четверг, 1 ноября 2018 г.

Local Bugs Just as there are different human customs,…


Local Bugs


Just as there are different human customs, cultures and population, bacteria have their own regional variations too. These twisted ropes are Leptospira bacteria, which cause Weil’s disease (also known as leptospirosis) and are usually transmitted through water contaminated with urine from infected animals such as cows, sheep and pigs. Scientists studying the extent of Leptospira in Uruguayan cattle have discovered that around a fifth of all cows were releasing the bacteria into their urine, presenting a major health hazard for people living nearby. They found a surprisingly large number of different bacterial strains that were local to the area, including three very rare varieties, and plan to use this information to tailor vaccination more specifically to the region. Beef and dairy exports are a major source of income for Uruguay, so understanding and managing Leptospira infection in cattle has a major impact on the economy as well as public health.


Written by Kat Arney



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Location of wastewater disposal drives induced seismicity at US…


Location of wastewater disposal drives induced seismicity at US oil sites http://www.geologypage.com/2018/11/location-of-wastewater-disposal-drives-induced-seismicity-at-us-oil-sites.html


Naturally occurring ‘batteries’ fueled organic carbon synthesis…


Naturally occurring ‘batteries’ fueled organic carbon synthesis on Mars http://www.geologypage.com/2018/11/naturally-occurring-batteries-fueled-organic-carbon-synthesis-on-mars.html


Researchers discover earliest recorded lead exposure in…


Researchers discover earliest recorded lead exposure in 250,000-year-old Neanderthal teeth http://www.geologypage.com/2018/11/researchers-discover-earliest-recorded-lead-exposure-in-250000-year-old-neanderthal-teeth.html


Dinosaurs put all colored birds’ eggs in one basket,…


Dinosaurs put all colored birds’ eggs in one basket, evolutionarily speaking http://www.geologypage.com/2018/11/dinosaurs-put-all-colored-birds-eggs-in-one-basket-evolutionarily-speaking.html


Devils Marbles | #Geology #GeologyPage #Australia Devils…


Devils Marbles | #Geology #GeologyPage #Australia


Devils Marbles Conservation Reserve is located 105 km (65 mi) south of Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia and 393 km (244 mi) north of Alice Springs. The nearest settlement is the small town of Wauchope located 9 km (5.6 mi) to the south.


Geology Page

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https://www.instagram.com/p/Bpo-0Z0lY1f/?utm_source=ig_tumblr_share&igshid=1oekefokj5pik


Rhodochrosite with Quartz, Tetrahedrite and Pyrite | #Geology…


Rhodochrosite with Quartz, Tetrahedrite and Pyrite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Sweet Home Mine, Hedgehog pocket, Main Stope drift, Mount Bross, Alma District, Park County, Colorado USA


Specimen size: 5.4 × 3.2 × 2.5 cm

Main crystal size: 1.2 × 0.7 cm


Photo Copyright © Fabre Minerals


Geology Page

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10 Ways to Celebrate Halloween with NASA

There’s a whole universe of mysteries out there to put some fun—and maybe a touch of fright—into your All Hallows Eve festivities. Here are a few:


1. Universe of Monsters


Mythical monsters of Earth have a tough time of it. Vampires don’t do sunlight. Werewolves must wait for a full Moon to howl. Now, thanks to powerful space telescopes, some careful looking and a lot of whimsy, NASA scientists have found suitable homes for the most terrifying Halloween monsters.


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2. Be a Spacecraft


No costume. No problem. NASA Blueshift offers some handy tips on transforming yourself into a powerful space telescope before hitting the sidewalk to trick-or-treat.


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3. Robot Pumpkins


At Halloween, engineers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory craft dramatic creations that have as much in common with standard jack-o’-lanterns as paper airplanes do with NASA spacecraft. The unofficial pumpkin carving contest gives engineers a chance to flex their creative muscles and bond as a team. The rules are simple: no planning, carving or competing during work hours.


The results? See for yourself!


Can’t wait to see this year’s creations? Do it yourself!



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4. Skull Comet


Scientists think a large space rock that zipped past Earth on Halloween in 2015 was most likely a dead comet or an asteroid that, fittingly, bore an eerie resemblance to a skull.


