воскресенье, 30 июня 2019 г.

Great Orme Bronze Age Copper Mines, Llandudno, North Wales, 29.6.19.




Great Orme Bronze Age Copper Mines, Llandudno, North Wales, 29.6.19.









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Inflammation Explanation Your immune system rapidly responds…


Inflammation Explanation


Your immune system rapidly responds to protect you whenever you’re injured, or invaded by microorganisms or parasites. Inflammation is a key part of this activation, rallying the troops. It’s at the heart of both healthy protection and allergic reactions, so understanding the details is important for developing new treatments. While a group of cells called ILC2s (group 2 innate lymphoid cells, green in the slice of mouse lung pictured) were known to play an important role in inflammation, what drove them wasn’t clear. A new study now shows that they home towards specific chemokines – signalling proteins – and are guided along the way by the extracellular matrix – the structure surrounding cells (shown in pink and blue). Knowing that structural cues from this matrix, along with molecular guiding lights, steer ILC2 behaviour during inflammation helps our understanding of both allergic and disease-fighting reactions, which may eventually help us intervene when needed.


Written by Anthony Lewis



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ASI finds ruins of ancient Jain structure at Halebid

The staff of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) at Halebid recently found ruins of an ancient Jain structure near Parshvanath Basadi, while digging the ground for a compound wall.











ASI finds ruins of ancient Jain structure at Halebid
The Archaeological Survey of India had taken up construction of a compound wall
around the temple [Credit: The Hindu]

K. Murtheshwari, Superintendent Archaeologist of Bengaluru Circle, visited the spot recently and ordered the closure of the civil work to avoid any damage to the old structure.


Now, the ASI has taken up conservation of the structure. The staff has noticed a base structure of a ruined basadi.


“Around 10 sculptures have been retrieved from the site. Among them, six have carvings on either side. We have shifted them to the museum,” the officer told The Hindu on Saturday.


The ASI had taken up construction of a compound wall around the temple. “We had one compound wall, but we wanted to have a stronger one. As we found the sculptures, the work has been suspended temporarily,” she said.


Sources in the department said certain sculptures were damaged as heavy machinery was hired for digging, ignoring the department’s guidelines. When this was brought to the notice of Ms. Murtheshwari, she said: “Earthmovers were hired for heavy work like digging the ground. We should be thankful to the workers, who noticed the sculptures while doing their job. But when it comes scientific clearance, we do manually,” she said.


The officer said the ASI has planned an open museum in Halebid to display the sculptures collected in the area. “There are about 1,000 sculptures. It is difficult to take up construction work in the monument site to display all of them. We are planning a big open air museum,” she added.


Source: The Hindu [June 24, 2019]



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Ancient amphorae found on seabed off Brindisi

Several fragments of ancient amphorae of various types have been found near the coast of the port city of Brindisi, between Punta del Serrone and the marine protected area of Torre Guaceto in southern Italy’s Apulia region.











Ancient amphorae found on seabed off Brindisi
Credit: Guardia Costiera

The finds, which were recovered by the Coast Guard of Brindisi with the help of the diving team of San Benedetto del Tronto, date back to different times: from the second century BC, until the late Imperial era. Part of a 17th century sailboat pulley and rope were also recovered.


Ancient amphorae found on seabed off Brindisi











Ancient amphorae found on seabed off Brindisi
Credit: Guardia Costiera

Of particular importance was the discovery of pieces of an amphora of Forlimpopoli, evidence of the many trade with the ancient city with Salento.



All the material was temporarily entrusted to the Port Authority of Brindisi, for the subsequent transfer to the Superintendence.


Source: Redazione LecceSette [June 25, 2019]



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Capuchin monkeys have been using stone tools for around 3,000 years

A group of wild monkeys, bearded capuchins, have been employing stone tools for around 3,000 years, and their use of the technology has changed over this period, according to a new UCL study.











Capuchin monkeys have been using stone tools for around 3,000 years
Credit: Eric Kilby/Flickr

The study, published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, finds that wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil have been using stone tools for processing a variety of food types over at least the past 3,000 years.


Dr Tomos Proffitt (UCL Archaeology) commented: “The Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil is home to numerous capuchin groups, all of whom display a wide range of stone tool using behaviours.


“From the excavations at one of these behavioural locations, Caju BPF 2, there is evidence of about 450 generations of repeated, but not necessarily continuous, capuchin tool use.”


Stone tool activities include nut cracking, seed processing, digging, stone-on-stone percussion, sexual displays and fruit processing.


For percussive tasks, such as nut cracking, the wild capuchins use rounded quartzite cobbles as hammer stones, which are readily available in the immediate landscape. For anvils, they use tree roots and limbs as well as loose cobbles and blocks of rock.











Capuchin monkeys have been using stone tools for around 3,000 years
a, Examples of cashew-residue-covered hammerstones from Phase I. b, Hammerstone from Phase II with clear
 incipient cones of percussion. c, Example of an anvil from Phase II. d–f, Examples of hammerstones with typical
capuchin percussive damage from Phase IV. g, Weights of all hammerstones and hammerstones with flake
 detachments from all phases. h, Relative frequency of impact points on all hammerstones and hammerstones
with flake detachments from all phases [Credit: Tiago Falótico et al. 2019]

The study suggests that stone hammers were being used to crack open and process small or soft food like seeds during the earliest phase of occupation, around 3,000 years ago.  Over time, stone tools were used to process other types of harder food, such as cashew nuts.


