light that had traveled for more than 13 billion years to reach us.


As some of the longest science observations ever carried out by Spitzer, they were part of an observing campaign called GREATS, short for GOODS Re-ionization Era wide-Area Treasury from Spitzer. GOODS (itself an acronym: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey) is another campaign that performed the first observations of some GREATS targets. The study, published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, also used archival data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.


Using these ultra-deep observations by Spitzer, the team of astronomers observed 135 distant galaxies and found that they were all particularly bright in two specific wavelengths of infrared light produced by ionizing radiation interacting with hydrogen and oxygen gases within the galaxies. This implies that these galaxies were dominated by young, massive stars composed mostly of hydrogen and helium. They contain very small amounts of «heavy» elements (like nitrogen, carbon and oxygen) compared to stars found in average modern galaxies.


These stars were not the first stars to form in the universe (those would have been composed of hydrogen and helium only) but were still members of a very early generation of stars. The Epoch of Reionization wasn’t an instantaneous event, so while the new results are not enough to close the book on this cosmic event, they do provide new details about how the universe evolved at this time and how the transition played out.


«We did not expect that Spitzer, with a mirror no larger than a Hula-Hoop, would be capable of seeing galaxies so close to the dawn of time,» said Michael Werner, Spitzer’s project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. «But nature is full of surprises, and the unexpected brightness of these early galaxies, together with Spitzer’s superb performance, puts them within range of our small but powerful observatory.»



NASA Spitzer Space Telescope

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, set to launch in 2021, will study the universe in many of the same wavelengths observed by Spitzer. But where Spitzer’s primary mirror is only 85 centimeters (33.4 inches) in diameter, Webb’s is 6.5 meters (21 feet) — about 7.5 times larger — enabling Webb to study these galaxies in far greater detail. In fact, Webb will try to detect light from the first stars and galaxies in the universe. The new study shows that due to their brightness in those infrared wavelengths, the galaxies observed by Spitzer will be easier for Webb to study than previously thought.


«These results by Spitzer are certainly another step in solving the mystery of cosmic reionization,» said Pascal Oesch, an assistant professor at the University of Geneva and a co-author on the study. «We now know that the physical conditions in these early galaxies were very different than in typical galaxies today. It will be the job of the James Webb Space Telescope to work out the detailed reasons why.»


JPL manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at Caltech in Pasadena. Space operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at IPAC at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.


New study: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz940


For more information on Spitzer, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/spitzer and http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/


Images (mentioned), Animation, Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/JPL/Calla Cofield.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Science Aboard Station Today Impacts Astronaut Health Long-Term


ISS — Expedition 59 Mission patch.


May 8, 2019


The International Space Station has all but one of its seven ports occupied by two crew ships and four cargo ships today. With plenty of food, fuel and supplies, the Expedition 59 crew is busy conducting new science experiments delivered to the orbital lab.


The crew researched an array of space biology today including pathogen virulence, immune system changes and upper body pressure that can affect mission success. Human research and life science is key in microgravity as NASA learns to support healthy astronauts for longer missions farther into space.



Image above: Expedition 59 Flight Engineers (from left) Anne McClain, David Saint-Jacques and Christina Koch are gathered inside the U.S. Destiny laboratory. Image Credit: NASA.


NASA Flight Engineer Christina Koch continued studying why pathogens increase in virulence due to the weightless environment of space. She performed inoculation procedures on cell cultures to help scientists understand critical cellular and molecular changes that occur on the absence of gravity.


Koch then joined fellow astronauts Anne McClain and David Saint-Jacques in the afternoon exploring how the immune system responds during a long-term space mission. The crew is observing dozens of mice on the orbital lab to characterize the response changes since the mouse immune system closely parallels that of humans.



International Space Station (ISS). Image Credit: NASA

McClain also participated on more Fluid Shifts research with Flight Engineers Alexey Ovchinin and Flight Engineer Nick Hague. The trio worked with a variety of biomedical hardware today observing the impacts of increased head and eye pressure caused by microgravity. The long-running human research experiment seeks to reverse the upward flow of fluids and alleviate the symptoms reported by astronauts.


Related links:


Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html


Human research and life science: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


Pathogens: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7642


Mouse immune system: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7868


Fluid Shifts: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1126


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Explosions of universe’s first stars spewed powerful jets



A simulation shows what the first supernovae could have looked like: Instead of spherical as many scientists have assumed, these brilliant explosions may have been asymmetric jets that shot heavy elements such as zinc (green dots) out into the early universe. This simulation shows the shape of the supernova, 50 seconds after the initial explosion.  Image: Melanie Gonick




Rana Ezzeddine and Anna Frebel of MIT have observed evidence that the first stars in the universe exploded as asymmetric supernova, strong enough to scatter heavy elements such as zinc across the early universe. Image: Melanie Gonick





Instead of ballooning into spheres, as once thought, early supernovae ejected jets that may have seeded new stars.


Several hundred million years after the Big Bang, the very first stars flared into the universe as massively bright accumulations of hydrogen and helium gas. Within the cores of these first stars, extreme, thermonuclear reactions forged the first heavier elements, including carbon, iron, and zinc.


These first stars were likely immense, short-lived fireballs, and scientists have assumed that they exploded as similarly spherical supernovae.


