вторник, 5 марта 2019 г.

Calcite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality : Wenshan…


Calcite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality : Wenshan Mine, Wenshan County, Wenshan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, China, Asia


Dimensions: 7.3 × 5.5 × 5.3 cm


Photo Copyright © Crystal Classics


Geology Page

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2019 March 5 X-Ray Superbubbles in Galaxy NGC 3079 Image…


2019 March 5


X-Ray Superbubbles in Galaxy NGC 3079
Image Credit: X-ray: NASA, CXC, U. Michigan, J-T Li et al.; Optical: NASA, STScI


Explanation: What created these huge galactic superbubbles? Two of these unusual bubbles, each spanning thousands of light-years, were recently discovered near the center of spiral galaxy NGC 3079. The superbubbles, shown in purple on the image right, are so hot they emit X-rays detected by NASA’s Earth-orbiting Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Since the bubbles straddle the center of NGC 3079, a leading hypothesis is that they were somehow created by the interaction of the central supermassive black hole with surrounding gas. Alternatively, the superbubbles might have been created primarily by the energetic winds from many young and hot stars near that galaxy’s center. The only similar known phenomenon is the gamma-ray emitting Fermi bubbles emanating from the center of our Milky Way Galaxy, discovered 10 years ago in images taken by NASA’s Fermi satellite. Research into the nature of the NGC 3079 superbubbles will surely continue, as well as searches for high-energy superbubbles in other galaxies.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190305.html


Beryl var Aquamarine | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Beryl var Aquamarine | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Shigar Valley, Skardu, Baltistan, Northern Areas, Pakistan, Asia


Dimensions: 6.5 × 2.8 × 2.1 cm


Photo Copyright © Crystal Classics


Geology Page

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https://www.instagram.com/p/Bumd78CFoNR/?utm_source=ig_tumblr_share&igshid=1edupgr3r9h4h


Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Cerný…


Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Cerný Potok, Ústí Region, Bohemia, Czech Republic


Size: 1.3 × 1 × 0.9 cm


Photo Copyright © Robert Vaňo Collection /e-rocks. com


Geology Page

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Aquamarine | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Nagar,…


Aquamarine | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Nagar, Hunza valley, Gilgit District, Northern Areas, Pakistan


Size: 9.3 x 6.1 x 5 cm


Photo Copyright © Anton Watzl Minerals


Geology Page

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Tourmaline | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Chia…


Tourmaline | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Chia Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Size: 7.5 x 4.5 x 4.8 cm


Photo Copyright © Anton Watzl Minerals


Geology Page

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Molybdenite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Moly…


Molybdenite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Moly Hill mine, Québec, Canada


Crystal size:15 mm x 13 mm

Overall size: 36mm x 25 mm x 34 mm


Photo Copyright © Minservice


Geology Page

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Strengite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Grube…


Strengite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Grube Levaniemi, Svappavaara, Sweden


Crystal size:Up to 4.5 mm wide

Overall size: 60mm x 35 mm x 30 mm


Photo Copyright © Minservice


Geology Page

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Caption Spotlight (4 March 2019): The Slow Charm of Brain…


Caption Spotlight (4 March 2019): The Slow Charm of Brain Terrain


You are staring at one of the unsolved mysteries on Mars. This surface texture of interconnected ridges and troughs, referred to as “brain terrain” is found throughout the mid-latitude regions of Mars. (This image is in Protonilus Mensae.)


This bizarrely textured terrain may be directly related to the water-ice that lies beneath the surface. One hypothesis is that when the buried water-ice sublimates (changes from a solid to a gas), it forms the troughs in the ice. The formation of these features might be an active process that is slowly occurring since HiRISE has yet to detect significant changes in these terrains.


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


Demo-1: What’s the Deal?

Whether or not you caught the SpaceX Crew Dragon launch this past weekend, here’s your chance to learn why this mission, known as Demo-1, is such a big deal.


