воскресенье, 10 марта 2019 г.

2019 March 10 Moonrise Through Mauna Kea’s Shadow Images…

2019 March 10

Moonrise Through Mauna Kea’s Shadow
Images Credit & Copyright: Michael Connelley (U. Hawaii)

Explanation: How can the Moon rise through a mountain? It cannot – what was photographed here is a moonrise through the shadow of a large volcano. The volcano is Mauna Kea, Hawai’i, USA, a frequent spot for spectacular photographs since it is one of the premier observing locations on planet Earth. The Sun has just set in the opposite direction, behind the camera. Additionally, the Moon has just passed full phase – were it precisely at full phase it would rise, possibly eclipsed, at the very peak of the shadow. The Moon is actually rising in the triangular shadow cone of the volcano, a corridor of darkness that tapers off in the distance like converging train tracks. The Moon is too large and too far away to be affected by the shadow of the volcano. Refraction of moonlight through the Earth’s atmosphere makes the Moon appear slightly oval. Cinder cones from old volcanic eruptions are visible in the foreground.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190310.html

Subduing the Storm When your immune system is needed, its…

Subduing the Storm

When your immune system is needed, its soldiers patrolling your body must receive the signal to spring into action. This alarm signal triggers the production of cytokines – small proteins that prompt the defence cells to proliferate and tackle the particular problem. But we haven’t quite deciphered this coded call to arms. New research has shown how the formation of a network of actin filaments in the immune cell nucleus – pictured 30 seconds after cell stimulation – regulates cytokine production. This discovery not only decodes a key step in our regular immune response to the threats of the world, but may also help cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. Immunotherapy treatment harnesses the patient’s own immune system to subdue cancer, but can cause harmful ‘cytokine storms’ when an overzealous immune system produces cytokines at an unmanageable rate. This cytokine-regulating network could be the key to keeping things under control.

Written by Anthony Lewis

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