“The object might be a dead comet, but in the (radar) images it appears to have donned a skull costume for its Halloween flyby,” said NASA scientist Kelly Fast,


As with a lot of spooky things, the asteroid looked a lot less scary upon closer inspection.


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5. Spooky Sun


Not to be outdone, the Sun—our star—has been known to put on a scary face.


In this October 2014 Solar Dynamic Observatory image, active regions on the Sun combined to look something like a jack-o-lantern’s face.


The active regions appear brighter because those are areas that emit more light and energy—markers of an intense and complex set of magnetic fields hovering in the Sun’s atmosphere, the corona. This image blends together two sets of wavelengths at 171 and 193 angstroms, typically colorized in gold and yellow, to create a particularly Halloween-like appearance.


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6. Halloween on a Mission


Halloween held a special significance for NASA’s Cassini mission, which launched in October 1997. The team held its own elaborate pumpkin carving competitions for many years. The mission also shared whimsical Halloween greetingswith its home planet.


Cassini ended its extended mission at Saturn in 2017.


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7. The Ghost of Cassiopeia


The brightest stars embedded in nebulae throughout our galaxy pour out a torrent of radiation that eats into vast clouds of hydrogen gas – the raw material for building new stars. This etching process sculpts a fantasy landscape where human imagination can see all kinds of shapes and figures. This nebula in the constellation of Cassiopeia has flowing veils of gas and dust that have earned it the nickname “Ghost Nebula.”


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8. They’re Everywhere


Turns out the human mind—including space scientists and engineers among us—find spooky shapes in many places.


This infrared view of the Helix Nebula reminded astronomers of a zombie eyeball.


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9. What Do You See?


The Oct. 26 Earth Observatory’s Puzzler feature offers a spooky shape for your consideration. What is it and what does it look like? You tell us.


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10. Space Candy


The trick-or-treat tradition is still—so far—pretty much confined to Earth. But thanks to the men and women who have been living aboard the International Space Station for more than 17 years, we have a preview of what a future space-based trick-or-treater’s Halloween candy haul would look like in microgravity.


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Bonus: 11. Want More?


Our education team offers a bunch more Halloween activities, including space-themed pumpkin stencils, costume tips and even some mysteries to solve like a scientist or engineer.


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2018 November 1 Hayabusa2 Ascends from Asteroid Ryugu Image…


2018 November 1


Hayabusa2 Ascends from Asteroid Ryugu
Image Credit: JAXA, U. Tokyo, Kochi U., Rikkyo U., Nagoya U., Chiba Tech., Meiji U., U. Aizu, AIST


Explanation: Will spacecraft Hayabusa2 be able to land safely on asteroid Ryugu? Since arriving in June, pictures show that the surface of kilometer-sized Ryugu is covered with boulders, so that finding a flat enough area for the bus-sized spacecraft to touch down is proving a challenge. In the featured video, the shadow of Japan’s robotic Hayabusa2 can be seen on the rugged face of Ryugu while ascending last week from a touchdown rehearsal only 20 meters over the surface. Previously, small frisbee-sized landers detached from Hayabusa2, made contact with the diamond-shaped asteroid’s surface, and started hopping around. Studying Ryugu could tell humanity not only about the minor planet’s surface and interior, but about what materials were available in the early Solar System for the development of life. The touchdown of the Hayabusa2 mother ship is slated for early next year, hopefully followed by a soil sample collection for return to Earth.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap181101.html


HiPOD (31 October 2018): En Route to a Crater   – The objective…


HiPOD (31 October 2018): En Route to a Crater


   – The objective of this observation is to determine the nature of a ridge that seems to change into a trough.  Also, in the image is a fairly large cratered cone. (292 km above the surface, less than 5 km across.)


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


Curving Ridges and PitsThis terrain is unusual for the South…


Curving Ridges and Pits


This terrain is unusual for the South Polar region of Mars, with a set of curved ridges of unknown origin.


Small pits are present, often concentrated on the ridges, that may have resulted from sublimation of ice.