The First of its Kind



Demo-1 is the first flight test of an American spacecraft designed for humans built and operated by a commercial company. 


Liftoff


image

The SpaceX Crew Dragon lifted off at 2:49 a.m. EST Saturday, March 2, on the company’s Falcon 9 rocket from Kennedy Space Center. 


This was the first time in history a commercially-built American crew spacecraft and rocket launched from American soil. 


Docking the Dragon


image

After making 18 orbits of Earth, the Crew Dragon spacecraft successfully attached to the International Space Station’s Harmony module at 5:51 a.m. EST Sunday, March 3. The Crew Dragon used the station’s new international docking adapter for the first time since astronauts installed it in August 2016


The docking phase, in addition to the return and recovery of Crew Dragon, are critical to understanding the system’s ability to support crew flights.


A New Era in Human Spaceflight


image

Although the test is uncrewed, that doesn’t mean the Crew Dragon is empty. Along for the ride was Ripley, a lifelike test device outfitted with sensors to provide data about potential effects on future astronauts. (There is also a plush Earth doll strapped inside that can float in the microgravity!)


Astronauts on the International Space Station welcomed the Crew Dragon spacecraft in a ceremony onboard. NASA Astronaut Anne McClain from inside Crew Dragon said, “Welcome to a new era in human spaceflight.”


Inside the Dragon



For future operational missions, Crew Dragon will be able to launch as many as four crew members and carry more than 220 pounds of cargo. This will increase the number of astronauts who are able to live onboard the station, which will create more time for research in the unique microgravity environment.


SpaceX and NASA


image

Elon Musk, CEO and lead designer at SpaceX, expressed appreciation for NASA’s support: “SpaceX would not be here without NASA, without the incredible work that was done before SpaceX even started and without the support after SpaceX did start.”


Preparation for Demo-2


image

NASA and SpaceX will use data from Demo-1 to further prepare for Demo-2, the crewed flight test that will carry NASA astronauts and Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken to the International Space Station. NASA will validate the performance of SpaceX’s systems before putting crew on board for the Demo-2 flight, currently targeted for July 2019.


Undocking


image

The Crew Dragon is designed to stay docked to station for up to 210 days, although the spacecraft used for this flight test will remain docked to the space station for only five days, departing Friday, March 8. (We will be providing live coverage — don’t miss it!)


Demo-1: So What?


image

Demo-1 is a big deal because it demonstrates NASA and commercial companies working together to advance future space exploration! With Demo-1’s success, NASA and SpaceX will begin to prepare to safely fly astronauts to the orbital laboratory.


Follow along with mission updates with the Space Station blog.


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com


Web@30: The 30-year anniversary of an invention that changed the world


CERN – European Organization for Nuclear Research logo.


4 March, 2019


Geneva, 4 March 2019. Thirty years ago, a young computer expert working at CERN combined ideas about accessing information with a desire for broad connectivity and openness. His proposal became the World Wide Web. CERN is celebrating the 30th anniversary of this revolutionary invention with a special day on 12 March.


In March 1989, while working at CERN, Sir Tim Berners-Lee wrote his first proposal for an internet-based hypertext system to link and access information across different computers. In November 1990, this “web of information nodes in which the user can browse at will” was formalised as a proposal, “WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a HyperText Project”, by Berners-Lee, together with a CERN colleague, Robert Cailliau. By Christmas that year, Berners-Lee had implemented key components, namely html, http and URL, and created the first Web server, browser and editor (WorldWideWeb).



While working at CERN, Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web (Image: CERN)

On 30 April 1993, CERN released the latest version of the WWW software into the public domain and made it freely available for anyone to use and improve. This decision encouraged the use of the Web, and society to benefit from it: half of the world’s population is now online, and close to 2 billion websites exist. Openness has been endemic to CERN’s culture ever since its Convention was signed in 1953. CERN promotes the distribution and open sharing of software, technology, publications and data, through initiatives such as open source software, open hardware, open access publishing and the CERN Open Data Portal.


