воскресенье, 3 марта 2019 г.

SpaceX Crew Dragon Successfully Docks to Station


SpaceX – COTS C-1 Mission patch.


March 3, 2019


After making 18 orbits of Earth since its launch early Saturday morning, the Crew Dragon spacecraft successfully attached to the International Space Station’s Harmony module forward port via “soft capture” at 5:51 a.m. EST while the station was traveling more than 250 miles over the Pacific Ocean, just north of New Zealand.


As the spacecraft approached the space station, it demonstrated its automated control and maneuvering capabilities by arriving in place at about 492 feet (150 meters) away from the orbital laboratory then reversing course and backing away from the station to 590 feet (180 meters) before the final docking sequence from about 65 feet (20 meters) away.



Image above: The SpaceX Crew Dragon is pictured about 20 meters away from the International Space Station’s Harmony module. Image Credit: NASA.


The Crew Dragon used the station’s new international docking adapter for the first time since astronauts installed it during a spacewalk in August 2016, following its delivery to the station in the trunk of a SpaceX Dragon spacecraft on its ninth commercial resupply services mission.


For the Demo-1 mission, Crew Dragon is delivering more than 400 pounds of crew supplies and equipment to the space station. A lifelike test device named Ripley also is aboard the spacecraft, outfitted with sensors to provide data about potential effects on humans traveling in Crew Dragon.



Crew Dragon docking

The Crew Dragon is designed to stay docked to station for up to 210 days, although the spacecraft used for this flight test will remain docked to the space station only five days, departing Friday, March 8.


Opening of the Crew Dragon hatch will air on NASA Television and the agency’s website beginning at 8:30 a.m.


Related articles:


NASA, SpaceX Launch First Flight Test of Space System Designed for Crew
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/03/nasa-spacex-launch-first-flight-test-of.html


Spacewalk concludes after commercial crew port installation
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2016/08/spacewalk-concludes-after-commercial.html


Related links:


International docking adapter: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/meet-the-international-docking-adapter


Learn more about NASA’s Commercial Crew program at: https://www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew


Commercial Space: http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/commercial/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


NASA Television: https://www.nasa.gov/live/


SpaceX: https://www.spacex.com/


Image (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia/NASA TV/SciNews.


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Find this and other great images in the Technology Networks new…


Find this and other great images in the Technology Networks new The Spectacular World of Microbial Imaging Flipbook. Image of the Week – March 4, 2019


CIL:41812http://www.cellimagelibrary.org/images/41812


Description: This image of dung (Coprophilous) fungi found on a cow pile is composed using 20 stacked images that were captured with epi-illumination. Honorable Mention, 2010 Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition®.


Authors: Mike Crutchley and 2010 Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition®


Licensing: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 UK)


The Spectacular World of Microbial Imaging Flipbook – https://www.technologynetworks.com/tn/ebooks/the-spectacular-world-of-microbial-imaging-flipbook-316089


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2019 March 3 The Orion Bullets Image Credit: GeMS/GSAOI Team,…


2019 March 3


The Orion Bullets
Image Credit: GeMS/GSAOI Team, Gemini Observatory, AURA, NSF;
Processing: Rodrigo Carrasco (Gemini Obs.), Travis Rector (Univ. Alaska Anchorage)


Explanation: Why are bullets of gas shooting out of the Orion Nebula? Nobody is yet sure. First discovered in 1983, each bullet is actually about the size of our Solar System, and moving at about 400 km/sec from a central source dubbed IRc2. The age of the bullets, which can be found from their speed and distance from IRc2, is very young – typically less than 1,000 years. As the bullets expand out the top of the Kleinmann-Low section of the Orion Nebula, a small percentage of iron gas causes the tip of each bullet to glow blue, while each bullet leaves a tubular pillar that glows by the light of heated hydrogen gas. The detailed image was created using the 8.1 meter Gemini South telescope in Chile with an adaptive optics system (GeMS). GeMS uses five laser generated guide stars to help compensate for the blurring effects of planet Earth’s atmosphere.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190303.html


What Is the Difference Between Agate, Jasper and Chalcedony?…


What Is the Difference Between Agate, Jasper and Chalcedony? http://www.geologypage.com/2019/03/what-is-the-difference-between-agate-jasper-and-chalcedony.html


NASA Secures First International Partnership for Moon to Mars Lunar Gateway


NASA logo.