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


Galactic ghosts: Gaia uncovers major event in the formation of the Milky Way


ESA – Gaia Mission patch.

31 October 2018


ESA’s Gaia mission has made a major breakthrough in unravelling the formation history of the Milky Way.


Instead of forming alone, our Galaxy merged with another large galaxy early in its life, around 10 billion years ago. The evidence is littered across the sky all around us, but it has taken Gaia and its extraordinary precision to show us what has been hiding in plain sight all along.



Galactic merger

Gaia measures the position, movement and brightness of stars to unprecedented levels of accuracy.


Using the first 22 months of observations, a team of astronomers led by Amina Helmi, University of Groningen, The Netherlands, looked at seven million stars – those for which the full 3D positions and velocities are available – and found that some 30,000 of them were part of an ‘odd collection’ moving through the Milky Way. The observed stars in particular are currently passing by our solar neighbourhood.


We are so deeply embedded in this collection that its stars surround us almost completely, and so can be seen across most of the sky.


Even though they are interspersed with other stars, the stars in the collection stood out in the Gaia data because they all move along elongated trajectories in the opposite direction to the majority of the Galaxy’s other hundred billion stars, including the Sun.



Debris of galactic merger

They also stood out in the so-called Hertzprung-Russell diagram – which is used to compare the colour and brightness of stars – indicating that they belong to a clearly distinct stellar population.


The sheer number of odd-moving stars involved intrigued Amina and her colleagues, who suspected they might have something to do with the Milky Way’s formation history and set to work to understand their origins.


In the past, Amina and her research group had used computer simulations to study what happens to stars when two large galaxies merge. When she compared those to the Gaia data, the simulated results matched the observations.


“The collection of stars we found with Gaia has all the properties of what you would expect from the debris of a galactic merger,” says Amina, lead author of the paper published today in Nature.


In other words, the collection is what they expected from stars that were once part of another galaxy and have been consumed by the Milky Way. The stars now form most of our Galaxy’s inner halo – a diffuse component of old stars that were born at early times and now surround the main bulk of the Milky Way known as the central bulge and disc.



The components of the Milky Way

The Galactic disc itself is composed of two parts. There is the thin disc, which is a few hundred light years deep and contains the pattern of spiral arms made by bright stars. And there is the thick disc, which is a few thousand light years deep. It contains about 10–20 percent of the Galaxy’s stars yet its origins have been difficult to determine.


According to the team’s simulations, as well as supplying the halo stars, the accreted galaxy could also have disturbed the Milky Way’s pre-existing stars to help form the thick disc.


“We became only certain about our interpretation after complementing the Gaia data with addi-tional information about the chemical composition of stars, supplied by the ground-based APOGEE survey,” says Carine Babusiaux, Université Grenoble Alpes, France, and second author of the paper.


Stars that form in different galaxies have unique chemical compositions that match the conditions of the home galaxy. If this star collection was indeed the remains of a galaxy that merged with our own, the stars should show an imprint of this in their composition. And they did.


The astronomers called this galaxy Gaia-Enceladus after one of the Giants in ancient Greek mythology, who was the offspring of Gaia, the Earth, and Uranus, the Sky.


“According to the legend, Enceladus was buried under Mount Etna, in Sicily, and responsible for local earthquakes. Similarly, the stars of Gaia-Enceladus were deeply buried in the Gaia data, and they have shaken the Milky Way, leading to the formation of its thick disc,” explains Amina.



Gaia-Enceladus stars across the sky

Even though no more evidence was really needed, the team also found hundreds of variable stars and 13 globular clusters in the Milky Way that follow similar trajectories as the stars from Gaia-Enceladus, indicating that they were originally part of that system.


Globular clusters are groups of up to millions of stars, held together by their mutual gravity and orbiting the centre of a galaxy. The fact that so many clusters could be linked to Gaia-Enceladus is another indication that this must have once been a big galaxy in its own right, with its own entourage of globular clusters.


Further analysis revealed that this galaxy was about the size of one of the Magellanic Clouds – two satellite galaxies roughly ten times smaller than the current size of the Milky Way.



