воскресенье, 6 января 2019 г.

Alzheimer’s Vaccine Nearly 47 million people in the world are…


Alzheimer’s Vaccine


Nearly 47 million people in the world are living with Alzheimer’s disease or other types of dementia. Two tell-tale signs of Alzheimer’s disease are toxic proteins in the brain called amyloid plaques (in red) and neurofibrillary tangles (in brown). Scientists have recently developed a new vaccine that could potentially stop the build-up of these dangerous proteins. The team gave mice with brain plaques and tangles in their brain a DNA vaccine that triggered their immune system to produce the necessary antibodies to fight them. Not only did the antibodies reduce the number of amyloid plaques in the mouse brain by 40%, but they also indirectly reduced the number of tangles by 50%. Similar antibody treatments have been tested in the past, but caused dangerous brain swelling. Since this new approach had no side effects in the mice, it could be a promising new therapy to one day trial with patients.


Written by Gaëlle Coullon



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China, the celestial rival of the United States


China Space Race.


Jan. 6, 2019


China is the country that sends the most rockets into orbit. But commercially, it does not shade SpaceX and the USA.


During the Cold War, the United States had its eyes focused on rockets and satellites of the USSR. In recent years, it is the space activities of China that preoccupy US strategists.


China, whose space program is run by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), today sends more rockets into orbit than any other country – 39 last year, compared to 31 US, 20 Russian and … 8 by Europe.



The last launch of 2018 by a Long March 2D rocket on December 30. Image Credit: CASC

She just landed a vehicle on the hidden side of the Moon (a historic first), will build a station in Earth orbit in the 2020s, and wants a “taikonaut” to walk on the moon in the next decade – he would be the first Man since 1972. No Russian went there.


The country spends more than Russia and Japan on its civilian and military space programs. China’s opaque budget was estimated at $ 8.4 billion in 2017 by the OECD. This is far behind the 48 billion civilians and military spent by the United States, said analyst Phil Smith, Bryce Tech firm. But much more than the budget of the Russian civilian program, slashed to three billion dollars.


Methodically, the Chinese leaders have responded, with a few decades of lag, the stages of the development of major nations: first satellite in 1970, first Chinese in space in 2003, first mooring an inhabited ship to a module in orbit in 2012, activation of a Chinese competitor to the GPS, the Beidou system …



BeiDou Navigation Satellites Constellation. Image Credit: Beidou

“If they continue on this trajectory, they will quickly eclipse Russia in terms of space technologies,” says Todd Harrison, an expert on space military issues at the CSIS think tank in Washington.


– Lunar resources –


Commercially, Chinese rockets do not threaten the satellite launch market, dominated by SpaceX in the United States. They almost exclusively launch Chinese government satellites.


For space exploration, Chinese progress also does not overshadow US projects. The boss of NASA congratulated the Chinese for the mission Chang’e-4. An American law of 2011 de facto prevents any space cooperation with Beijing, but the US Congress remains free to lift the restriction.



 A render of the Chang’e-4 rover on the lunar surface. Image Credit: CNSA

The real rivalry concerns two areas: the short-term military, and the long-term the exploitation of space resources. The exploitation of minerals or water on the Moon or asteroids, especially to produce rocket fuels, remains a distant prospect, but American start-ups are already working on it. Who will settle a dispute between Chinese and Americans on a lunar ice vein?


Unlike the period of the Cold War, the new space conquest unfolds in a relative legal vacuum. In the 1960s and 1970s, Washington and Moscow had negotiated several space treaties, mainly to ensure scientific cooperation and to ban weapons of mass destruction in outer space.


“These treaties are too vague to legally apply to issues like the exploitation of mineral resources in outer space,” says Frans von der Dunk, a professor of space law at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.


– Space war –


These treaties are mostly overtaken by new military technologies: anti-satellite lasers, cyberattacks, jamming transmissions, missiles fired from Earth to destroy a satellite, as China tested in 2007 and continues to do it blank.



China To Test Dong Neng-3 Anti-Satellite Missile. Image Credit: Indian Defense News

There is no equivalent of the laws of war for space. One satellite colliding with another, is this an “attack”? How to define the proportionality of a response? Should civilian satellites be protected from retaliation, but what about satellites for civil and military use? And how to respond to a cyber attack whose author is uncertain?


“The Chinese have done experiments to interfere in our communications,” says Jack Beard of the University of Nebraska’s Space Law Program. He recalls that civil satellites and NASA were attacked in 2007 and 2008 by pirates for several minutes.



Animation above: Satellite explosion in space produce a lot of uncontrolled and dangerous space debris. Animation Credit: Gify.


“The United States is vulnerable because it has fallen behind threats to our space systems,” says Todd Harrison. But the dialogue with Beijing is almost zero, unlike what existed with Moscow during the Cold War. “In case of a crisis in space with China, I am not sure that our army knows who to call,” says the expert.


But observers nuance the portrait of China as an aggressive opponent of America. “Some in the United States exaggerate China’s role as a major strategic rival to fund the space projects they support,” said Brian Weeden of the Secure World Foundation in Washington, while NASA is fighting to maintain its budget.


Main Launch Companies & Agencies:


Europe:


Arianespace: http://www.arianespace.com/


Eurockot Launch Services: http://www.eurockot.com/


USA:


United Launch Alliance (ULA): https://www.ulalaunch.com/


SpaceX: https://www.spacex.com/


Russia:


Energia: https://www.energia.ru/english/


ROSCOSMOS: http://en.roscosmos.ru/


China:


China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC): http://english.spacechina.com/n16421/index.html


China National Space Administration (CNSA): http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/


India:


Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO): https://www.isro.gov.in/


Japan:


Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA): http://global.jaxa.jp/


Images (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: AFP/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


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Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia | #Geology #GeologyPage #Bolivia Salar…


Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia | #Geology #GeologyPage #Bolivia


Salar de Uyuni is the world’s largest salt flat at 10,582 square kilometers (4,086 sq mi). It is located in the Daniel Campos Province in Potosí in southwest Bolivia, near the crest of the Andes and is at an altitude of 3,656 meters (11,995 ft) above sea level.