March 2, 2019


The following is a statement from NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine on the announcement Thursday by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau about Canada’s support for the Gateway lunar outpost and deep space exploration:


“NASA is thrilled that Canada is the first international partner for the Gateway lunar outpost. Space exploration is in Canada’s DNA. In 1962, Canada became the third nation to launch a satellite into orbit with Alouette 1.


“Today, Canada leads the world in space-based robotic capabilities, enabling critical repairs to the Hubble Space Telescope and construction of the International Space Station. Our new collaboration on Gateway will enable our broader international partnership to get to the Moon and eventually to Mars.”



Image above: In this illustration, NASA’s Orion spacecraft approaches the Gateway in lunar orbit. Image Credit: NASA.


Related article:


Canada Commits to Joining NASA at the Moon
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/02/canada-commits-to-joining-nasa-at-moon.html


Related links:


ASC-CSA release: http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/astronomy/moon-exploration/default.asp?utm_source=website&utm_medium=news&utm_campaign=moon-exploration&utm_content=lunar-gateway&utm_term=home-page


For more information on the Gateway, visit: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/moon-to-mars/lunar-outpost


Learn more about NASA’s Moon to Mars exploration plan, go to: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/moon-to-mars


Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Karen Northon/Bettina Inclán.


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NASA’s Webb Telescope Will Study an Iconic Supernova



Astronomers combined observations from three different observatories (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, red; Hubble, green; Chandra X-ray Observatory, blue) to produce this colorful, multiwavelength image of the intricate remains of Supernova 1987A.Credits: NASA, ESA, and A. Angelich (NRAO/AUI/NSF)



In February 1987, light from an exploding star arrived at Earth after traveling across 160,000 light-years of space. It was the closest supernova humanity had seen in centuries. Thirty-two years later, the light of the supernova itself has faded, but astronomers continue to study its remains for clues about how stars live and die. Scientists will use NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope to observe Supernova 1987A (SN 1987A), as it is known, in order to gain new insights into the physics of the explosion and its aftermath.


When you look at a photo of SN 1987A, two features stand out: a clumpy outer ring that looks like a pearl necklace, and an inner blob. The outer ring is material that the star shed thousands of years ago. When the supernova’s blast wave hit this ring, it caused the previously invisible material to heat up and glow. The inner blob is material ejected when the star exploded.


That ejected material revealed a surprise when astronomers observed it with the European Space Agency’s infrared Herschel Space Observatory. They found that it contained an entire sun’s worth of cold dust. More recently, NASA’s SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) mission studied the ring and detected 10 times more dust than expected, indicating a growing amount of dust there, too.


Theories suggest that any dust within the ring that predated the explosion should have been destroyed by the blast wave, and the ejecta itself should be too hot for new dust to form. As a result, there should be little dust within SN 1987A. Yet observations tell a different story.


“Something has produced dust there. We need Webb to answer questions like, how was the dust produced, and what is it made of?” said lead researcher Margaret Meixner of the Space Telescope Science Institute and Johns Hopkins University, both in Baltimore, Maryland.

What is dust, and why is it important?





This illustration demonstrates how a massive star (at least 8 times bigger than our sun) fuses heavier and heavier elements until exploding as a supernova and spreading those elements throughout space.


Credits: NASA, ESA, and L. Hustak (STScI). Youtube


Cosmic dust is different from the dust bunnies that you find under your furniture. It’s smaller, mainly consisting of micron-sized particles like those in smoke. And rather than being made of bits of hair or clothing fibers, cosmic dust is composed of a variety of chemical elements like carbon, silicon and iron all stuck together. As a result, measuring the composition of a particular patch of cosmic dust is challenging because the signatures of the elements blend together.


