вторник, 19 марта 2019 г.

Jersey’s 5,000-year-old monument ‘damaged by detectorist’

A 5,000-year-old stone monument has been seriously damaged by a metal detectorist in Jersey, the island’s heritage body said.











Jersey's 5,000-year-old monument 'damaged by detectorist'
Jersey Heritage said it had discovered “targeted digging” all over the dolmen site
[Credit: Jersey Heritage]

A man was spotted “illegally” using a detector and a trowel at the grade 1 listed archaeological site, Jersey Heritage (JH) said.


Any activity at La Hougue de Vinde dolmen required permission, it said. Jersey Police said no-one had reported the incident to them.


The dolmen, near a southerly tip of the island, is comprised of a circular group of stones surrounded by a rubble wall. It has previously been badly damaged by stone robbers, JH said.


Backfilled metal detecting holes in the centre of the chamber and targeted digging all over the dolmen was discovered after an inspection by Jersey Heritage’s curator of archaeology.











Jersey's 5,000-year-old monument 'damaged by detectorist'
The damage happened at the Neolithic site, a circular group of stones surrounded by a rubble wall
[Credit: Jersey Heritage]

The group said it was “shocked and saddened” by the damage and asked islanders to report any suspicious activity at the island’s ancient sites.


Jersey has 13 major dolmens, including passage graves and gallery burials, along with more than a dozen single standing stones. They are the earliest man-made structures in the island, built by Neolithic people.


President of Jersey Metal Detecting Ken Rive, said he condemned any illegal metal detecting activity.


“We believe in responsible metal detecting that abides by legal restrictions and ensures that any finds can be properly researched and recorded,” he said.


“We would ask anyone unsure of the permissions required to metal detect in Jersey to contact the club as soon as possible.”


Source: BBC News Website [March 13, 2019]



TANN



Archive


Mammals’ unique arms started evolving before the dinosaurs…


Mammals’ unique arms started evolving before the dinosaurs existed http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/mammals-unique-arms-started-evolving-before-the-dinosaurs-existed.html


2019 March 19 Abell 370: Galaxy Cluster Gravitational Lens…


2019 March 19


Abell 370: Galaxy Cluster Gravitational Lens
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble; Processing & Copyright: Rogelio Bernal Andreo (DeepSkyColors.com)


Explanation: What are those strange arcs? While imaging the cluster of galaxies Abell 370, astronomers noticed an unusual arc. The arc wasn’t understood right away – not until better images showed that the arc was a previously unseen type of astrophysical artifact of a gravitational lens, where the lens was the center of an entire cluster of galaxies. Today, we know that this arc, the brightest arc in the cluster, actually consists of two distorted images of a fairly normal galaxy that happens to lie far in the distance. Abell 370’s gravity caused the background galaxies’ light – and others – to spread out and come to the observer along multiple paths, not unlike a distant light appears through the stem of a wine glass. Almost all of the yellow images featured here are galaxies in the Abell 370 cluster. An astute eye can pick up many strange arcs and distorted arclets, however, that are actually gravitationally lensed images of distant normal galaxies. Studying Abell 370 and its images gives astronomers a unique window into the distribution of normal and dark matter in galaxy clusters and the universe.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190319.html


Caption Spotlight (18 March 2019): Complex Gullies in a…


Caption Spotlight (18 March 2019): Complex Gullies in a Crater


Most gullies in the southern mid-latitudes are on south-facing slopes, which are the coldest and have the most frost in the winter. However, some occur on other slopes.


This image shows large gullies on both the pole- and equator-facing slopes. An important puzzle in Mars science is whether or not all of these gullies form in the same geologic eras and by the same processes.


