пятница, 4 января 2019 г.

“Small step for the rover, big step for China”



CLEP – China Lunar Exploration Program logo.


Jan. 4, 2019



Image above: China’s Yutu 2 Lunar Rover Leaves First Ever Footprint on Moon’s Far Side. Image Credits: CNSA/CLEP.


After a historic lunar landing on the far side of the moon, the Chinese space agency announced that its exploration by a robot had begun.


A small Chinese motorized robot has begun to explore the hidden face of the moon, the Chinese space agency said Friday after the historic moon landing of its Chang’e-4 exploration module, hailing a “big step for the Chinese people.”



Chang’e-4 Yutu-2 rover starts exploring the Von Karman Crater

Video above: The Chang’e-4 rover, named Yutu-2 (玉兔二号, Jade Rabbit-2), was deployed onto the surface of the Von Karman Crater, on 3 January 2019, at 14:22 UTC (22:22 Beijing time). The Von Karman Crater is located in the Aitken Basin, in the South Pole region on the far side of the Moon. China’s Chang’e-4 (嫦娥四号) lunar mission landed in the crater on 3 January 2019, at 02:26 UTC (10:26 Beijing time). Communications with Earth are provided by the relay satellite Queqiao (鹊桥, Magpie Bridge). Video Credits: China Central Television (CCTV)/China National Space Administration (CNSA)/SciNews.


The Yutu-2 rover surveyed the lunar surface on Thursday at 10:22 am Beijing time (1422 GMT), 12 hours after China achieved the first ever moon landing of a spacecraft on the dark side. of the Moon, the agency said.


The latter published a photo taken by the Chang’e-4 module (named after the goddess of the moon in Chinese mythology) and showing traces of the small radio-controlled vehicle as it left the spacecraft. The Chinese agency did not specify the distance traveled by the robot.


“Even though it was just a small step for the rover, I think it’s a big step for the Chinese people,” said Wu Weiren, chief engineer of the Chinese program. lunar exploration, in an interview with state television CCTV.



Chang’e 4 lander-rover relayed back via satellite relay.Image Credits: CASC/CNSA

An allusion to the famous phrase (“A small step for man, a big step for humanity”) pronounced by the American astronaut Neil Armstrong, the first man to have walked on the Moon, in 1969.


Unknown territory


This is the second time that the Asian giant sends a machine to explore the moon after the small motorized robot Yutu (“Jade Bunny”) in 2013. He remained active for 31 months, on the visible side of the star.



Image above: Artist’s view of China’s Yutu 2 Lunar Rover Leaves lander, first roll on the Moon far side. Image Credits: CASC/CNSA.


Unlike this face closest to Earth, which is still facing our planet, no probe or exploration module had yet touched the ground on the other side. This one, mountainous and uneven, is strewn with craters.


China invests billions in its space program, led by the military. It places satellites in orbit, on its behalf (earth observation, telecommunications, Beidou geolocation system) or for other countries. She also hopes to send humans to the moon.


Related articles:


Chang’e 4 spacecraft sends images after landing on far side of the Moon
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/01/change-4-spacecraft-sends-images-after.html


Chang’e-4 Probe Enters Lunar Orbit
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/12/change-4-probe-enters-lunar-orbit.html


China launches lunar rover in historic mission to the dark side of the moon
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/12/china-launches-lunar-rover-in-historic.html


For more information about China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), visit: http://english.spacechina.com/n16421/index.html


For more information about China National Space Administration (CNSA), visit: http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/


Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits:  NXP/AFP/CNSA/CASC/CLEP/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


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Microscopic Bumps In the UK alone, bladder cancer causes 5,300…


Microscopic Bumps


In the UK alone, bladder cancer causes 5,300 deaths each year. Survival rates are higher if the cancer is detected before it spreads beyond the cells that coat the inside of the bladder wall. However, many of the diagnostic methods doctors currently use are expensive and invasive, often requiring painful procedures to collect tissue samples from patients. Scientists have recently developed an easier, painless way of screening for bladder cancer using a type of very high-resolution microscopy, the team were able to tell between healthy (left) and cancerous (right) cells taken from a patient’s urine sample, just by analysing the bumps and grooves on the surfaces of the cells. Not only is this screening technique non-invasive, it is also better able to detect bladder cancer than currently used methods. Regular patient screening using this approach could help doctors to catch the disease earlier before it spreads.


Written by Gaëlle Coullon



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Red Rock Canyon State Park, California, USA | #Geology…


Red Rock Canyon State Park, California, USA | #Geology #GeologyPage #California


Red Rock Canyon State Park features scenic desert cliffs, buttes and spectacular rock formations. The park is located where the southernmost tip of the Sierra Nevada converges with the El Paso Mountains.