“We have no clue what the dust in Supernova 1987A is made of – whether it’s rocky and silicate-rich, or sooty and carbon-rich. Webb will let us lcoearn not only the composition of the dust, but its temperature and density,” explained Olivia Jones of the United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre, a co-investigator on the project.


As dust from dying stars spreads through space, it carries essential elements to help seed the next generation of star and planet formation. “Dust is what the planets are made out of, what we’re made out of. Without dust, you have no planets,” said Jones.


Dust also is important for the evolution of galaxies. Observations have shown that distant, young galaxies had lots of dust. Those galaxies weren’t old enough for sun-like stars to create so much dust, since sun-like stars last for billions of years. Only more massive, short-lived stars could have died soon enough and in large enough numbers to create the vast quantities of dust astronomers see in the early universe.

The birth of a supernova remnant


The team plans to examine SN 1987A with two of Webb’s instruments: the Mid-Infrared Imager (MIRI) and the Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). With imaging, Webb will reveal features of SN 1987A far beyond any previous infrared observations due to its exquisite resolution. Astronomers expect to be able to map the temperature of the dust within both the supernova ejecta and the surrounding ring. They can also study the interaction of the blast wave with the ring in great detail.




This illustration demonstrates how a massive star (at least 8 times bigger than our sun) fuses heavier and heavier elements until exploding as a supernova and spreading those elements throughout space. Credits: NASA, ESA, and L. Hustak (STScI). Hi-res image



Webb’s true power will come from its spectroscopic measurements. By spreading light out into a rainbow spectrum of colors, scientists can determine not only chemical compositions but also temperatures, densities, and speeds. They can examine the physics of the blast wave, and determine how it is affecting the surrounding environment. They can also watch the evolution of the ejected material and ring over time.


“We’re witnessing the birth of a supernova remnant,” said Patrice Bouchet of DRF/Irfu/Astrophysics Department, CEA-Saclay in France, a co-principal investigator for the MIRI European Consortium. “This is a once-in-a-lifetime event.”


“Supernova 1987A is an object that continually surprises people,” said Meixner. “This is one you’ll want to keep your eyes open for!”


The observations described here will be taken as part of Webb’s Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) program. The GTO program provides dedicated time to the scientists who have worked with NASA to craft the science and instrument capabilities of Webb throughout its development.


The James Webb Space Telescope will be the world’s premier space science observatory when it launches in 2021. Webb will solve mysteries of our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international project led by NASA with its partners, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency.

For more information about Webb, visit www.nasa.gov/webb.


By Christine Pulliam
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.

Editor: Lynn Jenner





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Brandsbutt Pictish Symbol Stone, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 22.2.19.

Brandsbutt Pictish Symbol Stone, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 22.2.19.








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Broomend of Crichie Prehistoric Complex, Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, 22.2.19.

Broomend of Crichie Prehistoric Complex, Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, 22.2.19.












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Roman Fort Foundations at Newcastle Castle and City Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, 24.2.19.

Roman Fort Foundations at Newcastle Castle and City Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, 24.2.19.






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The future “Concorde” will have to be silent


Boom logo.


March 2, 2019



Boom – Supersonic Passenger Airplane

Several projects are underway to recreate a supersonic aircraft, 50 years after the Concorde’s first flight. But he will have to be quieter.


Fifty years after the first test flight of the Concorde, March 2, 1969, the supersonic is still dreaming: several projects are underway in the United States but in the hour of increasing environmental requirements, the future aircraft at very high speed will have to be quieter.


A flight 50 years ago


The supersonic aircraft Concorde took flight 50 years ago in Toulouse, south-west France, under the command of test pilot André Turcat in front of a crowd of journalists and curious, admiring the “big white bird” “.


Born in November 1962 from a bilateral agreement between London and Paris, the supersonic project experienced, from the start, strong turbulence. The two partner companies, British Aircraft Corporation (now BAE Sytems) and Sud-Aviation (predecessor of Airbus) diverged on the characteristics of the aircraft: long-haul capable of crossing the Atlantic for the first, medium-haul for the second, like the famous Caravelle.