“It is a great honour and a source of pride for CERN to host an event to mark the 30th anniversary of Tim Berners-Lee’s proposal for what would become the World Wide Web, and I am delighted that Sir Tim will be with us on the day,” said CERN Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti. “The Web’s invention has transformed our world, and continues to show how fundamental research fuels innovation. CERN’s culture of openness was a key factor in the Laboratory’s decision in 1993 to make the web available free to everybody, a key step in its development and subsequent spread.”


On the morning of 12 March, the Web@30 event at CERN will kick off celebrations around the world. Sir Tim Berners-Lee, Robert Cailliau and other Web pioneers and experts will share their views on the challenges and opportunities brought by the Web. The event will be opened by Fabiola Gianotti, CERN’s Director-General, and is being organised by CERN in collaboration with two organisations founded by Berners-Lee: the World Wide Web Foundation and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).



World Wide Web (WWW). Image Credit: Wikimedia



As part of a project to preserve some of the digital assets associated with the birth of the Web, CERN organised a hackathon (11-15 February 2019) to recreate the first browser (WorldWideWeb) using current technology. Previously, CERN promoted the restoration of the first ever website and the line-mode browser.


We have a limited number of seats available for the media; interested journalists should RSVP (press@cern.ch) by 6 March 2019. The event will be broadcast by EBU, webcast and streamed live on CERN Facebook and YouTube channels. Some of the speakers and current members of CERN’s IT department – home to the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) – are available for interviews prior to the event. For more information, please contact press@cern.ch.


To request interviews with Web Foundation spokespeople: press@webfoundation.org


Note:


CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s largest and most respected centres for scientific research. Its business is fundamental physics, finding out what the Universe is made of and how it works. At CERN, the world’s largest and most complex scientific instruments are used to study the basic constituents of matter — the fundamental particles. By studying what happens when these particles collide, physicists learn about the laws of Nature.


The instruments used at CERN are particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before they are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions.


Additional resources:


•    Web@30 website: https://web30.web.cern.ch/


•    The birth of the web: https://home.cern/science/computing/birth-web


•    History of the web timeline: https://web30.web.cern.ch/web-history


•    History of the CERN Web Software Public Releases: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2126020?ln=en%C2%A0


•    Licensing the web: https://home.cern/science/computing/birth-web/licensing-web


•    Information Management: A Proposal (Sir Tim Berners-Lee, March 1989, May 1990): https://cds.cern.ch/record/369245/files/dd-89-001.pdf


•    Collection of photos and videos about the web: https://home.cern/resources/image/computing/world-wide-web-images-gallery
https://videos.cern.ch/search?page=1&size=21&q=%22web@30%22


•    History of the web video: YouTube, HD, high-res: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0gvAyCubGQ&feature=youtu.be


•    My web 30 YouTube playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAk-9e5KQYEpPnztdL95uYcMGBh0Kxfhy%C2%A0


Related links:


CERN’s IT department: https://home.cern/science/computing


Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG): https://home.cern/science/computing/grid


World Wide Web Foundation: https://webfoundation.org/


World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): https://www.w3.org/


World Wide Web: https://home.cern/science/computing/birth-web


For more information about European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Visit: https://home.cern/


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: CERN.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Making Space for SpaceX Crew Dragon, Spacewalk Prep and Science


ISS – Expedition 58 Mission patch.


March 4, 2019


Expedition 58 capped off its busy weekend with additional outfitting for the SpaceX Crew Dragon, which had only completed its hard dock to the International Space Station yesterday morning as part of the Demo-1 uncrewed flight test.


After opening the hatch between the two spacecraft, the crewmates configured Crew Dragon for its stay while barnacled to the orbiting laboratory. This work included installation of the intramodule ventilation system, which helps cycle air from Crew Dragon to station. The crew members ticked off additional items from their checklist, also installing window covers and checking valves before taking part in a welcoming ceremony for the visiting vehicle at 10:45 a.m. EST Sunday, which aired on NASA Television.