The study focused on an open-air site within Serra da Capivara National Park, located in the Baixao da Pedra Furada valley, where wild capuchins bring stones to process cashew nuts. Here there is evidence of cashew-residue-covered hammer stones and broken cashew shells, along with heavy percussive damage on local cashew trees.


The scientists recovered 122 identifiable capuchin stone artefacts. Using radiocarbon dating and stone tool analysis, the authors identified that capuchins have used this location during four separate chronological phases.


Dates from the lowest excavation levels pinpoint the earliest known capuchin occupation to approximately 3,000 — 2,400 years ago.


Dr Proffitt concluded: “It has long been known that humans possess a long archaeological record. However, this study contributes to a growing understanding that other animals also possess an identifiable archaeological record and an ancient material culture. The identification of the world’s oldest monkey stone tools contributes to the growing field of primate archaeology and goes to show that humans might not be as unique as we once thought.”


Source: University College London [June 25, 2019]



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5,000-year-old astronomical markers discovered in central China

Senior Chinese archaeologists have evaluated markers discovered in central China’s Henan Province as the country’s earliest evidence for «observing the images and giving time,» advancing history by nearly 1,000 years.











5,000-year-old astronomical markers discovered in central China
Credit: Chinese Culture News

Archaeologists found the «Big Dipper Nine Stars» marker at the 5,000-year-old Qingtai Ruins in Zhengzhou, the provincial capital. The size of the nine objects is basically the same as the actual brightness of the celestial body.
More than 30 astronomers, historians and archaeologists from the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Institute of History of Natural Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the National Palace Museum were invited to the site to give their evaluations of the ruins last week.


They believe the astronomical relics and the surrounding sacrificial remains constitute a whole, which is consistent with the records of the «Winter Solstice Sacrifice» in ancient Chinese documents. It is of great significance to the study of early Chinese astronomy and the origin of Chinese civilization.











5,000-year-old astronomical markers discovered in central China
Credit: Chinese Culture News

The experts said the relic indicates that the ancestors of Qingtai had some astronomical knowledge, and the worship of the celestial body may have formed a grand sacrificial ceremony for observing the solar terms and praying for a good harvest.
Gu Wanfa, president of the Zhengzhou Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, said that Qingtai is a large-scale trench settlement in the Yangshao Culture period, with a total area of about 310,000 square meters.


He said nine pottery pots were arranged in the «Big Dipper Nine Stars» pattern. They were surrounded by urn coffins of the same period, tombs, mortars and sacrificial pits of different periods and other related relics.











5,000-year-old astronomical markers discovered in central China
Credit: CCTV News

Previous to Qingtai, the Taosi Observatory in Xiangfen County, northern China’s Shanxi Province, of 4,200 years ago, represented the earliest evidence in the study of the astronomical calendar in ancient China.


The experts suggested researching the relationship between the two astronomical relics and functions of the relics.


Source: Xinhua News Agency [June 25, 2019]



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Great Orme Bronze Age Copper Mines, Llandudno, North Wales, 29.6.19.Bronze Age mines over...











Great Orme Bronze Age Copper Mines, Llandudno, North Wales, 29.6.19.


Bronze Age mines over 4000 years old and worked by children aged 4 years old. The mines go to a depth of 150 feet and tunnels run to around 65km. Most still remain unexplored.


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2019 June 30 Virtual Flight over Asteroid Vesta Images Credit:…


2019 June 30


Virtual Flight over Asteroid Vesta
Images Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, UCLA, MPS, DLR, IDA; Animation: German Aerospace Center (DLR)


Explanation: What would it be like to fly over the asteroid Vesta? Animators from the German Aerospace Center took actual images and height data from NASA’s Dawn mission when it visited asteroid Vesta a few years ago and generated a virtual movie. The featured video begins with a sequence above Divalia Fossa, an unusual pair of troughs running parallel over heavily cratered terrain. Next, the virtual spaceship explores Vesta’s 60-km Marcia Crater, showing numerous vivid details. Last, Dawn images were digitally recast with exaggerated height to better reveal Vesta’s 5-km high mountain Aricia Tholus. The second largest object in the Solar System’s asteroid belt, Vesta is the brightest asteroid visible from Earth and can be found with binoculars. Using Vesta Trek, you can explore all over Vesta yourself.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap190630.html


Maen y Bardd Prehistoric Burial Chamber, Rowen, North Wales, 29.6.19.



Maen y Bardd Prehistoric Burial Chamber, Rowen, North Wales, 29.6.19.










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Cae Coch Prehistoric Standing Stone, Rowen, North Wales, 29.6.19.

Cae Coch Prehistoric Standing Stone, Rowen, North Wales, 29.6.19.







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Curly or Straight? Look carefully at these two mice and you’ll…


Curly or Straight?


Look carefully at these two mice and you’ll notice something strange about their whiskers. The animal on the left, which is genetically normal, has strong, straight hairs poking from its snout. But its littermate has short, curly whiskers. This unorthodox hairstyle is caused by an inherited fault in a gene called zyklopen, which was first identified in a child with very sparse and unusually short, curled hair. Curiously, the gene seems to be involved in controlling the chemical state of iron inside cells, although the exact connection with hair growth is still unknown. Not only do faults in the human version of the gene (known as HEPHL1) cause hair growth problems, they’re also linked to more serious health issues such as ADHD, speech disorders, increased joint mobility, severe heat intolerance and chronic leg pain, so studying these mice as a stand-in for human patients could point towards potential new treatments.


Written by Kat Arney



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