Each tributary canyon is unique, with vivid colors. After wet winters, the park’s floral displays are notable. Wildlife includes roadrunners, hawks, lizards, mice and squirrels.


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Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: 66 Line…


Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: 66 Line Mine, Lingqiu County, Shanxi Province, China (Peoples Republic)


Size: 14 × 11.3 × 9.7 cm


Photo Copyright © Blue Mountains /e-rocks. com


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HiPOD 3 January 2019: Bedrock Exposures in Terra SabaeaTerra…



HiPOD 3 January 2019: Bedrock Exposures in Terra Sabaea


Terra Sabaea extends from the Hellas impact basin to Utopia Planitia. It covers 4,700 kilometers at its broadest extent.


ID: ESP_054487_1555
Date: 12 March 2018
Altitude: 255 km


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


2019 January 3 Ultima Thule Rotation Gif Image Credit: NASA,…


2019 January 3


Ultima Thule Rotation Gif
Image Credit: NASA, Johns Hopkins University APL, Southwest Research Institute


Explanation: Ultima Thule is the most distant world explored by a spacecraft from Earth. In the dim light 6.5 billion kilometers from the Sun, the New Horizons spacecraft captured these two frames 38 minutes apart as it sped toward the Kuiper belt world on January 1 at 51,000 kilometers per hour. A contact binary, the two lobes of Ultima Thule rotate together once every 15 hours or so. Shown as a blinking gif, the rotation between the frames produces a tantalizing 3D perspective of the most primitive world ever seen. Dubbed separately by the science team Ultima and Thule, the larger lobe Ultima, is about 19 kilometers in diameter. Smaller Thule is 14 kilometers across.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190104.html


The smoking gun of a newborn star



2MASS J03285694+3116222
Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, K. Stapelfeldt


In this image the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured the smoking gun of a newborn star, the Herbig–Haro objects numbered 7 to 11 (HH 7–11). These five objects, visible in blue in the top centre of the image, lie within NGC 1333, a reflection nebula full of gas and dust found about a thousand light-years away from Earth.


Herbig-Haro objects like HH 7–11 are transient phenomena. Travelling away from the star that created them, at a speed of up to 250 000 kilometres per hour they disappear into nothingness within a few tens of thousands of years. The young star that is the source of HH 7-11 is called SVS 13 and all five objects are moving away from SVS 13 toward the upper left. The current distance between HH 7 and SVS 13 is about 20 000 times the distance between Earth and the Sun.


Herbig–Haro objects are formed when jets of ionised gas ejected by a young star collide with nearby clouds of gas and dust at high speeds. The Herbig-Haro objects visible in this image are no exception to this and were formed when the jets from the newborn star SVS 13 collided with the surrounding clouds. These collisions created the five brilliant clumps of light within the reflection nebula.





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Late Dawn at Tre’r Ceiri Iron Age Hillfort, North Wales, 4.1.19.

Late Dawn at Tre’r Ceiri Iron Age Hillfort, North Wales, 4.1.19.



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Sulfur | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Girgenti…


Sulfur | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Girgenti Province, Sicily, Italy


Size: 4.6 x 3.2 x 2.5


Photo Copyright © Saphira Minerals


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Calcite and Quartz | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Calcite and Quartz | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Cavnic Mine, Cavnic, Maramure? Co., Romania


Size: 9.2 x 7.1 x 6.7


Photo Copyright © Saphira Minerals


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Tourmaline var. Elbaite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Tourmaline var. Elbaite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Ouarzazate Province, Souss-Massa-Draa Region, Morocco


Size: 1.7 x 1.5 x 1.0 cm


Photo Copyright © Spirifer Minerals


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Wulfenite crystals | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Wulfenite crystals | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Touissit, Jerada Province, Oriental Region, Morocco


Size: 6.5 x 6.5 x 4.0 cm


Photo Copyright © Spirifer Minerals


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Quartz var. hourglass amethyst | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Quartz var. hourglass amethyst | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Bou Oudi, Tata Province, Guelmin-Es Semara, Morocco


Size: 3.1 x 2.1 x 1.5 cm


Photo Copyright © Spirifer Minerals


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Selenite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Lubin Mine,…


Selenite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Lubin Mine, Lubin District, Lower Silesia, Poland


Size: 9.5 × 9.5 × 6.5 cm


Photo Copyright © Blue Mountains /e-rocks. com


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New Ultima Thule Discoveries from NASA’s New Horizons


NASA – New Horizons Mission patch.