Image above: Expedition 58 crew members Anne McClain, David Saint-Jacques and Oleg Konenenko welcome the SpaceX Crew Dragon to the International Space Station after a successful docking on March 3, 2019, ushering in the era of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program. Image Credit: NASA TV.


Today, NASA astronaut Anne McClain, David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency and Russian cosmonaut and Expedition 58 Commander Oleg Kononenko went over emergency procedures specific to Crew Dragon’s stay in orbit. While Crew Dragon is designed to remain docked to the space station for up to 210 days, this test of the spacecraft will be much shorter, ending early Friday morning. Crew Dragon is expected to return to Earth with a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 8:45 a.m. on Friday, March 8—a little more than six hours after its separation from station.



Crew Dragon welcoming ceremony

While Kononenko was focused on the Plasma Kristall-4 experiment, which investigates the liquid phase and flow phenomena of complex plasmas, for this week’s runs, McClain and Saint-Jacques spent most of the day in the Quest airlock. The pair worked on their EMU [Extravehicular Mobility Unit] spacesuits, making sure their suits fit in advance of a series of spacewalks currently slated for late March and early April.


Saint-Jacques also made time in the day to connect with junior high school and college students in Hallifax, Nova Scotia, through a space-to-ground downlink where he shared his perspective of living and working aboard the world’s only microgravity laboratory.


Related article:


SpaceX Crew Dragon Hatch Open
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/03/spacex-crew-dragon-hatch-open.html


Related links:


Expedition 58: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition58/index.html


Plasma Kristall-4 experiment: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1343.html


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Image (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA/Catherine WilliamsNASA TV/SciNews.


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Galena | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Radvanice,…


Galena | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Radvanice, Trutnov, Hradec Králové Region, Czech Republic


Size: 0.9 × 0.8 × 0.7 cm


Photo Copyright © Robert Vaňo Collection /e-rocks. com


Geology Page

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Ancient mammal remains digested by crocodiles reveal new species…


Ancient mammal remains digested by crocodiles reveal new species http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/ancient-mammal-remains-digested-by-crocodiles-reveal-new-species.html


Tibetan plateau rose later than we thought…


Tibetan plateau rose later than we thought http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/tibetan-plateau-rose-later-than-we-thought.html


How megalodon’s teeth evolved into the ‘ultimate cutting tools’…


How megalodon’s teeth evolved into the ‘ultimate cutting tools’ http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/how-megalodons-teeth-evolved-into-the-ultimate-cutting-tools.html


‘Amazing snapshots’ plumb volcanic depths…


‘Amazing snapshots’ plumb volcanic depths http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/amazing-snapshots-plumb-volcanic-depths.html


Potential new source of rare earth elements…


Potential new source of rare earth elements http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/potential-new-source-of-rare-earth-elements.html


Methane and ozone data products from Copernicus Sentinel-5P


ESA – Sentinel-5P Mission logo.


4 March 2019


The Copernicus Sentinel-5P mission has been used to produce global maps of two atmospheric gases responsible for making our world warmer: methane, which is a particularly potent greenhouse gas, and ozone, which is a greenhouse gas and a pollutant in the lower part of the atmosphere. The maps give insight into where these gases are coming from.


Launched in October 2017, Sentinel-5P is the first Copernicus satellite dedicated to monitoring our atmosphere. It carries an advanced multispectral imaging spectrometer called Tropomi to image a wide range of air pollutants more accurately and at a higher spatial resolution than ever before.



Global methane

Prior to making data available to the public, scientists spend months testing and evaluating the information to make sure it is accurate. The mission is already being used to map pollutants such as nitrogen and sulphur dioxide and to monitor the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica.


