суббота, 19 января 2019 г.

Dutch Beakers: like no other Beakers

In my last two blog posts I tried to explain why the so called Bell Beakers of Bronze Age Europe cannot be confidently derived in any significant way from the Yamnaya population of the Carpathian Basin, and are more likely to have been an offshoot, in varying degrees, of the Single Grave or Corded Ware people of the Lower Rhine region (see here and here).
To help drive my message home, below is a series of new Principal Component Analysis (PCA) plots that illustrate the unique position of Dutch Beakers from the Lower Rhine relative to the Corded Ware population of Germany and all the other Beaker groups sampled to date.
The Dutch Beakers don’t exactly sit between the Corded Ware and the other Beaker samples, but generally at the apex of their clusters, suggesting to me that they’re not a recent mixture between Corded Ware and one or more of the other Beaker groups, but rather, as per my recent argumentation, a genetically homogeneous, relatively unique and thus long-standing Corded Ware-related population that may have contributed significant gene flow to the other Beaker groups.
Please note also that all of these outcomes can be confirmed with various types of formal statistics. I know this because I’ve done it.










See also…
Late PIE ground zero now obvious; location of PIE homeland still uncertain, but…

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An artificial meteorite shower on Demand



ALE Co., Ltd logo / ALE satellite logo.


Jan. 19, 2019



ALE satellite

A meteorite launcher satellite has successfully been placed into orbit for an unprecedented space show in the Japanese skies.


A small Japanese rocket placed seven mini-satellites into orbit on Friday, including one designed to create artificial meteorite rain, a kind of space fireworks.



The idea of ​​this unprecedented celestial spectacle goes to a young company based in Tokyo that has developed the device.


The craft, which dropped in the interstellar universe the little Epsilon-4 launcher, must release 400 tiny balls that will shine when they cross the atmosphere early next year over Hiroshima.



Artificial meteors shower over a event

The rocket, which took off from the Uchinoura Space Center on Friday morning, was carrying a total of seven ultra-small satellites demonstrating various “innovative” technologies, according to Nobuyoshi Fujimoto, spokesman for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Jaxa). ).


“I was so emotional”


The machines have been placed in orbit as planned, a significant success for Epsilon. “I was too emotional, without words,” Japanese news agency Jiji Lena Okajima, president of the ALE firm, told the story of the fake meteorite show, which will be repeated 20 to 30 times. .



Artificial meteors shower over Japan

The ALE satellite, orbiting 500 kilometers above the Earth, will gradually descend to 400 kilometers over the next year. Another is supposed to join him in a few months.


ALE would like to dream of “the whole world” with “shooting stars on command” ejected at the right place, at the right speed and in the right direction, according to a technical process kept secret.



ALE Promotion Movie

Stars (of various colors) should shine for several seconds before being completely consumed. If all goes well and the sky is clear, the event of 2020 could be visible to millions of people, including in remote urban areas and strong light pollution like Tokyo, according to the firm.


Related link & article:


ALE Co.: http://star-ale.com/en/


Successfully launch of Epsilon-4 carrying RAPIS 1
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/01/successfully-of-epsilon-4-carrying.html


Images, Animation, Video, Text, Credits: AFP/ALE Co., Ltd./Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


2019 January 19 Total Lunar Eclipse at Moonset Image Credit…


2019 January 19


Total Lunar Eclipse at Moonset
Image Credit & Copyright: Fred Espenak (MrEclipse.com)


Explanation: The Moon slid through Earth’s shadow on January 31, 2018 in a total lunar eclipse. In this time-lapse sequence of that eclipse from Portal, Arizona, USA, the partial eclipse starts with the Moon high in the western sky. The eclipse total phase lasted about 76 minutes, but totality ended after the dark, reddened Moon set below the horizon. The upcoming total lunar eclipse, on the night of January 20/21, will be better placed for skygazers across the Americas, though. There, all 62 minutes of the total phase, when the Moon is completely immersed in Earth’s dark umbral shadow, will take place with the Moon above the horizon. Watch it if you can. The next total lunar eclipse visible from anywhere on planet Earth won’t take place until May 26, 2021, and then the total eclipse will last a mere 15 minutes.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190119.html


Temple Wood Stone Circle 2, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 12.1.19.




Temple Wood Stone Circle 2, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 12.1.19.


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Nether Largie South Prehistoric Cairn Exterior and Cist Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll,...

Nether Largie South Prehistoric Cairn Exterior and Cist Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 12.1.19.












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Scientists Finally Know What Time It Is on Saturn


NASA – Cassini International logo.


January 18, 2019


Using new data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, researchers believe they have solved a longstanding mystery of solar system science: the length of a day on Saturn. It’s 10 hours, 33 minutes and 38 seconds.


The figure has eluded planetary scientists for decades, because the gas giant has no solid surface with landmarks to track as it rotates, and it has an unusual magnetic field that hides the planet’s rotation rate.


The answer, it turned out, was hidden in the rings.



Image above: A view from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft shows Saturn’s northern hemisphere in 2016 as that part of the planet nears its northern hemisphere summer solstice. A year on Saturn is 29 Earth years; days only last 10:33:38, according to a new analysis of Cassini data. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute.