The name of the project was disputed, between “Concord” and “Concorde”, although the word refers to the identical agreement in both languages. In 1967, Britain’s Tony Benn, Secretary of State for Technology, decided that the final “e” would be added to “Concord” to mean “Excellence”, “England”, “Europe” and “Entente cordiale”.


It will take nearly seven years and 5500 hours of test flight for Concorde to be allowed to start its commercial life, under the colors of Air France and British Airways


In the 1970s, the Concorde took off with a noise level of 119.4 decibels – now unacceptable in view of international standards – and the supersonic “bang” caused by the crossing of the sound barrier by the aircraft flying at a speed of cruising speed Mach 2.04 (2.500 km / h), twice the speed of sound, forbade him to fly over inhabited areas.



The first Concorde

“The economic interests of supersonic business jet projects can only be confirmed if the regulation allows the overflight of land and the lock is the supersonic bang,” says Gerald Carrier, head of the applied aerodynamics department of the Onera, the French center for aerospace research.


“It is on this lock that have focused research for 10 years on the side of NASA. It must be recognized that they played a role in the advances that now allow us to reasonably believe that a supersonic low-boom aircraft is at hand, “he adds.


In July, NASA and Onera signed a research partnership on the supersonic bang. The “beautiful white bird”, which has been a commercial fiasco, has been sheltered since 2003.


“Since the 1960s, the noise of subsonic aircraft has been divided by four,” said Bruno Hamon, head of the Office of Environmental Performance of Aircraft at the General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGCA).


Today, he explains, a standoff between Europeans and Americans in the commission created by ICAO, the United Nations agency specializing in air transport, to define acoustic standards for a supersonic future .


Possible “regression”


“Europeans want supersonic standards to be subsonic and Americans (…) want the standard to allow their aircraft projects to go on the market,” says Hamon.


The US position in favor of “a less ambitious standard than that of subsonics” would be perceived “as a regression”, with “reactions to be feared by the public”, he continues, denouncing the idea of ​​putting on the market an airplane that would make more noise “while the subsonic aviation conceded huge efforts” in this direction.


On the subject of the “bang”, whose “intensity is that of the two explosions of a final fireworks”, according to Mr. Hamon, Europe collaborates in the project Rumble (Regulation and Norm for Low Sonic Boom Levels ) to assist ICAO in defining an acceptable standard for the supersonic bang.



NASA X59 QueSST plane

Several supersonic aircraft projects, all the size of a business jet, are being studied by start-ups in the United States, including Aerion, the most advanced, with a capacity of 8 to 12 passengers, the Spike S-512, of the same capacity, and the Boom project, the most ambitious, to carry 45 to 50 passengers.


The US manufacturer Boeing also unveiled in June its concept of “hypersonic” airliner, he hopes to fly Mach 5 – five times the speed of sound – for a possible commissioning in 20 or 30 years.


And two months ago, NASA signed an agreement with Lockheed Martin on the development of a supersonic “Avion-X”, which will have the mission to cross the wall of sound without producing the “bang” and thus flying over the territories inhabited. “The risk is not zero to see America develop a supersonic,” said Thursday Eric Trappier, CEO of Dassault Aviation.


“Technically, we have the skills to make a supersonic airplane (…) The problem is the standards,” he continued, adding furthermore not to be “sure that the business plan is very credible” .


Related articles:


NASA’s Quiet Supersonic Technology Project Passe Major Milestone
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/11/nasas-quiet-supersonic-technology.html


NASA’s Experimental Supersonic Aircraft Now Known as X-59 QueSST
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/06/nasas-experimental-supersonic-aircraft.html


New Supersonic Technology Designed to Reduce Sonic Booms
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2017/08/new-supersonic-technology-designed-to.html


Images, Text, Credits: AFP/Boom/AP/NASA/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


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Baryte | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Banská…


Baryte | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Banská Bystrica, Slovakia (Slovak Republic)


Size: 10.3 × 9.2 × 3.3 cm


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Dravite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


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