вторник, 9 апреля 2019 г.

Lethal Ladybirds A third of the world’s population is infected…


Lethal Ladybirds


A third of the world’s population is infected with parasitic worms called helminths. Schistosomiasis is one of the many diseases they cause, resulting in 200,000 deaths a year. On a mission to find new drugs to treat helminth infections, researchers turn to insects, specifically the harlequin ladybird, which produces a range of potent anti-microbials including harmonine. They tested the effects of harmonine on Schistosoma mansoni, the helminth responsible for schistosomiasis. Growing S.mansoni adults in dishes with harmonine resulted in damage to several tissues needed for their survival, including outer protective layers, reproductive organs, and the gut. The guts of harmonine-treated helminths (pictured, right) were distended compared to untreated helminths (left), as revealed by confocal microscopy. Increasing the dose of harmonine resulted in further damage and the eventual death of S.mansoni adults. These results provide new avenues for research into novel compounds to combat the diseases caused by helminths.


Written by Lux Fatimathas



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Jupiter’s Atmosphere Heats up under Solar Wind


Subaru Telescope logo.


April 9, 2019


New Earth-based telescope observations show that auroras at Jupiter’s poles are heating the planet’s atmosphere to a greater depth than previously thought – and that it is a rapid response to the solar wind.


“The solar wind impact at Jupiter is an extreme example of space weather,” said James Sinclair of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, who led new research published April 8 in Nature Astronomy. “We’re seeing the solar wind having an effect deeper than is normally seen.”



Jupiter Poles: Hot from Solar Wind

Image above: Scientists used red, blue and yellow to infuse this infrared image of Jupiter’s atmosphere (red and yellow indicate the hotter regions), which was recorded by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (COMICS) at the Subaru Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii on Jan. 12, 2017. Image Credits: NAOJ and NASA/JPL-Caltech.


Auroras at Earth’s poles (known as the aurora borealis at the North Pole and aurora australis at the South Pole) occur when the energetic particles blown out from the Sun (the solar wind) interact with and heat up the gases in the upper atmosphere. The same thing happens at Jupiter, but the new observations show the heating goes two or three times deeper down into its atmosphere than on Earth, into the lower level of Jupiter’s upper atmosphere, or stratosphere.


Understanding how the Sun’s constant outpouring of solar wind interacts with planetary environments is key to better understanding the very nature of how planets and their atmospheres evolve.


“What is startling about the results is that we were able to associate for the first time the variations in solar wind and the response in the stratosphere – and that the response to these variations is so quick for such a large area,” said JPL’s Glenn Orton, co-author and part of the observing team.



Heating Up Jupiter’s Atmosphere

Image above: Sensitive to Jupiter’s stratospheric temperatures, these infrared images were recorded by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (COMICS) at the Subaru Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Areas that are more yellow and red indicate the hotter regions. Image Credits: NAOJ and NASA/JPL-Caltech.


Within a day of the solar wind hitting Jupiter, the chemistry in its atmosphere changed and its temperature rose, the team found. An infrared image captured during their observing campaign in January, February and May of 2017 clearly shows hot spots near the poles, where Jupiter’s auroras are. The scientists based their findings on observations by the Subaru Telescope, atop the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.


The telescope’s Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectograph (COMICS) recorded thermal images – which capture areas of higher or lower temperatures – of Jupiter’s stratosphere.


“Such heating and chemical reactions may tell us something about other planets with harsh environments, and even early Earth,” said Yasumasa Kasaba of Tohoku University, who also worked on the observing team.


Related links:


Subaru Telescope: https://www.subarutelescope.org/index.html


Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectograph (COMICS): https://www.subarutelescope.org/Introduction/instrument/COMICS.html


Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL): https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Dwayne Brown/JoAnna Wendel/JPL/Gretchen McCartney.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


mostly-history: Carvings on Sarira Pagoda (Qixia Monastery,…


mostly-history:




Carvings on Sarira Pagoda (Qixia Monastery, Nanjing, China).




Source


desimonewayland: Disk (bi) – Jade, Ceremonial object China, Han…


desimonewayland:



Disk (bi) – Jade, Ceremonial object


China, Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE)


Freer / Sackler Galleries



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historyarchaeologyartefacts: Horse (brass), Iran 10th c….


historyarchaeologyartefacts:



Horse (brass), Iran 10th c. AD.[2048×1825]



Source


2019 April 9 Moon Occults Saturn Image Credit & Copyright:…


2019 April 9


Moon Occults Saturn
Image Credit & Copyright: Cory Schmitz


Explanation: Sometimes Saturn disappears. It doesn’t really go away, though, it just disappears from view when our Moon moves in front. Such a Saturnian eclipse was visible along a small swath of Earth – from Brazil to Sri Lanka – near the end of last month. The featured color image is a digital fusion of the clearest images captured by successive videos of the event taken in red, green, and blue, and taken separately for Saturn and the comparative bright Moon. The exposures were taken from South Africa just before occultation – and also just before sunrise. When Saturn re-appeared on the other side of the Moon almost two hours later, the Sun had risen. This year, eclipses of Saturn by the Moon occur almost monthly, but, unfortunately, are visible only to those with the right location and with clear and dark skies.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190409.html


planetarypuppy: Earthenware dogs from 1st-3rd century CE China….



planetarypuppy:



Earthenware dogs from 1st-3rd century CE China. On display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, June 2017



Source


shewhoworshipscarlin: Cosmetic box, 100BC-25AD, China.


shewhoworshipscarlin:



Cosmetic box, 100BC-25AD, China.



