вторник, 30 октября 2018 г.

Ol’ Blue Eyes Increased availability of DNA testing isn’t…


Ol’ Blue Eyes


Increased availability of DNA testing isn’t just helping humankind, it’s also shedding light on the genetic secrets of our canine best friends. A company carrying out consumer DNA testing on more than 6,000 dogs has discovered the genetic variation responsible for giving Siberian Huskies their piercing blue eyes. Intriguingly, the Husky’s blue peepers aren’t due to genetic alterations that have been found in other blue-eyed breeds. Instead, they’re caused by a small duplicated section of DNA close to a gene called ALX4, which plays an important role in eye development in many mammalian species. Carrying just one copy of the duplicated version is enough to cause completely blue eyes or heterochromia (a blue and a brown eye). Although you don’t need a gene test to reveal what colour your pup’s eyes are, the discovery helps to explain the underlying processes of eye development in dogs and maybe their owners as well.


Written by Kat Arney



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2018 October 30 Orionids Meteors over Inner Mongolia Image…


2018 October 30


Orionids Meteors over Inner Mongolia
Image Credit & Copyright: Yin Hao


Explanation: Meteors have been shooting out from the constellation of Orion. This was expected, as October is the time of year for the Orionids Meteor Shower. Pictured here, over two dozen meteors were caught in successively added exposures last October over Wulan Hada volcano in Inner Mongolia, China. The featured image shows multiple meteor streaks that can all be connected to a single small region on the sky called the radiant, here visible just above and to the left of the belt of Orion, The Orionids meteors started as sand sized bits expelled from Comet Halley during one of its trips to the inner Solar System. Comet Halley is actually responsible for two known meteor showers, the other known as the Eta Aquarids and visible every May. An Orionids image featured on APOD one year ago today from the same location shows the same car. Next month, the Leonids Meteor Shower from Comet Tempel-Tuttle should also result in some bright meteor streaks.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap181030.html


HiPOD (29 October 2018): The Loveliness of Rock   – The…



HiPOD (29 October 2018): The Loveliness of Rock


   – The rationale for this observation was to view some channels within this impact crater, but portion of the crater’s floor caught our eye. (296 km above the surface. Black and white is less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km.)


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


Blue Quartz | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Torre…


Blue Quartz | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Torre Alháquime ophite, Torreo Alháquime, Cadiz, Andalusia, Spain


Size: 9.2 × 5.5 × 2 cm


Photo Copyright © C.P.Minerals /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com

https://www.instagram.com/p/BpiCRqYl2wY/?utm_source=ig_tumblr_share&igshid=1goayjx89tegg


Albertella longwelli trilobite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Albertella longwelli trilobite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Trilobite


Age: Middle Cambrian

Locality: Carrara Formation, Pahrump, Nevada, U.S.A.

Size: 8 cm


Photo Copyright © American Museum of Natural History


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com

https://www.instagram.com/p/BpiCa4clDdy/?utm_source=ig_tumblr_share&igshid=zhprg48dsx53


Fluorapatite with Beryl var. Aquamarine, Muscovite | #Geology…


Fluorapatite with Beryl var. Aquamarine, Muscovite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Location: Chumar Bakhoor, Hunza, Gilgit, Pakistan


Size: 11.0 x 7.5 x 3.0 cm (cabinet)


Photo Copyright © Weinrich Minerals


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com

https://www.instagram.com/p/BpiCkjglkTD/?utm_source=ig_tumblr_share&igshid=b165vlvoy4or


Dechen Cave | #Geology #GeologyPage #Germany The Dechen Cave in…


Dechen Cave | #Geology #GeologyPage #Germany


The Dechen Cave in Iserlohn, Germany is one of the most beautiful and most visited show caves in Germany. It is located in the northern part of the Sauerland at Iserlohn (Grüne district). 360 metres of the 870-metre long cave have been laid out for visitors, beginning at the spot where, in 1868, the cave was discovered by two railway workers.


Read More & More Photos: http://www.geologypage.com/2018/10/dechen-cave-germany.html


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com

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Space Station Science Highlights: Week of Oct 22, 2018


ISS – Expedition 57 Mission patch.


Oct. 29, 2018


The three Expedition 57 crew members aboard the International Space Station spent the week conducting science and preparing for the return of Japan’s HTV-7 and for the arrival of next month’s Northrup Grumman’s Cygnus space freighter, which will take a three-day trip in space before it is captured with the Canadarm2 and berthed to the station’s Unity module.