Gaia observatory

Ten billion years ago, however, when the merger with Gaia-Enceladus took place, the Milky Way itself was much smaller, so the ratio between the two was more like four to one. It was therefore clearly a major blow to our Galaxy.


“Seeing that we are now starting to unravel the formation history of the Milky Way is very exciting,” says Anthony Brown, Leiden University, The Netherlands, who is a co-author of the paper and also chair of the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium Executive.


Since the very first discussions about building Gaia 25 years ago, one of the mission’s key objectives was to examine the various stellar streams in the Milky Way, and reconstruct its early history. That vision is paying off.



Merger simulation

“Gaia was built to answer such questions,” says Amina. “We can now say this is the way the Galaxy formed in those early epochs. It’s fantastic. It’s just so beautiful and makes you feel so big and so small at the same time.”


“By reading the motions of stars scattered across the sky, we are now able to rewind the history of the Milky Way and discover a major milestone in its formation, and this is possible thanks to Gaia,” concludes Timo Prusti, Gaia project scientist at ESA.


Notes for editors:


“The merger that led to the formation of the Milky Way’s inner stellar halo and thick disk” by A. Helmi et al is published in Nature: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0625-x


Related links:


Gaia data: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/data-release-2


Hertzprung-Russell diagram: http://sci.esa.int/gaia-stellar-family-portrait/


Gaia: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Gaia


Images, Animation, Video, Text, Credits: ESA (artist’s impression and composition); Koppelman, Villalobos and Helmi (simulation); NASA/ESA/Hubble (galaxy image), CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO/ESA/Markus Bauer/Timo Prusti/Leiden Observatory, Leiden University/Anthony Brown/Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG/Carine Babusiaux/Kapteyn Astronomical Institute/University of Groningen/Amina Helmi/ATG medialab/NASA/JPL-Caltech/Gaia/DPAC; A. Helmi et al 2018/Video: Koppelman, Villalobos & Helmi, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Hubble reveals cosmic Bat Shadow in the Serpent’s Tail


ESA – Hubble Space Telescope logo.


31 October 2018



Cosmic shadow of HBC 672

The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured part of the wondrous Serpens Nebula, lit up by the star HBC 672. This young star casts a striking shadow — nicknamed the Bat Shadow — on the nebula behind it, revealing telltale signs of its otherwise invisible protoplanetary disc.



Serpens Nebula, seen by HAWK-1

The Serpens Nebula, located in the tail of the Serpent (Serpens Cauda) about 1300 light-years away, is a reflection nebula that owes most of its sheen to the light emitted by stars like HBC 672 —  a young star nestled in its dusty folds. In this image the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has exposed two vast cone-like shadows emanating from HBC 672.



Wide-field view of the Serpens Nebula (ground-based image)

These colossal shadows on the Serpens Nebula are cast by the protoplanetary disc surrounding HBC 672. By clinging tightly to the star the disc creates an imposing shadow, much larger than the disc — approximately 200 times the diameter of our own Solar System. The disc’s shadow is similar to that produced by a cylindrical lamp shade. Light escapes from the top and bottom of the shade, but along its circumference, dark cones of shadow form.



Bat Shadow

The disc itself is so small and far away from Earth that not even Hubble can detect it encircling its host star. However, the shadow feature — nicknamed the Bat Shadow — reveals details of the disc’s shape and nature. The presence of a shadow implies that the disc is being viewed nearly edge-on.


Whilst most of the shadow is completely opaque, scientists can look for colour differences along its edges, where some light gets through. Using the shape and colour of the shadow, they can determine the size and composition of dust grains in the disc.



Serpens Nebula from the ground and from space

The whole Serpens Nebula, of which this image shows only a tiny part, could host more of these shadow projections. The nebula envelops hundreds of young stars, many of which could also be in the process of forming planets in a protoplanetary disc.


Although shadow-casting discs are common around young stars, the combination of an edge-on viewing angle and the surrounding nebula is rare. However, in an unlikely coincidence, a similar looking shadow phenomenon can be seen emanating from another young star, in the upper left of the image.



Zoom on HBC 672

These precious insights into protoplanetary discs around young stars allow astronomers to study our own past. The planetary system we live in once emerged from a similar protoplanetary disc when the Sun was only a few million years old. By studying these distant discs we get to uncover the formation and evolution of our own cosmic home.