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elsewheregreen: Oblation Tsun (ritual vessel) with Turquoise…


elsewheregreen:



Oblation Tsun (ritual vessel) with Turquoise Inlay and Gold Filament. China, Mid Warring States period BC375-276


I’m not certain as to the identity of the animal.



Source


Ballymeanoch Henge and Kerbed Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, 6.4.19.

Ballymeanoch Henge and Kerbed Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, 6.4.19.











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desimonewayland: Stylized cloud plaque, China, 618-906, Tang…


desimonewayland:



Stylized cloud plaque, China, 618-906, Tang dynasty, gilt bronze


Freer/Sackler Galleries



Source


peashooter85: The Sword of Goujian,Between 1965 and 1967…




peashooter85:



The Sword of Goujian,


Between 1965 and 1967 Chinese archaeologists were conducting a dig near Zhang River Reservoir in Hebei Province.  50 tombs were discovered yielding 2,000 priceless historic artifacts.  Perhaps the most important was a bronze sword discovered in the tomb of an ancient Chinese king, what is now called the “Sword of Goujian”.  Crafted from bronze, the sword dates to the Spring and Autumn Period” of Chinese history (771 BC to 403 BC).  Amazingly, despite being around 2,500 years old the sword is in almost perfect condition, and still sharp enough to shave with. The incredible preservation of the blade is attributed to the composition of its bronze allow, and storage in an airtight scabbard.  The sword blade features a beautiful repeating geometric rhombi pattern as well as decorations of blue crystal and turquoise. The hilt is bound in silk and composed of eleven concentric circles. The blade itself is 55.6 centimetres (21.9 in) in length and  4.6 centimetres (1.8 in) wide at its base.  Overall the sword weighs 31 ounces.


The right hand side of the blade features eight characters which read “King of Yue made this sword for his personal use”. This leads a problem to the personal identity of the tomb, as there were nine kings who ruled Yue during the Spring and Autumn Period.  Despite controversy as to its owner, general consensus is that the sword belongs to King Goujian, who ruled Yue between 496 and 465 BC.




Source


cma-greek-roman-art: Cauldron Ornament, c. 1200, Cleveland…


cma-greek-roman-art:



Cauldron Ornament, c. 1200, Cleveland Museum of Art: Greek and Roman Art


Size: Overall: 23.2 cm (9 1/8 in.)
Medium: bronze with iron rivets


https://clevelandart.org/art/1996.312



Source


OSIRIS-REx Captures Laser 3D View of Bennu


NASA – OSIRIS-REx Mission patch.


April 8, 2019



This three-dimensional view of asteroid Bennu was created by the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA), contributed by the Canadian Space Agency, on NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. From Feb. 12 through 17, OLA made more than 11 million measurements of the distance between OSIRIS-REx and Bennu’s surface as the spacecraft flew less than 1.2 miles (2 km) above the surface – the closest orbit ever achieved by spacecraft. OLA obtained these measurements by firing laser pulses at Bennu and measuring the amount of time it takes for the light to bounce off the asteroid’s surface and return to the instrument. That time measurement is then translated into altitude data. Using this data, the OLA team created the 3-D model of Bennu’s surface.



OSIRIS-REx orbiting Bennu

The colors represent the distance from the center of Bennu: dark blue areas lie approximately 197 feet (60 meters) lower than peaks indicated in red. Some parts of the asteroid have not yet been measured, which creates gaps in the image. OLA will take nearly a billion more measurements throughout 2019 to complete the first-ever high-resolution 3D lidar map of a near-Earth asteroid.


OSIRIS-REx (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer): http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/osiris-rex/index.html


Animation, Image, Text, Credits: NASA/Karl Hille/University of Arizona/CSA/York/MDA.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


theancientwayoflife: ~Rhyton in the form of a mounted…



theancientwayoflife:



~Rhyton in the form of a mounted Amazon.

Culture: Greek

Period: Classical Period

Date: Late 5th century B.C.

Potter/Artist: Sotades

Findspot: Nubia (Sudan)

Place of Manufacture: Athens, Attica, Greece



Source


ancientart: The Karnak Temple Complex of Thebes,…






ancientart:



The Karnak Temple Complex of Thebes, Egypt. Construction of this complex began with Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom, and continued into the Ptolemaic period. 


Courtesy of kairoinfo4u.



Source


grandegyptianmuseum: Magic in Ancient EgyptPapyrus; black…



grandegyptianmuseum:



Magic in Ancient Egypt


Papyrus; black line representation of winged composite deity upon pseudo-cartouche; border of Hieroglyphic symbols. It dates to the Late Period, ca. 664-332 BC. Now in the British Museum, EA10296.



Source


Dunchraigaig Prehistoric Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, 6.4.19.



Dunchraigaig Prehistoric Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, 6.4.19.










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Nether Largie South Prehistoric Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 6.4.19.




Nether Largie South Prehistoric Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 6.4.19.









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