And now, data on methane and ozone in the troposphere, which is the lower part of the atmosphere, are available.


While carbon dioxide is more abundant in the atmosphere and therefore more commonly associated with global warming, methane is about 30 times more potent as a heat-trapping gas. It enters the atmosphere mainly from the fossil fuel industry, landfill sites, livestock farming, rice agriculture and wetlands.



Sentinel-5P

Jochen Landgraf, from the SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, said, “We have spent more than a year carefully testing the methane data and now the availability of data to everyone offers new opportunities for climate services.


“Like all gases that enter the atmosphere, methane is spread by the wind, so it is unclear where it originates. But thanks to Tropomi’s ability to measures at a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and global coverage every 24 hours, we can see daily methane emissions on regional scales and also larger point sources.



Methane over wetlands in Nigeria

“This information is important for policy makers working on climate regulations and for checking that countries adhere to agreements.”


Michael Buchwitz, from the University of Bremen, Germany, and who leads ESA’s Climate Change Initiative greenhouse gas project, noted, “Over the coming months we will be further studying these data in detail, comparing them with ground-based observations and global models, but we expected that a lot can be learned about atmospheric methane and its various emission sources.”


The new data release also includes tropospheric ozone. Ozone high up in the stratosphere shields us from the Sun’s harmful rays of ultraviolet radiation, but lower down in the troposphere it is a pollutant and can cause respiratory problems and can damage vegetation. Ozone is also a greenhouse gas.


Diego Loyola, from the German Aerospace Center, explains, “Ozone in the troposphere is an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas contributing to global warming.”



Global tropospheric ozone

“Tropospheric ozone is a difficult greenhouse gas to measure because of its short lifespan and the fact that concentrations can vary hugely from place to place,” continued Dr Loyola.


“The unprecedented spatial resolution offered by Copernicus Sentinel-5P’s Tropomi instrument means that we can now better analyse the complex relationship between tropospheric ozone and climate.”


Claus Zehner, ESA’s Sentinel-5P mission manager, noted, “With this new methane and tropospheric ozone data release, we are now providing almost all of the Copernicus Sentinel-5P’s data products to the user community.


“Both products are important for monitoring climate change and can also be used to gain experience for future missions such as for the candidate Copernicus expansion mission that is being developed to measure carbon dioxide.”


The Tropomi instrument was developed jointly by ESA and the Netherlands Space Office.


Related links:


Sentinel-5P: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/Sentinel-5P


Sentinel data access: https://scihub.copernicus.eu/


SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research: https://www.sron.nl/


Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute: http://www.knmi.nl/over-het-knmi/about


Netherlands Space Office: http://www.spaceoffice.nl/en/


University of Bremen–Institute of Environmental Physics: http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/carbon_ghg/


DLR: http://www.dlr.de/dlr;internal&action=_setlanguage.action?LANGUAGE=en


Copernicus: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus


Images, Animation, Text, Credits: ESA/contains modified Copernicus data (2018–19), processed by SRON/processed by DLR.


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Transfer Window Infamous vectors of the bacterium responsible…


Transfer Window


Infamous vectors of the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease, ticks can also transfer harmful Flaviviruses to their mammal hosts. Among these is Powassan virus (POWV), an often symptomless but occasionally lethal virus, with an increasing number of cases in North America. Tick-borne Flaviviruses like POWV move very quickly from infected ticks to new hosts, suggesting that these viruses are located near the ticks’ mouthparts, in their salivary glands. Pictured is a cross-section of one of these glands, with the salivary duct outlined in yellow and two acini, round clusters of secretory cells, on the right, including one infected with another Flavivirus known as Langat virus (in green). By culturing these glands in the laboratory, researchers can investigate which parts of these tissues are colonised by Flaviviruses, how infection affects them, and how viruses move to new hosts, to ultimately help develop ways of blocking these processes to reduce viral transmission.


Written by Emmanuelle Briolat



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