Here’s a look at some of the science conducted this week aboard the orbiting lab:


Protein crystallization experiment comes to a close


Proteins are important biological molecules that can be crystallized to provide better views of their structure, which helps scientists understand how they work. Proteins crystallized in microgravity are often higher in quality than those grown on Earth. The Effect of Macromolecular Transport on Microgravity Protein Crystallization (LMM Biophysics 4) studies why this is the case, examining the movement of single protein molecules in microgravity.



International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: NASA

Following an overall successful conclusion of the Biophysics-4 experiment run, the Biophysics-4 plate was removed from the LMM and stowed.


Growth cycle begins for space-grown kale and lettuce


Future long-duration missions into the solar system will require a fresh food supply to supplement crew diets, which means growing crops in space.


The Veg-03 investigation expands on previous validation tests of the new Veggie hardware, which crew members used to grow cabbage, lettuce and other fresh vegetables in space. This investigation marked the first time that two grow-outs have been initiated using two Veggie facilities in parallel aboard the space station.



Animation above: NASA astronaut Serena M. Auñón-Chancellor set up and installed Plant Pillows to initiate the VEG-03G experiment within the Veggie facility. Animation Credit: NASA.


This week, the crew installed a Root Mat and Plant Pillows and set light intervals for the experiment. They then filled the Plant Pillows and Root Mat with water to initiate the Veg-03G experiment. This is the first day of a 28-day growth cycle for the Red Russian Kale and Dragoon Lettuce plants.


Educational experiment begins 64th mission


Not everyone can go to space, but everyone can see Earth from an astronaut’s perspective with the Sally Ride Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (Sally Ride EarthKAM) program. Students can remotely control a digital camera mounted on the space station and use it to take photographs of coastlines, mountain ranges and other features and phenomena. The images are posted online where the public and participating classrooms can view Earth from the station’s unique vantage point.



Image above: The city of Chicago, captured by the SallyRide EarthKAM camera. Image Credit: NASA.


This week, the crew prepared and initiated Mission 64 of the program. At the start of the week, the Sally Ride EarthKAM program had served more than 19,000 students from 34 countries. By the end of the week, more than 20,000 students from 37 different countries were involved.


See recent EarthKAM images here: https://www.earthkam.org/ek-images


Sequencing investigation identifies bacteria on station surfaces


Biomolecule Extraction and Sequencing Technology (BEST) seeks to advance use of sequencing in space in three ways: identifying microbes aboard the space station that current methods cannot detect, assessing microbial mutations in the genome because of spaceflight and performing direct RNA sequencing.


This week, crew members initiated Experiment 1 of the BEST investigation. The goal of this experiment is to identify bacteria directly from space station surfaces through the swabbing and subsequent extraction of DNA from the swab using the miniPCR.


Other work was done on these investigations:


– Food Acceptability examines changes in how food appeals to crew members during their time aboard the station. Acceptability of food – whether crew members like and actually eat something – may directly affect crew caloric intake and associated nutritional benefits: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7562


– BCAT-CS studies dynamic forces between sediment particles that cluster together: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7668


– ACME E-FIELD Flames establishes an electric field between the burner and a mesh electrode. Measurements are made of electric-field strength, the ion current passing through the flame, and flame characteristics, leading to a new understanding and the potential development of less polluting and more efficient combustion technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=2058


– BPC-1 seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting protein crystal growth in real time aboard: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7729


– Meteor is a visible spectroscopy instrument used to observe meteors in Earth orbit: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1174


– Team Task Switching studies whether or not crew members have difficulty in switching tasks and determines the impacts of these switches in order to both reduce any negative consequences and improve individual and team motivation and effectiveness: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7538



Space to Ground: Neutron Dance: 10/26/2018

Related links:


Expedition 57: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition57/index.html


LMM Biophysics 4: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7741


Veggie: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Facility.html?#id=374


Veg-03: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1159


Sally Ride EarthKAM: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=87


BEST: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7687


Spot the Station: https://spotthestation.nasa.gov/


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Animations (mentioned), Video (NASA), Text, Credits: NASA/Jenny Howard/Vic Cooley, Lead Increment Scientist Expeditions 57/58.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Parker Solar Probe Breaks Record, Becomes Closest Spacecraft to Sun


NASA – Parker Solar Probe patch.