During Cassini’s orbits of Saturn, instruments examined the icy, rocky rings in unprecedented detail. Christopher Mankovich, a graduate student in astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz, used the data to study wave patterns within the rings.


His work determined that the rings respond to vibrations within the planet itself, acting similarly to the seismometers used to measure movement caused by earthquakes. The interior of Saturn vibrates at frequencies that cause variations in its gravitational field. The rings, in turn, detect those movements in the field.


“Particles throughout the rings can’t help but feel these oscillations in the gravity field,” Mankovich said. “At specific locations in the rings these oscillations catch ring particles at just the right time in their orbits to gradually build up energy, and that energy gets carried away as an observable wave.”


Mankovich’s research, published Jan. 17 by Astrophysical Journal, describes how he developed models of Saturn’s internal structure that would match the rings’ waves. That allowed him to track the movements of the interior of the planet – and thus, its rotation.


The rotation rate of 10:33:38 that the analysis yielded is several minutes faster than previous estimates in 1981, which were based on radio signals from NASA’s Voyager spacecraft.


The analysis of Voyager data, which estimated the day to be 10:39:23, was based on magnetic field information. Cassini used magnetic field data, too, but earlier estimates ranged from 10:36 all the way to 10:48.


Scientists often rely on magnetic fields to measure planets’ rotation rates. Jupiter’s magnetic axis, like Earth’s, is not aligned with its rotational axis. So it swings around as the planet rotates, enabling scientists to measure a periodic signal in radio waves to get the rotation rate. However, Saturn is different. Its unique magnetic field is nearly perfectly aligned with its rotational axis.



A day on Saturn. Animation Credit: imagenesmy.com

This is why the rings finding has been key to homing in on the length of day. Saturn scientists are elated to have the best answer yet to such a central question about the planet.


“The researchers used waves in the rings to peer into Saturn’s interior, and out popped this long-sought, fundamental characteristic of the planet. And it’s a really solid result,” said Cassini Project Scientist Linda Spilker. “The rings held the answer.”


The idea that Saturn’s rings could be used to study the seismology of the planet was first suggested in 1982, long before the necessary observations were possible. 


Co-author Mark Marley, now at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley, subsequently fleshed out the idea for his Ph.D. thesis in 1990. Along with showing how the calculations could be done, he predicted where signatures in Saturn’s rings would be. He also noted that the Cassini mission, then in the planning stages, would be able to make the observations needed to test the idea.


“Two decades later, in the final years of the Cassini mission, scientists analyzed mission data and found ring features at the locations of Mark’s predictions,” said co-author Jonathan Fortney, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz and a member of the Cassini team. “This current work aims to make the most of these observations.”


Cassini’s mission ended in September 2017 when, low on fuel, the spacecraft was deliberately plunged into Saturn’s atmosphere by the mission team, which wanted to avoid crashing the craft onto the planet’s moons.


The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. The radar instrument was built by JPL and the Italian Space Agency, working with team members from the U.S. and several European countries.


Related article:


NASA’s Cassini Data Show Saturn’s Rings Relatively New
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/01/nasas-cassini-data-show-saturns-rings.html


More information about Cassini can be found here: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/cassini


Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/JoAnna Wendel/JPL/Gretchen McCartney.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Juno’s Latest Flyby of Jupiter Captures Two Massive Storms


NASA – JUNO Mission logo.


Jan. 18, 2019



This image of Jupiter’s turbulent southern hemisphere was captured by NASA’s Juno spacecraft as it performed its most recent close flyby of the gas giant planet on Dec. 21, 2018.


This new perspective captures the notable Great Red Spot, as well as a massive storm called Oval BA. The storm reached its current size when three smaller spots collided and merged in the year 2000. The Great Red Spot, which is about twice as wide as Oval BA, may have formed from the same process centuries ago.


Juno captured Oval BA in another image earlier on in the mission on Feb. 7, 2018. The turbulent regions around, and even the shape of, the storm have significantly changed since then. Oval BA further transformed in recent months, changing color from reddish to a more uniform white.


Juno took the three images used to produce this color-enhanced view on Dec. 21, between 9:32 a.m. PST (12:32 p.m. EST) and 9:42 a.m. PST (12:42 p.m. EST). At the time the images were taken, the spacecraft was between approximately 23,800 miles (38,300 kilometers) to 34,500 miles (55,500 kilometers) from the planet’s cloud tops above southern latitudes spanning 49.15 to 59.59 degrees.



Juno spacecraft orbiting Jupiter

Citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran created this image using data from the spacecraft’s JunoCam imager.


JunoCam’s raw images are available for the public to peruse and to process into image products at: http://missionjuno.swri.edu/junocam.  


More information about Juno is at: http://www.nasa.gov/juno and http://missionjuno.swri.edu.


Image, Animation, Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstädt/Seán Doran.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Nether Largie North Prehistoric Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 12.1.19.Sadly...






Nether Largie North Prehistoric Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 12.1.19.


Sadly the interior of the cairn is closed and awaiting repair. Hopefully it will be open to the public again soon.


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Ballymeanoch Standing Stones, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 12.1.19.




Ballymeanoch Standing Stones, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 12.1.19.









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Nether Largie South Prehistoric Cairn Interior, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland,...


Nether Largie South Prehistoric Cairn Interior, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 12.1.19.









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