Pan across the Serpens Nebula

More information:


The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.


Links:


Images of Hubble: http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/archive/category/spacecraft/


Hubblesite release: http://hubblesite.org/news_release/news/2018-40


ESA Hubblesite: http://hubblesite.org/


Images Credits: NASA/ESA/Mathias Jäger/ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2 (Acknowledgement: Davide De Martin)/STScI/Videos: NASA, ESA/Hubble, ESO/Digitized Sky Survey, Nick Risinger (skysurvey.org).


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Five Things to Know About InSight’s Mars Landing


NASA – InSight Mission logo.


Oct. 31, 2018



Image above: This is an illustration showing a simulated view of NASA’s InSight lander about to land on the surface of Mars. This view shows the underside of the spacecraft. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.


Every Mars landing is a knuckle-whitening feat of engineering. But each attempt has its own quirks based on where a spacecraft is going and what kind of science the mission intends to gather.


On Nov. 26, NASA will try to safely set a new spacecraft on Mars. InSight is a lander dedicated to studying the deep interior of the planet – the first mission ever to do so.


Here are a few things to know about InSight’s landing:


Landing on Mars is hard


Only about 40 percent of the missions ever sent to Mars – by any space agency – have been successful. The U.S. is the only nation whose missions have survived a Mars landing. The thin atmosphere – just 1 percent of Earth’s – means that there’s little friction to slow down a spacecraft. Despite that, NASA has had a long and successful track record at Mars. Since 1965, it has flown by, orbited, landed on and roved across the surface of the Red Planet.



InSight Landing on Mars

Video above: When NASA’s InSight descends to the Red Planet on Nov. 26, 2018, it is guaranteed to be a white-knuckle event. Rob Manning, chief engineer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, explains the critical steps that must happen in perfect sequence to get the robotic lander safely to the surface. Video Credits: NASA/JPL.


InSight uses tried-and-true technology


In 2008, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, successfully landed the Phoenix spacecraft at Mars’ North Pole. InSight is based on the Phoenix spacecraft, both of which were built by Lockheed Martin Space in Denver. Despite tweaks to its heat shield and parachute, the overall landing design is still very much the same: After separating from a cruise stage, an aeroshell descends through the atmosphere. The parachute and retrorockets slow the spacecraft down, and suspended legs absorb some shock from the touchdown.


InSight is landing on “the biggest parking lot on Mars”


One of the benefits of InSight’s science instruments is that they can record equally valuable data regardless of where they are on the planet. That frees the mission from needing anything more complicated than a flat, solid surface (ideally with few boulders and rocks). For the mission’s team, the landing site at Elysium Planitia is sometimes thought as “the biggest parking lot on Mars.”


InSight was built to land in a dust storm


InSight’s engineers have built a tough spacecraft, able to touch down safely in a dust storm if it needs to. The spacecraft’s heat shield is designed to be thick enough to withstand being “sandblasted” by dust. Its parachute has suspension lines that were tested to be stronger than Phoenix’s, in case it faces more air resistance due to the atmospheric conditions expected during a dust storm.


The entry, descent and landing sequence also has some flexibility to handle shifting weather. The mission team will be receiving daily weather updates from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in the days before landing so that they can tweak when InSight’s parachute deploys and when it uses radar to find the Martian surface.


After landing, InSight will provide new science about rocky planets


InSight will teach us about the interior of planets like our own. The mission team hopes that by studying the deep interior of Mars, we can learn how other rocky worlds, including Earth and the Moon, formed. Our home planet and Mars were molded from the same primordial stuff more than 4.5 billion years ago but then became quite different. Why didn’t they share the same fate?



InSight landed, instruments and solar panels deployed. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

When it comes to rocky planets, we’ve only studied one in detail: Earth. By comparing Earth’s interior to that of Mars, InSight’s team members hope to better understand our solar system. What they learn might even aid the search for Earth-like exoplanets, narrowing down which ones might be able to support life. So while InSight is a Mars mission, it’s also much more than a Mars mission.