Oct. 29, 2018


Parker Solar Probe now holds the record for closest approach to the Sun by a human-made object. The spacecraft passed the current record of 26.55 million miles from the Sun’s surface on Oct. 29, 2018, at about 1:04 p.m. EDT, as calculated by the Parker Solar Probe team.



Animation above: Parker Solar Probe, shown in this animation, became the closest-ever spacecraft to the Sun on Oct. 29, 2018, when it passed within 26.55 million miles of the Sun’s surface. Animation Credits: NASA/JHUAPL.


The previous record for closest solar approach was set by the German-American Helios 2 spacecraft in April 1976. As the Parker Solar Probe mission progresses, the spacecraft will repeatedly break its own records, with a final close approach of 3.83 million miles from the Sun’s surface expected in 2024.


“It’s been just 78 days since Parker Solar Probe launched, and we’ve now come closer to our star than any other spacecraft in history,” said Project Manager Andy Driesman, from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland. “It’s a proud moment for the team, though we remain focused on our first solar encounter, which begins on Oct. 31.” 


Parker Solar Probe is also expected to break the record for fastest spacecraft traveling relative to the Sun on Oct. 29 at about 10:54 p.m. EDT. The current record for heliocentric speed is 153,454 miles per hour, set by Helios 2 in April 1976.


The Parker Solar Probe team periodically measures the spacecraft’s precise speed and position using NASA’s Deep Space Network, or DSN. The DSN sends a signal to the spacecraft, which then retransmits it back to the DSN, allowing the team to determine the spacecraft’s speed and position based on the timing and characteristics of the signal. Parker Solar Probe’s speed and position were calculated using DSN measurements made on Oct. 24, and the team used that information along with known orbital forces to calculate the spacecraft’s speed and position from that point on.



Parker Solar Probe. Image Credit: NASA

Parker Solar Probe will begin its first solar encounter on Oct. 31, continuing to fly closer and closer to the Sun’s surface until it reaches its first perihelion — the point closest to the Sun — at about 10:28 p.m. EST on Nov. 5. The spacecraft will face brutal heat and radiation conditions while providing humanity with unprecedentedly close-up observations of a star and helping us understand phenomena that have puzzled scientists for decades. These observations will add key knowledge to NASA’s efforts to understand the Sun, where changing conditions can propagate out into the solar system, affecting Earth and other worlds.


Related articles:


Parker Solar Probe Looks Back at Home:
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/10/parker-solar-probe-looks-back-at-home.html


Parker Solar Probe Changed the Game Before it Even Launched:
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/10/parker-solar-probe-changed-game-before.html


Parker Solar Probe Successfully Completes First Venus Flyby
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2018/10/parker-solar-probe-successfully.html


Related links:


Helios 2 spacecraft: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/helios-2/in-depth/


Parker Solar Probe: https://www.nasa.gov/solarprobe


Animation (mentioned), Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Rob Garner/Goddard Space Flight Center, by Sarah Frazier.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Crew Studies How Space Impacts Brain and Perception


ISS – Expedition 57 Mission patch.


October 29, 2018


A pair of Expedition 57 astronauts spent the day exploring how humans think and work while living long-term in space. A cosmonaut also tested a pair of tiny, free-floating satellites operating inside the International Space Station.


NASA astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor is helping doctors on the ground understand if an astronaut’s brain structure and mental abilities change in space. She took part in a behavioral assessment test today that involves the mental imaging of rotating objects, target accuracy during motion or stillness and concentrating on two tasks at the same time. The NeuroMapping experiment, which has been ongoing since 2014, is exploring an astronaut’s neuro-cognitive abilities before, during and after a spaceflight.



Image above: The International Space Station was pictured Oct. 4, 2018, from the departing Expedition 56 crew during a flyaround aboard the Soyuz MS-08 spacecraft. Image Credits: Roscosmos/NASA.


Scientists are also learning how an astronaut’s nervous system may be impacted by different gravitational environments such as the moon, asteroids or planets. The GRIP study from ESA (European Space Agency) is exploring how space residents interact with objects by monitoring their grip and load forces.


Commander Alexander Gerst from Germany strapped himself into a specialized seat in the Columbus lab module for the GRIP study today. He performed several motions in the seat while gripping a device collecting data measuring cognition, grip force and movement kinematics.