The Salar was formed as a result of transformations between several prehistoric lakes. It is covered by a few meters of salt crust, which has an extraordinary flatness with the average altitude variations within one meter over the entire area of the Salar. The crust serves as a source of salt and covers a pool of brine, which is exceptionally rich in lithium. It contains 50 to 70% of the world’s lithium reserves,


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com

https://www.instagram.com/p/BsSMUtwF4Hl/?utm_source=ig_tumblr_share&igshid=19rnsuxfryoz0


Crocoite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Dundas…


Crocoite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Dundas Mineral Field in the Zeehan district of Tasmania, Australia


Dimensions: 5.4 × 4.1 × 1.5 cm


Photo Copyright © Crystal Classics


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com

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2019 January 6 A Laser Strike at the Galactic Center Image…


2019 January 6


A Laser Strike at the Galactic Center
Image Credit: Yuri Beletsky (Carnegie Las Campanas Observatory, TWAN), ESO


Explanation: Why are these people shooting a powerful laser into the center of our Galaxy? Fortunately, this is not meant to be the first step in a Galactic war. Rather, astronomers at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) site in Chile are trying to measure the distortions of Earth’s ever changing atmosphere. Constant imaging of high-altitude atoms excited by the laser – which appear like an artificial star – allow astronomers to instantly measure atmospheric blurring. This information is fed back to a VLT telescope mirror which is then slightly deformed to minimize this blurring. In this case, a VLT was observing our Galaxy’s center, and so Earth’s atmospheric blurring in that direction was needed. As for inter-galaxy warfare, when viewed from our Galaxy’s center, no casualties are expected. In fact, the light from this powerful laser would combine with light from our Sun to together appear only as bright as a faint and distant star.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190106.html


Steel Rigg and Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland, 23.12.18.

Steel Rigg and Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland, 23.12.18.












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Backstone Beck Bronze Age Rock Art, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire, 24.12.18.




Backstone Beck Bronze Age Rock Art, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire, 24.12.18.


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Not Tonight HIV infection is a complicated business. Not only…


Not Tonight


HIV infection is a complicated business. Not only does the virus have to get into the bloodstream – for example, through unprotected sex or sharing dirty needles – it must also insert its genetic material into the DNA inside the nucleus of immune cells in order to replicate and spread within the body. However, our cells are not completely defenceless against this attack: researchers have discovered that a group of protective proteins form a barrier around the nucleus, stopping the viral genes from getting in. Two of them – MX2 (red) and NUP214 (green) – are highlighted in this image of human cells grown in the lab, teaming up to form a protective yellow ring around the cell nucleus. Figuring out how to boost or mimic this internal protection against HIV could be a powerful approach for preventing infection in the future. As a nightclub bouncer might say, “Not tonight, you’re not coming in!”


Written by Kat Arney



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Best Wishes from around the World ‘Beamed’ toward New Horizons in the Kuiper...


NASA – New Horizons Mission patch.


January 5, 2019


NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft flew by a small, distant world in the Kuiper Belt on New Year’s Day – the place, officially designated 2014 MU69 and nicknamed Ultima Thule, is 4 billion miles from Earth. No spacecraft has ever explored a world so far away.



Image above: Raw images of the New Horizons MU69 encounter. Image Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI/Emily Lakdawalla.


Several weeks before that flyby the New Horizons team gave people around the world the opportunity to “beam” their name and a choice of messages, at the speed of light, toward New Horizons and Ultima Thule on flyby day – ¬and 30,547 people ultimately signed on. “Happy 2019!” was the top choice, selected by 8,100 participants, followed by “Keep on Exploring!” sent by 6,800 participants.


Transmitted on New Year’s Eve from the satellite communications facility at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland – where New Horizons was built and is operated – the signals carrying the messages reached New Horizons just hours before the flyby, then continued on past Ultima Thule and through the Kuiper Belt.



Image above: Tens of thousands of names and wishes for New Horizons were transmitted to the Kuiper Belt on New Year’s Eve from the 60-foot antenna at the satellite communications facility at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, as NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft bore down on its flyby target, Ultima Thule. Image Credit: NASA.


“Never before has the public had an opportunity to have their names and messages across our entire solar system on the historic day of the farthest exploration of worlds in human history,” said New Horizons Principal Investigator and “Beam Me” project originator Alan Stern, of the Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado.



New Horizons spacecraft. Image Credit: NASA

New Horizons’ closest approach to Ultima Thule occurred at 12:33 a.m. EST on Jan. 1, when it zipped approximately 2,200 miles (3,500 kilometers) from the object. The spacecraft sent back the first close-up images of its Kuiper Belt target in the following days, confirming that Ultima Thule is a contact binary, and offering tantalizing hints of the science to come.


Related articles:


New Ultima Thule Discoveries from NASA’s New Horizons
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/01/new-ultima-thule-discoveries-from-nasas.html


New Horizons Mission Reveals Entirely New Kind of World
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/01/new-horizons-mission-reveals-entirely.html


New Horizons Successfully Explores Ultima Thule
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/01/new-horizons-successfully-explores.html


Live updates and links to mission information are also available on: http://pluto.jhuapl.edu


For more information on the New Horizons mission, including fact sheets, schedules, video and images, visit: https://www.nasa.gov/newhorizons


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/JHUAPL.


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