You can read more about how the science of the mission is unique here: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7067. A press kit released today includes additional information on the mission: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/press_kits/insight


JPL manages InSight for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. InSight is part of NASA’s Discovery Program, managed by the agency’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built the InSight spacecraft, including its cruise stage and lander, and supports spacecraft operations for the mission.


A number of European partners, including France’s Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), are supporting the InSight mission. CNES provided the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) instrument, with significant contributions from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) in Germany, the Swiss Institute of Technology (ETH) in Switzerland, Imperial College and Oxford University in the United Kingdom, and JPL. DLR provided the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) instrument, with significant contributions from the Polish Space Agency (CBK) and Astronika in Poland. Spain’s Centro de Astrobiología (CAB) supplied the wind sensors.


Read more about InSight here: https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/


Image (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/JPL/Andrew Good.


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Physics, Combustion and Biology Science Ahead of Station’s 20th Anniversary


ISS – Expedition 57 Mission patch.


October 31, 2018


The three Expedition 57 crew members from the United States, Germany and Russia will soon be observing the 20th anniversary of the launch of the International Space Station’s first module. On Nov. 20, 1998, the Zarya cargo module was launched aboard a Russian rocket and placed into orbit beginning the era of station assembly.


In the meantime, the crew orbiting Earth since June worked on a variety of advanced science hardware today. The trio ensured the safe and ongoing research into combustion, physics and biology in microgravity to benefit humans on Earth and in space.



International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: NASA

NASA Astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor swapped cartridge holders inside the Electrostatic Levitation Furnace (ELF) that explores what happens to materials exposed to extremely high temperatures. The device located in Japan’s Kibo lab module measures the thermo-physical properties of samples that are melted and solidified and difficult to observe on the ground.


Commander Alexander Gerst from ESA (European Space Agency) worked on the new Life Sciences Glovebox launched to the space station aboard a Japanese cargo ship at the end of September. He is configuring the biology research facility for service inside the Kibo lab.



Building the International Space Station (ISS) 1998 – 2013. Image Credit: NASA

Image above: Dec. 6, 1998, International Space Station Assembly Begins. On Dec. 6, 1998, the crew of space shuttle mission STS-88 began construction of the International Space Station, attaching the U.S.-built Unity node and the Russian-built Zarya module together in orbit.6 déc. 2013.


Cosmonaut Sergey Prokopyev worked inside the U.S. Destiny lab module replacing the Combustion Integrated Rack’s (CIR) fuel bottles.  The CIR has been enabling research and observations into how fuels and flames burn in space on the orbital lab for over ten years. Results may guide the development of rocket engines and fire safety aboard spacecraft.


Related links:


Expedition 57: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition57/index.html


Electrostatic Levitation Furnace (ELF): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=1536


Life Sciences Glovebox: https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/09/partnership-teamwork-enable-landmark.html


Combustion Integrated Rack’s (CIR): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=317


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Animation (mentioned), Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


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Things That Go Bump in the Gamma Rays

Some people watch scary movies because they like being startled. A bad guy jumps out from around a corner! A monster emerges from the shadows! Scientists experience surprises all the time, but they’re usually more excited than scared. Sometimes theories foreshadow new findings — like when there’s a dramatic swell in the movie soundtrack — but often, discoveries are truly unexpected. 


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Scientists working with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope have been jumping to study mysterious bumps in the gamma rays for a decade now. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light. Invisible to human eyes, they’re created by some of the most powerful and unusual events and objects in the universe. In celebration of Halloween, here are a few spooky gamma-ray findings from Fermi’s catalog.


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Stellar Graveyards


If you were to walk through a cemetery at night, you’d expect to trip over headstones or grave markers. Maybe you’d worry about running into a ghost. If you could explore the stellar gravesite created when a star explodes as a supernova, you’d find a cloud of debris expanding into interstellar space. Some of the chemical elements in that debris, like gold and platinum, go on to create new stars and planets! Fermi found that supernova remnants IC 443 and W44 also accelerate mysterious cosmic rays, high-energy particles moving at nearly the speed of light. As the shockwave of the supernova expands, particles escape its magnetic field and interact with non-cosmic-ray particles to produce gamma rays. 