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


Spiraling giants: witnessing the birth of a massive binary star system


ALMA’s view of the IRAS-07299 star-forming region and the massive binary system at its center. The background image shows dense, dusty streams of gas (shown in green) that appear to be flowing towards the center. Gas motions, as traced by the methanol molecule, that are towards us are shown in blue; motions away from us in red. The inset image shows a zoom-in view of the massive forming binary, with the brighter, primary protostar moving toward us is shown in blue and the fainter, secondary protostar moving away from us shown in red. The blue and red dotted lines show an example of orbits of the primary and secondary spiraling around their center of mass (marked by the cross).



Movie composed of images taken by ALMA showing the gas streams, as traced by the methanol molecule, with different line-of-sight color-coded velocities, around the massive binary protostar system. The grey background image shows the overall distribution, from all velocities, of dust emission from the dense gas streams.


Scientists from the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research in Japan,the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden,and the University of Virginia in the USA and collaborators used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe a molecular cloud that is collapsing to form two massive protostars that will eventually become a binary star system.


While it is known that most massive stars possess orbiting stellar companions it has been unclear how this comes about – for example, are the stars born together from a common spiraling gas disk at the center of a collapsing cloud, or do they pair up later by chance encounters in a crowded star cluster.


Understanding the dynamics of forming binaries has been difficult because the protostars in these systems are still enveloped in a thick cloud of gas and dust that prevents most light from escaping. Fortunately, it is possible to see them using radio waves, as long as they can be imaged with sufficiently high spatial resolution.


In the current research, published in Nature Astronomy, the researchers led by Yichen Zhang of the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research and Jonathan C. Tan at the Chalmers University,and the University of Virginia, used ALMAto observe, at high spatial resolution, a star-forming region known as IRAS 07299-1651, which is located 1.68 kiloparsecs, or about 5,500 light years, away.


The observations showed that already at this early stage, the cloud contains two objects, a massive “primary” central star and another “secondary” forming star, also of high mass. For the first time, the research team was able to use these observations to deduce the dynamics of the system. The observations showed that the two forming stars are separated by a distance of about 180 astronomical units—a unit approximately the distance from the earth to the sun. Hence, they are quite far apart. They are currently orbiting each other with a period of at most 600 years and have a total mass at least 18 times that of our Sun.


According to Zhang, “This is an exciting finding because we have long been perplexed by the question of whether stars form into binaries during the initial collapse of the star-forming cloud or whether they are created during later stages. Our observations clearly show that the division into binary stars takes place early on, while they are still in their infancy.”


Another finding of the study was that the binary stars are being nurtured from a common disk fed by the collapsing cloud and favoring a scenario in which the secondary star of the binary formed as a result of fragmentation of the disk originally around the primary. This allows the initially smaller secondary protostar to “steal” infalling matter from its sibling and eventually they should emerge as quite similar “twins”.


Tan adds, “This is an important result for understanding the birth of massive stars. Such stars are important throughout the universe, not least for producing, at the ends of their lives, the heavy elements that make up our Earth and are in our bodies.”


Zhang concludes, “What is important now is to look at other examples to see whether this is a unique situation or something that is common for the birth of all massive stars.”


Scientists have made observations of a molecular cloud that is collapsing to form two massive protostars that will eventually become a binary star system. The observations showed that already at this early stage, the cloud contains two objects, a massive “primary” central star and another “secondary” forming star, also of high mass.


Additional Information


This research appeared in Nature Astronomy as ‘Dynamics of a massive binary at birth’ by Yichen Zhang, Jonathan C. Tan, Kei E. I. Tanaka, James M. De Buizer, Mengyao Liu, Maria T. Beltrán, Kaitlin Kratter, Diego Mardones, and Guido Garay. Doi: 10.1038/s41550-019-0718-y.


The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI).


ALMA construction and operations are led by ESO on behalf of its Member States; by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; and by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.


RIKEN is Japan’s largest research institute for basic and applied research. Over 2500 papers by RIKEN researchers are published every year in leading scientific and technology journals covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and medical science. RIKEN’s research environment and a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration and globalization have earned a worldwide reputation for scientific excellence.