January 3, 2019



Image above: Illustration of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft encountering 2014 MU69 – nicknamed “Ultima Thule” – a Kuiper Belt object that orbits one billion miles beyond Pluto. Set for New Year’s 2019, New Horizons’ exploration of Ultima is the farthest space probe flyby in history. Image Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI.


Data from NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, which explored Kuiper Belt object Ultima Thule earlier this week, is yielding scientific discoveries daily. Among the findings made by the mission science team in the past day are:


– Initial data analysis has found no evidence of rings or satellites larger than one mile in diameter orbiting Ultima Thule.


– Data analysis has also not yet found any evidence of an atmosphere.
– The color of Ultima Thule matches the color of similar worlds in the Kuiper Belt, as determined by telescopic measurements.


– The two lobes of Ultima Thule — the first Kuiper Belt contact binary visited — are nearly identical in color. This matches what we know about binary systems which haven’t come into contact with each other, but rather orbit around a shared point of gravity.


“The first exploration of a small Kuiper Belt object and the most distant exploration of any world in history is now history, but almost all of the data analysis lies in the future,” said Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado.



Image above: The New Horizons science team created the first stereo image pair of Ultima Thule. This image can be viewed with stereo glasses to reveal the Kuiper Belt object’s three-dimensional shape. The images that created the stereo pair were taken by the Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at 4:23 and 5:01 Universal Time on January 1, 2019 from respective ranges of 38,000 miles (61,000 kilometers) and 17,000 miles (28,000 kilometers), with respective original scales of 1017 feet (310 meters) and 459 feet (140 meters) per pixel. Image Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI.


Data transmission from New Horizons will pause for about a week while the spacecraft passes behind the sun as seen from here on Earth. Data transmission resumes Jan. 10, starting a 20-month download of the spacecraft’s remaining scientific treasures.


“Those of us on the science team can’t wait to begin to start digging into that treasure trove,” said Stern. New Horizons completed the farthest flyby in history when it came within about 2,200 miles (3,500 kilometers) of Ultima Thule at 12:33 a.m. EST on Jan. 1, zooming past the object at more than 32,000 miles (51,000 kilometers) per hour.



Animation above: In this animated GIF of Kuiper Belt object Ultima Thule made from two images taken 38 minutes apart, the “Thule” lobe is closest to the New Horizons spacecraft. As Ultima Thule is seen to rotate, hints of the topography can be perceived. The images were taken by the Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at 4:23 and 5:01 Universal Time on January 1, 2019 from respective ranges of 38,000 miles (61,000 kilometers) and 17,000 miles (28,000 kilometers), with respective original scales of 1017 feet (310 meters) and 459 feet (140 meters) per pixel. Animation Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI.


The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, designed, built and operates the New Horizons spacecraft, and manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. The Southwest Research Institute, based in San Antonio, leads the science team, payload operations and encounter science planning. New Horizons is part of the New Frontiers Program managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.


Related articles:


New Horizons Mission Reveals Entirely New Kind of World
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/01/new-horizons-mission-reveals-entirely.html


New Horizons Successfully Explores Ultima Thule
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/01/new-horizons-successfully-explores.html


Live updates and links to mission information are also available on: http://pluto.jhuapl.edu


For more information on the New Horizons mission, including fact sheets, schedules, video and images, visit: https://www.nasa.gov/newhorizons


Images (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/JHUAPL.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Grimspound Bronze Age Enclosure and Hut Circles, Dartmoor, Devon, 29.12.18.

Grimspound Bronze Age Enclosure and Hut Circles, Dartmoor, Devon, 29.12.18.












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Covered Cist Cairn, Merrivale Prehistoric Complex, Merrivale, Dartmoor, Devon, 29.12.18.



Covered Cist Cairn, Merrivale Prehistoric Complex, Merrivale, Dartmoor, Devon, 29.12.18.





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Wafting Along Just as a car needs oil to keep everything…


Wafting Along


Just as a car needs oil to keep everything moving, your brain is bathed with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) – a special liquid flowing through the cavities within the brain. As well as keeping the brain healthy and working properly throughout life, the flow of CSF is also vitally important during development, helping to ensure that the correct structures appear in the right places. It turns out that a gene called KIF6 is essential for the formation of tiny hairs, known as cilia, that keep the flow of CSF moving through the brain. Researchers have discovered this gene at work in the cilia of many different animals, from frog cells (shown here, with Kif6 protein coloured green) to zebrafish and mice. They have also found a child born with brain abnormalities has a faulty KIF6 gene, suggesting that it also plays a vital role in human brain development and function too.


Written by Kat Arney



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