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Ghost Particles


But the sources of cosmic rays aren’t the only particle mysteries Fermi studies. Just this July, Fermi teamed up with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica to discover the first source of neutrinos outside our galactic neighborhood. Neutrinos are particles that weigh almost nothing and rarely interact with anything. Around a trillion of them pass through you every second, ghost-like, without you noticing and then continue on their way. (But don’t worry, like a friendly ghost, they don’t harm you!) Fermi traced the neutrino IceCube detected back to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. By the time it reached Earth, it had traveled for 3.7 billion years at almost the speed of light!


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Black Widow Pulsars


Black widows and redbacks are species of spiders with a reputation for devouring their partners. Astronomers have discovered two types of star systems that behave in a similar way. Sometimes when a star explodes as a supernova, it collapses back into a rapidly spinning, incredibly dense star called a pulsar. If there’s a lighter star nearby, it can get stuck in a close orbit with the pulsar, which blasts it with gamma rays, magnetic fields and intense winds of energetic particles. All these combine to blow clouds of material off the low-mass star. Eventually, the pulsar can eat away at its companion entirely.


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Dark Matter


What’s spookier than a good unsolved mystery? Dark matter is a little-understood substance that makes up most of the matter in the universe. The stuff that we can see — stars, people, haunted houses, candy — is made up of normal matter. But our surveys of the cosmos tell us there’s not enough normal matter to keep things working the way they do. There must be another type of matter out there holding everything together. One of Fermi’s jobs is to help scientists narrow down the search for dark matter. Last year, researchers noticed that most of the gamma rays coming from the Andromeda galaxy are confined to its center instead of being spread throughout. One possible explanation is that accumulated dark matter at the center of the galaxy is emitting gamma rays!


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Fermi has helped us learn a lot about the gamma-ray universe over the last 10 years. Learn more about its accomplishments and the other mysteries it’s working to solve. What other surprises are waiting out among the stars?


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


Bright Brain Millions of molecules carrying out myriad…


Bright Brain


Millions of molecules carrying out myriad missions buzz around our brains in a delicate balance of frenetic activity. We rely entirely on these, and when the balance is disrupted, the brain can become muddled. Neuromodulators carry vital messages between brain cells, and are central to almost all human psychiatric disorders, from schizophrenia to addiction. To get a clearer picture of how they work and ultimately improve treatments that aim to redress the disrupted balance, researchers developed a technique to visualise the activity of the neuromodulator dopamine – usually involved in learning and decision making. They genetically modified mice to have fluorescent dopamine indicators, meaning that they could observe flashes of dopamine activity in the brain while the subjects were, for example, performing running (dopamine release zones highlighted by white squares) and reward (red) tasks. Mapping where and when neuromodulators like dopamine spring up will help improve understanding and ultimately treatments.


Written by Anthony Lewis



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Яра Сфера Земли прожиг сфер планеты


Source Яра Сфера Земли прожиг сфер by SpaceTrack   
 Яра Сфера Земли или прожиг сфер планеты Земля.
Всем Добрым сильным Мудростью Людям посвящается.
Создатели мысли и фильма Таня Мигунова и Рассим Миг.
Мы затронули детально ближайшее будущее, как предположение, как вариант.