At the RIKEN Pioneering Research Cluster, outstanding researchers with rich research achievements and strong leadership abilities serve as leaders of Chief Scientist Laboratories, from where they carry out innovative fundamental research, pioneer new research fields, and carry on research that crosses disciplinary and organizational barriers.



Contacts

Nicolás Lira
Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

Jens Wilkinson
RIKEN Global Communications
Japan
Phone: +81-(0)48-462-1225
Email: pr@riken.jp


Masaaki Hiramatsu
Education and Public Outreach Officer, NAOJ Chile
Observatory
, Tokyo – Japan
Phone: +81 422 34 3630
Email: hiramatsu.masaaki@nao.ac.jp


Calum Turner
ESO Assistant Public Information Officer
Garching bei München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
Email: calum.turner@eso.org


Charles E. Blue
Public Information Officer
National Radio Astronomy Observatory Charlottesville, Virginia – USA
Phone: +1 434 296 0314
Cell phone: +1 202 236 6324
Email: cblue@nrao.edu





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Space Station Science Highlights: Week of March 11, 2019


ISS – Expedition 58 Mission patch.


March 18, 2019


The Expedition 58 crew of the International Space Station had days off on Monday and Friday last week, resting up from several very busy previous weeks that included arrival and departure of the SpaceX Demo-1 craft, preparations for upcoming space walks, receiving new crew members, and conducting science experiments.



Image above: The Expedition 59 crew, including Commander Alexey Ovchinin and Flight Engineers Nick Hague and Christina Koch arrived at the space station this week. Image Credit: NASA.


On Friday, March 14, at 3:14 pm EDT, the Expedition 59 crew, including Commander Alexey Ovchinin and Flight Engineers Nick Hague and Christina Koch, launched to the space station, docking there approximately six hours later.


Read more about some of the science conducted on the space station during the week of March 11:


Protecting computers from space radiation


Crew replaced a power inverter for Spaceborne Computer, a yearlong experiment testing high-performance, off-the-shelf computer systems on the space station. The investigation verifies that lowering their power and, therefore, speed can enable these systems to continue to operate correctly during high radiation events. This may help scientists identify ways to use software rather than expensive, time-consuming or bulky protective shielding to protect computers from space radiation.


Salads in space



Image above: Canadian Space Agency astronaut David Saint-Jacques plants seeds for the Veg-03H investigation. Image Credit: NASA.


The crew performed several activities for Veg-03-H, a plant growth experiment using plant pillows containing Wasabi Mustard Green and Extra Dwarf Pak Choi seeds. Future crews need to be able to grow their own food on long-duration space missions, and understanding how plants respond to microgravity is an important step toward that goal. Veg-03-H uses the Veggie plant growth facility and harvests plants on-orbit.


Resetting the biological clock of astronauts


To conclude the current experiment run of Circadian Rhythms, crew removed, cleaned and stowed the equipment. This investigation looks at the role of circadian or daily rhythms and how they change during long-duration spaceflight, when astronauts experience a cycle of light and dark that does not conform to the usual 24 hours on Earth.



International Space Station (ISS). Image Credit: NASA

Other investigations on which the crew performed work:


– The Actiwatch waterproof, nonintrusive, sleep-wake activity monitor worn on the wrist of a crewmember collects data to help determine if space travel has an impact on the sleep-wake patterns of crewmembers: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=362


– Time Perception in Microgravity quantifies the subjective changes in time perception that people experience during and after long-duration exposure to microgravity: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7504


– A virtual reality film documenting daily life aboard the space station, ISS Experience educates a variety of audiences about life aboard the orbiting lab and science conducted there: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7877


– The Team Task Switching investigation examines whether crew members have difficulty switching tasks and determines the effects of these switches in order to both reduce any negative consequences and improve individual and team motivation and effectiveness: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7538


– The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) includes an optics bench, combustion chamber, fuel and oxidizer control, and five different cameras for performing combustion investigations in microgravity: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=317



Space to Ground: Fire in the Sky:03/15/2019

Related links:


Expedition 58: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition58/index.html


Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html


Spaceborne Computer: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=2037


Veg-03-H: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1159


Veggie: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=374


Circadian Rhythms: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=869


Spot the Station: https://spotthestation.nasa.gov/


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video (NASA), Text, Credits: NASA/Michael Johnson/Jorge Sotomayor, Lead Increment Scientist Expeditions 58/59.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


New Trio Gets Used to Station Life before First of Three Spacewalks


ISS – Expedition 59 Mission patch.


