суббота, 12 января 2019 г.

Hungarian Yamnaya > Bell Beakers?

Ever since the publication of the Olalde et al. Beaker paper (see here), there’s been a lot of talk online about Hungarian Yamnaya as the most likely source of the Yamnaya-related, R1b-P312-rich northern Bell Beakers who went on to dominate much of Central and Western Europe during the Bronze Age.
Certainly, this is still possible, and we might find out soon if it’s true because several Hungarian Yamnaya samples are apparently about to be published. But I wouldn’t bet the proverbial farm on it just yet.
The most Yamnaya-like Beaker in the Olalde et al. dataset and ancient DNA record to date is from the Szigetszentmiklós burial site, which is indeed in present-day Hungary. But this individual, labeled I2787, is dated to just 2457–2201 calBCE, which isn’t an early date for a Beaker and probably a couple hundred years past the proto-Beaker time frame.
Moreover, he belongs to Y-haplogroup R1b-Z2103, a paternal marker most closely associated in the ancient DNA record with eastern Yamnaya groups. And he doesn’t exactly look like a classic northern Beaker, because he doesn’t have a brachycephalic head with an exceedingly flat occiput (like this).
So I’d say that this is either an acculturated Beaker of recent Yamnaya origin, or perhaps the son of a Yamnaya father and Beaker mother. Below are several qpAdm mixture models that I ran to explore the latter possibility. They look very solid.

Beaker_Central_Europe 0.445±0.045
Yamnaya_Samara 0.555±0.045
chisq 9.199
tail prob 0.68586
Full output
Beaker_Britain 0.551±0.057
Yamnaya_Samara 0.449±0.057
chisq 10.972
tail prob 0.531339
Full output
Beaker_The_Netherlands 0.576±0.062
Yamnaya_Samara 0.424±0.062
chisq 11.469
tail prob 0.489238
Full output

The idea that I2787 is a Beaker with recent Yamnaya ancestry isn’t an original one. It was put forth very eloquently and convincingly months ago by the Bell Beaker Blogger himself:

Szigetszentmiklós Cemetery (Santa’s Six Foot Elves)

I2786 is another Beaker male from the Szigetszentmiklós site who shows an excess of Yamnaya-related ancestry compared to most other Beakers. Again, it’s likely that this individual harbors recent Yamnaya ancestry, because his Y-halogroup is I2a-M223, which has been recorded in eastern Yamnaya alongside R1b-Z2103.
So my gut feeling for now is that Hungarian Yamnaya samples will mostly belong to Y-haplogroups R1b-Z2103 and I2a-M223, rather than R1b-P312, and thus they won’t fit the bill in any obvious way as the population that may have given rise to northern Beakers.
One of the oldest individuals in the ancient DNA record belonging to R1b-P312 is I5748, a Beaker dated to 2579–2233 calBCE from the Oostwoud-Tuithoorn burial site in what is now West Frisia, The Netherlands.
Interestingly, this part of Northwestern Europe was home to the Single Grave population shortly before I5748 was alive. And the Single Grave culture is a variant of the Corded Ware culture. So can anyone tell me if there’s any evidence that I5748 and his kind were relative newcomers to West Frisia, from, say, somewhere in the direction of the Carpathian Basin? If not, then what are the chances that northern Beakers are by and large the descendants of the Single Grave people?
In fact, there’s not much difference in terms of genome-wide genetic structure between the Beakers from the Oostwoud-Tuithoorn site and Corded Ware people from what is now Germany. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) below illustrates this well. But, you might say, Corded Ware males by and large belong to Y-haplogroup R1a-M417. Yep, but this doesn’t mean that R1b-P312 wasn’t common in some Single Grave clans.

At this stage, I don’t have a clue where the northern Beakers may have come from exactly, and unfortunately I don’t have any inside information about the Y-haplogroups of Hungarian Yamnaya. I don’t even know if any Single Grave samples are being analyzed. But I’ll leave you with this map from a recent paper by French archeologist and Beaker expert Olivier Lemercier (see here). To me it suggests rather strongly that northern Beakers developed from the synthesis of Corded Ware newcomers to Western Europe and indigenous Western Europeans. As far as I can tell, that’s what the paper basically argues as well.

See also…
Late PIE ground zero now obvious; location of PIE homeland still uncertain, but…


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