понедельник, 11 марта 2019 г.

2019 March 11 The Central Magnetic Field of the Cigar Galaxy…

2019 March 11

The Central Magnetic Field of the Cigar Galaxy
Image Credit: NASA, SOFIA, E. Lopez-Rodriguez; NASA, Spitzer, J. Moustakas et al.

Explanation: Are galaxies giant magnets? Yes, but the magnetic fields in galaxies are typically much weaker than on Earth’s surface, as well as more complex and harder to measure. Recently, though, the HAWC+ instrument onboard the airborne (747) SOFIA observatory has been successful in detailing distant magnetic fields by observing infrared light polarized by reflection from dust grains. Featured here, HAWC+ observations of the M82, the Cigar galaxy, show that the central magnetic field is perpendicular to the disk and parallel to the strong supergalactic wind. This observation bolsters the hypothesis that M82’s central magnetic field helps its wind transport the mass of millions of stars out from the central star-burst region. The featured image shows magnetic field lines superposed on top of an optical light (gray) and hydrogen gas (red) image from Kitt Peak National Observatory, further combined with infrared images (yellow) from SOFIA and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Cigar Galaxy is about 12 million light years distant and visible with binoculars towards the constellation of the Great Bear.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190311.html

Fluid Force Organoids – mini lab-grown versions of organs –…

Fluid Force

Organoids – mini lab-grown versions of organs – have revolutionised research into cell and tissue biology, whether for the study of development, disease, or responses to drugs. But, organoids have their limitations when it comes to recapitulating the real things. Most notably, they lack blood vessels. Therefore, the development of highly vascularised kidney organoids – like the one pictured – represents a major step forward in organoid research. To instigate the growth of blood vessels in the mini kidneys, researchers subjected the developing organoids to fluidic shear stress – the force exerted by a flowing fluid – which is known to be important for proper vascular development within a growing embryo. Sure enough, it worked, producing a network of capillary-like structures as the organoids grew. Moreover, the improved supply of oxygen and nutrients within the organoids improved the development of their glomeruli – filtration units – such that they were more akin to those of real kidneys.

Written by Ruth Williams

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Rescuing geologic and climate records…

Rescuing geologic and climate records http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/rescuing-geologic-and-climate-records.html

Small animals with big impact…

Small animals with big impact http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/small-animals-with-big-impact.html

New wallaby-sized dinosaur from the ancient Australian-Antarctic…

New wallaby-sized dinosaur from the ancient Australian-Antarctic rift valley http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/new-wallaby-sized-dinosaur-from-the-ancient-australian-antarctic-rift-valley.html

What are the minerals and Gems that found in the Igneous rocks?…

What are the minerals and Gems that found in the Igneous rocks? http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/what-are-the-minerals-and-gems-that-found-in-the-igneous-rocks.html

What are the minerals and Gems that found in the Metamorphic…

What are the minerals and Gems that found in the Metamorphic rocks? http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/what-are-the-minerals-and-gems-that-found-in-the-metamorphic-rocks.html

What are the minerals and Gems that found in the Sedimentary…

What are the minerals and Gems that found in the Sedimentary rocks? http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/what-are-the-minerals-and-gems-that-found-in-the-sedimentary-rocks.html

Galactic Wind Provides Clues to Evolution of Galaxies

The magnetic field lines of the the Cigar Galaxy (also called M82) appear in this composite image. The lines follow the bipolar outflows (red) generated by exceptionally high rates of star formation. Credit: NASA/SOFIA/E. Lopez-Rodiguez; NASA/Spitzer/J. Moustakas et al.  › Full image and caption

The Cigar Galaxy (also known as M82) is famous for its extraordinary speed in making new stars, with stars being born 10 times faster than in the Milky Way. Now, data from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, have been used to study this galaxy in greater detail, revealing how material that affects the evolution of galaxies may get into intergalactic space.

Researchers found, for the first time, that the galactic wind flowing from the center of the Cigar Galaxy (M82) is aligned along a magnetic field and transports a very large mass of gas and dust – the equivalent mass of 50 million to 60 million Suns. 

“The space between galaxies is not empty,” said Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez, a Universities Space Research Association (USRA) scientist working on the SOFIA team. “It contains gas and dust – which are the seed materials for stars and galaxies. Now, we have a better understanding of how this matter escaped from inside galaxies over time.” 

Besides being a classic example of a starburst galaxy, which means it is forming an extraordinary number of new stars compared with most other galaxies, M82 also has strong winds blowing gas and dust into intergalactic space. Astronomers have long theorized that these winds would also drag the galaxy’s magnetic field in the same direction, but despite numerous studies, there has been no observational proof of the concept.

Researchers using the airborne observatory SOFIA found definitively that the wind from the Cigar Galaxy not only transports a huge amount of gas and dust into the intergalactic medium, but also drags the magnetic field so it is perpendicular to the galactic disc. In fact, the wind drags the magnetic field more than 2,000 light-years across – close to the width of the wind itself.