March 18, 2019


The Expedition 59 crew is getting ready for the first of three spacewalks just days after the arrival of three new crew members to the International Space Station last week. All six crewmates also reviewed emergency procedures today while the new trio becomes accustomed to life on the orbital lab.


NASA astronauts Anne McClain and Nick Hague will exit the space station Friday for a six-hour spacewalk beginning at 8:05 a.m. EDT live on NASA TV. The duo will continue the ongoing work to upgrade the station’s power storage capacity. McClain and Hague will replace older nickel-hydrogen batteries with new lithium-ion batteries and install new adapter plates on the space lab’s Port-4 truss structure.



Image above: The Soyuz MS-12 spacecraft that launched three new Expedition 59-60 crew members to the International Space Station is pictured docked to the Rassvet module. Cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin from Roscosmos commanded the Soyuz crew ship flanked by NASA astronauts Nick Hague and Christina Koch during the five-hour, 47-minute trip that began at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Image Credit: NASA.


The crew will be readying spacesuits and tools and reviewing spacewalk procedures all week long. This morning, Hague joined Flight Engineers David Saint-Jacques and Christina Koch and sized U.S. spacesuits in the Quest airlock. McClain verified the functionality of the spacesuit SAFER jet packs, also known as Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue.


At the end of the day, all six crew members gathered together to coordinate their actions in the unlikely event of an emergency aboard the station. The crew reviewed escape paths to their Soyuz lifeboats and safe havens for access to safety gear and a breathable atmosphere.



Image above: Astronauts (from left) Anne McClain and David Saint-Jacques are pictured in between a pair of spacesuits that are stowed and serviced inside the Quest airlock where U.S. spacewalks are staged. Image Credit: NASA.


In the midst of the spacewalk preparations and the safety training, the three new flight engineers are also familiarizing themselves with station systems. Cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin is beginning his second mission aboard the orbital lab since March 2016. Hague and Koch, both members of NASA’s 2013 class of astronauts, are each on their first mission aboard the space station.


NASA Television to Air Three Upcoming Spacewalks, Preview Briefing:
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-television-to-air-three-upcoming-spacewalks-preview-briefing


Related links:


Expedition 59: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition59/index.html


NASA TV: https://www.nasa.gov/nasatv


Port-4 truss structure: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/truss-structure


Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue: https://www.nasa.gov/missions/shuttle/f_saferspacewalk.html


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Rukwa Rift Basin Project names new Cretaceous mammal from East…


Rukwa Rift Basin Project names new Cretaceous mammal from East African Rift System http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/rukwa-rift-basin-project-names-new-cretaceous-mammal-from-east-african-rift-system.html


Alligator study reveals insight into dinosaur hearing…


Alligator study reveals insight into dinosaur hearing http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/alligator-study-reveals-insight-into-dinosaur-hearing.html


Doll Tor Prehistoric Stone Circle, Stanton Moor, Derbyshire, 17.3.19.

Doll Tor Prehistoric Stone Circle, Stanton Moor, Derbyshire, 17.3.19.












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‘The Bullring’ Neolithic Henge, Derbyshire, 17.3.19.

‘The Bullring’ Neolithic Henge, Derbyshire, 17.3.19.










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‘Nine Stone Close’ Prehistoric Stone Circle, Derbyshire, 17.3.19.





‘Nine Stone Close’ Prehistoric Stone Circle, Derbyshire, 17.3.19.








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