But now astronomers at MIT and elsewhere have found that these first stars may have blown apart in a more powerful, asymmetric fashion, spewing forth jets that were violent enough to eject heavy elements into neighboring galaxies. These elements ultimately served as seeds for the second generation of stars, some of which can still be observed today.


In a paper published today in the Astrophysical Journal, the researchers report a strong abundance of zinc in HE 1327-2326, an ancient, surviving star that is among the universe’s second generation of stars. They believe the star could only have acquired such a large amount of zinc after an asymmetric explosion of one of the very first stars had enriched its birth gas cloud.


“When a star explodes, some proportion of that star gets sucked into a black hole like a vacuum cleaner,” says Anna Frebel, an associate professor of physics at MIT and a member of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. “Only when you have some kind of mechanism, like a jet that can yank out material, can you observe that material later in a next-generation star. And we believe that’s exactly what could have happened here.”


“This is the first observational evidence that such an asymmetric supernova took place in the early universe,” adds MIT postdoc Rana Ezzeddine, the study’s lead author. “This changes our understanding of how the first stars exploded.”

“A sprinkle of elements”


HE 1327-2326 was discovered by Frebel in 2005. At the time, the star was the most metal-poor star ever observed, meaning that it had extremely low concentrations of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium — an indication that it formed as part of the second generation of stars, at a time when most of the universe’s heavy element content had yet to be forged.


“The first stars were so massive that they had to explode almost immediately,” Frebel says. “The smaller stars that formed as the second generation are still available today, and they preserve the early material left behind by these first stars. Our star has just a sprinkle of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, so we know it must have formed as part of the second generation of stars.”


In May of 2016, the team was able to observe the star which orbits close to Earth, just 5,000 light years away. The researchers won time on NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope over two weeks, and recorded the starlight over multiple orbits. They used an instrument aboard the telescope, the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, to measure the minute abundances of various elements within the star.


The spectrograph is designed with high precision to pick up faint ultraviolet light. Some of those wavelength are absorbed by certain elements, such as zinc. The researchers made a list of heavy elements that they suspected might be within such an ancient star, that they planned to look for in the UV data, including silicon, iron, phosophorous, and zinc.


“I remember getting the data, and seeing this zinc line pop out, and we couldn’t believe it, so we redid the analysis again and again,” Ezzeddine recalls. “We found that, no matter how we measured it, we got this really strong abundance of zinc.”

A star channel opens


Frebel and Ezzeddine then contacted their collaborators in Japan, who specialize in developing simulations of supernovae and the secondary stars that form in their aftermath. The researchers ran over 10,000 simulations of supernovae, each with different explosion energies, configurations, and other parameters. They found that while most of the spherical supernova simulations were able to produce a secondary star with the elemental compositions the researchers observed in HE 1327-2326, none of them reproduced the zinc signal.


As it turns out, the only simulation that could explain the star’s makeup, including its high abundance of zinc, was one of an aspherical, jet-ejecting supernova of a first star. Such a supernova would have been extremely explosive, with a power equivalent to about a nonillion times (that’s 10 with 30 zeroes after it) that of a hydrogen bomb.


“We found this first supernova was much more energetic than people have thought before, about five to 10 times more,” Ezzeddine says. “In fact, the previous idea of the existence of a dimmer supernova to explain the second-generation stars may soon need to be retired.”


The team’s results may shift scientists’ understanding of reionization, a pivotal period during which the gas in the universe morphed from being completely neutral, to ionized — a state that made it possible for galaxies to take shape.


“People thought from early observations that the first stars were not so bright or energetic, and so when they exploded, they wouldn’t participate much in reionizing the universe,” Frebel says. “We’re in some sense rectifying this picture and showing, maybe the first stars had enough oomph when they exploded, and maybe now they are strong contenders for contributing to reionization, and for wreaking havoc in their own little dwarf galaxies.”


These first supernovae could have also been powerful enough to shoot heavy elements into neighboring “virgin galaxies” that had yet to form any stars of their own.


“Once you have some heavy elements in a hydrogen and helium gas, you have a much easier time forming stars, especially little ones,” Frebel says. “The working hypothesis is, maybe second generation stars of this kind formed in these polluted virgin systems, and not in the same system as the supernova explosion itself, which is always what we had assumed, without thinking in any other way. So this is opening up a new channel for early star formation.”

This research was funded, in part, by the National Science Foundation.


Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office





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Keep Out When we hear of disease outbreaks in other countries,…


Keep Out


When we hear of disease outbreaks in other countries, many people’s first thought is whether there’s any danger of it becoming a problem closer to home. Zika virus is an insect-borne disease that causes little damage in most people, but can have serious impacts for some, particularly pregnant women and their children. There have been recent outbreaks across the world, but Australia has so far evaded major issues. Keen to keep it that way, researchers have investigated how capable Australian insects are of transmitting the virus, since similar species have been known to carry the disease elsewhere. They discovered that two mosquito species present in Australia are susceptible – Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, pictured infected with the virus in green in the head, salivary glands and midgut. Of the two, A.aegypti transmit the strain better, and understanding this potential danger is the first step in keeping Zika out.


Written by Anthony Lewis



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