воскресенье, 23 декабря 2018 г.

9th Century Anglo-Saxon Rock Cut Graves and St Patrick’s Chapel, Heysham,...






9th Century Anglo-Saxon Rock Cut Graves and St Patrick’s Chapel, Heysham, Morecambe, Lancashire, 23.12.18.


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Pink Lake | #Geology #GeologyPage #Lake #Australia Pink Lake is…


Pink Lake | #Geology #GeologyPage #Lake #Australia


Pink Lake is a salt lake in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia. It lies about 3 kilometres (2 mi) west of Esperance and is bounded to the East by the South Coast Highway.


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Iris Agate on Coral | #Geology #GeologyPage #Agate…


Iris Agate on Coral | #Geology #GeologyPage #Agate #Mineral


Photo Copyright © ROCKS & MINERALS by WARREN KRUPSAW


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Roman Milecastle 39, Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland, 22.12.18.



Roman Milecastle 39, Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland, 22.12.18.






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2018 December 23 Earthrise: A Video Reconstruction Image…


2018 December 23


Earthrise: A Video Reconstruction
Image Credit: NASA, SVS, Apollo 8 Crew;
Lead Animator: Ernie Wright; (USRA); Music: C Major Prelude by Johann Sebastian Bach


Explanation: About 12 seconds into this video, something unusual happens. The Earth begins to rise. Never seen by humans before, the rise of the Earth over the limb of the Moon occurred 50 years ago tomorrow and surprised and amazed the crew of Apollo 8. The crew immediately scrambled to take still images of the stunning vista caused by Apollo 8’s orbit around the Moon. The featured video is a modern reconstruction of the event as it would have looked were it recorded with a modern movie camera. The colorful orb of our Earth stood out as a familiar icon rising above a distant and unfamiliar moonscape, the whole scene the conceptual reverse of a more familiar moonrise as seen from Earth. To many, the scene also spoke about the unity of humanity: that big blue marble – that’s us – we all live there. The two-minute video is not time-lapse – this is the real speed of the Earth rising through the windows of Apollo 8. Seven months and three missions later, Apollo 11 astronauts would not only circle Earth’s moon, but land on it.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap181223.html


The Hajji Firuz fiasco

The specter of Hajji_Firuz_ChL I2327 still haunts us. Judging by some recent comments that I’ve seen here and elsewhere, it seems that a good number of confused souls haven’t yet given up hope that this ancient sample represents a Near Eastern population ancestral to the Yamnaya people of Early Bronze Age Eastern Europe. But the chances of this are slim to none, because…



– Hajji_Firuz_ChL I2327 is the only (supposedly) pre-Yamnaya individual to date in the now ample West Asian ancient DNA record who belongs to Y-haplogroup R1b-Z2103, R1b-M269, or even R1b, which has got to tell you something about the reliability of his early dating
– overall the genome-wide structure of Hajji_Firuz_ChL I2327 most certainly doesn’t fit the profile of the Near Eastern-related half of the Yamnaya genotype
– in fact, practically every analysis that I’ve run with Hajji_Firuz_ChL I2327 suggests that he harbors Yamnaya or Yamnaya-related genome-wide ancestry, which makes sense considering his Yamnaya-specific Y-haplogroup, don’t you think?



Heck, even if Hajji_Firuz_ChL I2327 is more or less accurately dated, and really was alive during the Chalcolithic period, then considering the points I’ve made above, the only honest explanation for his presence that early in what is now Iran is that there was a migration of an Yamnaya-like people from the steppes to the South Caspian region during the Chalcolithic.
I already wrote a post on this topic back in April, and a lengthy discussion ensued, with most of the commentators agreeing with my stance. But my efforts haven’t had much of an impact outside of this blog. It’s possible that my post was too confusing, so I went back today and rewrote it, also adding new stats and mixture models to help me drive home my point. Here’s the link…



Likely Yamnaya incursion(s) into Northwestern Iran



Of course, no matter how strong my arguments are in regards to this issue, many people will choose to disagree with me nevertheless and believe what they want to believe, because it’s such an emotional topic for them. I don’t want to get into the details about that here, but suffice to say that it’s imperative for many people, particularly those of Near Eastern and Southern European backgrounds, that the origin of Yamnaya is somehow, by hook or by crook, put south of the Caucasus. I’m not kidding. It’s a silly cause though, especially now considering all of the new ancient DNA data from Eastern Europe that make this scenario about as likely as Out-of-India (see here).
See also…
Yamnaya: home-grown
Big deal of 2018: Yamnaya not related to Maykop
Ahead of the pack
Late PIE ground zero now obvious; location of PIE homeland still uncertain, but…

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Calcite with Malachite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Calcite with Malachite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Mashamba West Mine, Kolwezi, Katanga Copper Crescent, Democratic Republic of Congo


Dimensions: 6.8 × 5.5 × 2.4 cm


Photo Copyright © Crystal Classics


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Native Sulphur | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Native Sulphur | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Agrigento, Sicily, Italy, Europe

Dimensions: 6.2 × 3.9 × 3.4 cm


Photo Copyright © Crystal Classics


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Legrandite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Ojuela…


Legrandite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Ojuela Mine, Mapimi, Durango, Mexico, North America


Dimensions: 5.8 × 4.3 × 3.6 cm


Photo Copyright © Crystal Classics


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Pompeii victims, Italy | #Geology #GeologyPage #Pompeii…


Pompeii victims, Italy | #Geology #GeologyPage #Pompeii #Italy


When Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D., many of its victims in Pompeii were buried under mounds of pumice and ash that hardened over them like a mold, freezing them in time.


A multidisciplinary volcanological and bio-anthropological study of the eruption products and victims, merged with numerical simulations and experiments, indicates that at Vesuvius and surrounding towns heat was the main cause of death of people, previously believed to have died by ash suffocation.


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Native Copper | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Tsumeb…


Native Copper | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Oshikoto Region (Otjikoto Region), Namibia


Dimensions: 3.5 × 2.3 × 2.0 cm


Photo Copyright © Crystal Classics


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Sycamore Gap, Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland, 22.12.18.The winter sun was beautiful...











Sycamore Gap, Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland, 22.12.18.


The winter sun was beautiful today and I almost had the wall to myself. The lonely sycamore was even more lovely than last time I visited. It was a fantastic walk by the wall; it never ceases to amaze me in terms of scope and ambition.


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Pumping Muscle Our muscles are thirsty for energy – each bend…


Pumping Muscle


Our muscles are thirsty for energy – each bend and flex requires a supply of cellular fuel, known as ATP. In these three sections of mouse muscle (shown from two different angles), bright colours highlight mitochondria – tiny biological ‘factories’ which pump out ATP. Yet patterns of mitochondria vary between different muscles. On the left, foot muscle produces ATP in short bursts, lacking the larger networks of mitochondria which help calf muscle (middle) maintain a slow, steady supply. Cardiac muscle from the mouse’s heart (right) has densely-packed, large mitochondria – adapted, perhaps, to direct a constant flow of ATP around this vital organ. Understanding these mitochondrial networks, a bit like mapping pylons and power stations supplying a city (although billions of times smaller), may help to predict and plan for a power cut – when mitochondrial disease or muscle injury threatens to rob human muscles of energy.


Written by John Ankers



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Winter Afternoon at Vindolanda Roman Fort, Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland, …


Winter Afternoon at Vindolanda Roman Fort, Hadrian’s Wall, Northumberland, 22.12.18.


Virtually had the place to myself; loved it! Pictured is the Military Bathhouse within the fort.


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