  Яра Сфера Земли или прожиг сфер планеты Земля. Всем Добрым сильным Мудростью Людям посвящается. Создатели мысли и фильма Таня Мигунова и Рассим Миг. Мы затронули детально ближайшее будущее, как предположение, как вариант. Лиловое сияние, приблизительно сравнимо с молнией разрядом высокой мощности электромагнитного излучения, будет присутствовать на планете очень продолжительное время и только тела истинно порядочных во всех тонкостях людей, истинно добрых независимо от возраста, физических данных, социального и религиозного статуса, смогут выдержать и выжить при таком излучении. Если говорить словами эзотериков и магов - выживут люди с вибрацией высокой частоты. Наблюдать за происходящими процессами в домах пирамидах, вы сможете из своего домашнего кинозала. Запускается видео показ реальных событий на планете, через устройство выводящее голографическое изображение в центр сферической залы дома пирамиды. После всех событий по окончательному выяснению приоритетов сумерво-шумерского плана богов смерти вселенной - пирамиды дома помогут сохранить жителям вечную жизнь без смерти и боли, через вылет в комическое пространство на компактных космолётах. Всем Добрым по настоящему Мудрым Сильным Людям этой эпохи посвящается Новая Жизнь, новый Живоносный источник истинной Благодати, Истинного Благополучия.
Лиловое сияние, приблизительно сравнимо с молнией разрядом высокой мощности электромагнитного излучения, будет присутствовать на планете очень продолжительное время и только тела истинно порядочных во всех тонкостях людей, истинно добрых независимо от возраста, физических данных, социального и религиозного статуса, смогут выдержать и выжить при таком излучении. Если говорить словами эзотериков и магов - выживут люди с вибрацией высокой частоты.
  Яра Сфера Земли или прожиг сфер планеты Земля. Всем Добрым сильным Мудростью Людям посвящается. Создатели мысли и фильма Таня Мигунова и Рассим Миг. Мы затронули детально ближайшее будущее, как предположение, как вариант. Лиловое сияние, приблизительно сравнимо с молнией разрядом высокой мощности электромагнитного излучения, будет присутствовать на планете очень продолжительное время и только тела истинно порядочных во всех тонкостях людей, истинно добрых независимо от возраста, физических данных, социального и религиозного статуса, смогут выдержать и выжить при таком излучении. Если говорить словами эзотериков и магов - выживут люди с вибрацией высокой частоты. Наблюдать за происходящими процессами в домах пирамидах, вы сможете из своего домашнего кинозала. Запускается видео показ реальных событий на планете, через устройство выводящее голографическое изображение в центр сферической залы дома пирамиды. После всех событий по окончательному выяснению приоритетов сумерво-шумерского плана богов смерти вселенной - пирамиды дома помогут сохранить жителям вечную жизнь без смерти и боли, через вылет в комическое пространство на компактных космолётах. Всем Добрым по настоящему Мудрым Сильным Людям этой эпохи посвящается Новая Жизнь, новый Живоносный источник истинной Благодати, Истинного Благополучия.

Наблюдать за происходящими процессами в домах пирамидах, вы сможете из своего домашнего кинозала. Запускается видео показ реальных событий на планете, через устройство выводящее голографическое изображение в центр сферической залы дома пирамиды. После всех событий по окончательному выяснению приоритетов сумерво-шумерского плана богов смерти вселенной - пирамиды дома помогут сохранить жителям вечную жизнь без смерти и боли, через вылет в комическое пространство на компактных космолётах.
  Яра Сфера Земли или прожиг сфер планеты Земля. Всем Добрым сильным Мудростью Людям посвящается. Создатели мысли и фильма Таня Мигунова и Рассим Миг. Мы затронули детально ближайшее будущее, как предположение, как вариант. Лиловое сияние, приблизительно сравнимо с молнией разрядом высокой мощности электромагнитного излучения, будет присутствовать на планете очень продолжительное время и только тела истинно порядочных во всех тонкостях людей, истинно добрых независимо от возраста, физических данных, социального и религиозного статуса, смогут выдержать и выжить при таком излучении. Если говорить словами эзотериков и магов - выживут люди с вибрацией высокой частоты. Наблюдать за происходящими процессами в домах пирамидах, вы сможете из своего домашнего кинозала. Запускается видео показ реальных событий на планете, через устройство выводящее голографическое изображение в центр сферической залы дома пирамиды. После всех событий по окончательному выяснению приоритетов сумерво-шумерского плана богов смерти вселенной - пирамиды дома помогут сохранить жителям вечную жизнь без смерти и боли, через вылет в комическое пространство на компактных космолётах. Всем Добрым по настоящему Мудрым Сильным Людям этой эпохи посвящается Новая Жизнь, новый Живоносный источник истинной Благодати, Истинного Благополучия.

Всем Добрым по настоящему Мудрым Сильным Людям этой эпохи посвящается Новая Жизнь, новый Живоносный источник истинной Благодати, Истинного Благополучия.
  Яра Сфера Земли прожиг сфер

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