“One of the main objectives of this research was to evaluate how efficiently the galactic wind can drag along the magnetic field,” said Lopez-Rodriguez. “We did not expect to find the magnetic field to be aligned with the wind over such a large area.” 

These observations indicate that the powerful winds associated with the starburst phenomenon could be one of the mechanisms responsible for seeding material and injecting a magnetic field into the nearby intergalactic medium. If similar processes took place in the early universe, they would have affected the fundamental evolution of the first galaxies.

The results were published in January 2019 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

SOFIA’s newest instrument, the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera-Plus, or HAWC+, uses far-infrared light to observe celestial dust grains, which align along magnetic field lines. From these results, astronomers can infer the shape and direction of the otherwise invisible magnetic field. Far-infrared light provides key information about magnetic fields because the signal is clean and not contaminated by emission from other physical mechanisms, such as scattered visible light.

“Studying intergalactic magnetic fields – and learning how they evolve – is key to understanding how galaxies evolved over the history of the universe,” said Terry Jones, professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis, and lead researcher for this study. “With SOFIA’s HAWC+ instrument, we now have a new perspective on these magnetic fields.”

The HAWC+ instrument was developed and delivered to NASA by a multi-institution team led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. JPL scientist and HAWC+ Principal Investigator Darren Dowell, along with JPL scientist Paul Goldsmith, were part of the research team using HAWC+ to study the Cigar Galaxy.

SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is a Boeing 747SP jetliner modified to carry a 106-inch diameter telescope. It is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center, DLR. NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley manages the SOFIA program, science and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association headquartered in Columbia, Maryland, and the German SOFIA Institute (DSI) at the University of Stuttgart. The aircraft is maintained and operated from NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center Hangar 703, in Palmdale, California.

News Media Contact

Calla Cofield
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.


Written by Kassandra Bell and Arielle Moullet, USRA SOFIA Science Center

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Brainbow Connection! Image of the Week – March 11, 2019CIL:41458…

Brainbow Connection! Image of the Week – March 11, 2019


Description: “Brainbow” zebrafish. Neurons are labeled in multiple colors with “Brainbow” (Nature, 2007) fluorescence microscopy. Three fluorescent proteins (cyan, yellow, and red) are randomly taken up by various neurons, offering a palette of dozens of colors to help scientists follow complex neural pathways. Shown here is a 5-day-old zebrafish larva viewed from the dorsal side, captured using a 20X objective. Fourth Prize, 2008 Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition®.

Authors: Albert Pan and 2008 Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition®

Licensing: Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives: This image is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial, No Derivatives License

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Intrusive Basalt Dike “Acadia National Park”…

Intrusive Basalt Dike “Acadia National Park” http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/intrusive-basalt-dike-acadia-national-park.html

Blue Amber | #Geology #GeologyPage #Amber Locality: Cordillera…

Blue Amber | #Geology #GeologyPage #Amber

Locality: Cordillera Septentriona, Santiago Province, Dominican Republic

Size: 6.6 × 4.5 × 2.2 cm

Photo Copyright © Piatek Minerals /e-rocks. com

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Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Hameda…

Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral

Locality: Hameda Quarry, Jorf, Midelt, Morocco

Size: 3.2 x 2.3 x 2.0 cm

Photo Copyright © Spirifer Minerals

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Druid’s Temple in rain and sun, Ilton, Yorkshire, 10.3.19.

Druid’s Temple in rain and sun, Ilton, Yorkshire, 10.3.19.

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Flooding Along the Mississippi

Rain, snowmelt, and soil

moisture—those three factors might push portions of the Upper Mississippi River

into major flooding this spring. Meanwhile, the middle and lower reaches of the

river are already well out of their banks.

Intense storms over February

22-24, 2019
, caused major flooding along the Middle Mississippi

River. On February 25, 2019, the Landsat 8 satellite acquired images of swollen

portions of the Mississippi River. The video above shows a false-color

view of flooding

near Memphis, Tennessee
comparing February 2019 to February 2014. Flood

waters appear blue; vegetation is green; and bare ground is brown. Notice how

the Ohio River and Mississippi River have swelled near Cairo, the southernmost

city in Illinois.

National Weather Service forecasters noted that

higher-than-average precipitation in autumn 2018 saturated soils in the region,

so additional rain or snowmelt from this winter will likely result in excessive

runoff and increased flooding threats.

Rapid snowmelt will also play

a role in flooding this spring in the Midwest. Parts of Minnesota and Wisconsin

have built up snowpack of nearly

25 inches
, so melting snow alone could propel many areas into major


Read the full

story here.

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Druid’s Temple in the rain, Ilton, Yorkshire, 10.3.19.

Druid’s Temple in the rain, Ilton, Yorkshire, 10.3.19.

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Dolmen, Druid’s Temple, Ilton, Yorkshire, 10.3.19.

Dolmen, Druid’s Temple, Ilton, Yorkshire, 10.3.19.

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https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...