Aurora’s seen from International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: NASA

Cosmonaut Sergey Prokopyev set up the bowling ball-sized SPHERES satellites for a test run inside Japan’s Kibo lab module. The SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) are used for a variety of experiments including autonomous formation-flying, shipping liquids such as fuels and introducing students to spacecraft navigation techniques.


Related links:


Expedition 57: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition57/index.html


NeuroMapping: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=979


GRIP: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1188


SPHERES: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=303


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


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Launch Results of the H-IIA F40 Encapsulating GOSAT-2 and KhalifaSat


JAXA – Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite GOSAT Project logo.


October 29, 2018



H-IIA Launches GOSAT-2 and KhalifaSat

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and JAXA successfully launched H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 40 (H-IIA F40) which encapsulates Second Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite “IBUKI-2” (GOSAT-2) and KhalifaSat, a remote sensing Earth observation satellite. at 13:08:00 on October 29, 2018 JST (04:08 UTC) from the JAXA Tanegashima Space Center.



H-IIA F40 launches GOSAT-2 and KhalifaSat

The launch and flight of H-IIA F40 proceeded as planned. The separations of GOSAT-2 and KhalifaSat were confirmed respectively at approximately 16 minutes and 09 seconds and 24 minutes and 15 seconds after liftoff.



Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 “IBUKI-2” (GOSAT-2)

GOSAT-2 or IBUKI-2 (いぶき2号) is JAXA’s Second Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite and KhalifaSat (خليفة سات) is a remote sensing Earth observation satellite, developed by the Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC) in the United Arab Emirates.



GOSAT-2 deployment

JAXA we express sincere appreciation for all.


H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 40 Flight Sequence (Quick Estimation): http://global.jaxa.jp/press/2018/10/files/H-IIA_F40_Flight_Sequence.pdf


MHI LAUNCH SERVICES: https://www.mhi.com/products/space/launch_service.html


H-IIA Launch Vehicle: http://global.jaxa.jp/projects/rockets/h2a/


Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 “IBUKI-2” (GOSAT-2): http://global.jaxa.jp/projects/sat/gosat2/index.html


Special Website: Earth Observation Satellites: http://fanfun.jaxa.jp/eos/en/index.html


Images, Video, Text, Credits: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)/National Research and Development Agency/Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd./SciNews.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


CASC – Long March-2C launches CFOSat


CNSA / CNES – CFOSat Mission logo.


October 29, 2018



A Long March-2C launches CFOSat

A Long March-2C launch vehicle launched CFOSat (China-France Oceanography Satellite) from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, Gansu Province, northwest China, on 29 October 2018, at 00:47 UTC (08:47 local time).



Long March-2C launches CFOSat (China-France Oceanography Satellite)

CFOSat was developed jointly by CNES (Centre national d’études spatiales) and CNSA (China National Space Administration) to study ocean surface winds and waves.



CFOSat (China-France Oceanography Satellite)

The satellite has two radar instruments: SWIM (Surface Waves Investigation and Monitoring) which will survey the length, height and direction of waves; and SCAT (wind SCATterometer) which will measure the strength and direction of winds. As secondary payload, Long March-2C launched five small satellites: Xiaoxiang-1, Zhaojin-1, Tianfuguoxing-1, Changshagaoxin and CubeBel-1.


For more information about China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), visit: http://english.spacechina.com/n16421/index.html


Related article from CNES:


https://presse.cnes.fr/fr/cooperation-spatiale-entre-la-france-et-la-chine-succes-de-la-mise-en-orbite-de-cfosat


Images, Video, Text, Credits: CASC/CCTV/CNES/CNSA/SciNews/Günter Space Page/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


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Direct Delivery To make sure drugs reach their target cells…


Direct Delivery


To make sure drugs reach their target cells even in the most inaccessible places, researchers are recruiting mobile single-celled organisms to swim around the body, delivering the goods where they’re most needed. Bacteria are often used to develop these systems but have the potential to reproduce rapidly in the body, at the risk of becoming toxic, so a team of scientists is working on an alternative, based on the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Propelling themselves forward with their long tails, these single-celled algae (pictured, in green) can swim through body fluids, such as blood and plasma. With magnetic microbeads (in orange) attached to the algae, their movements can be steered using a magnetic field, and the beads can store useful compounds for delivery. Experiments in the laboratory showed that the algae could successfully transfer molecules to mammalian cells, paving the way for future tests in live organisms.


Written by Emmanuelle Briolat



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