пятница, 26 октября 2018 г.

‘Superlungs’ gave dinosaurs the energy to run and fight

In the oxygen-poor air of the Mesozoic era, nothing should have been able to move very fast. But Velociraptors could run 64 kilometers per hour. Their secret weapon: superefficient, birdlike lungs, which would have pumped in a constant supply of oxygen, according to a new study. This unique adaptation may have given all dinos a leg up on their competition.

'Superlungs' gave dinosaurs the energy to run and fight
Credit: Chinese Academy of Sciences

Biologists have long known that birds, which descend from one branch of extinct dinosaurs, have an unusual, sophisticated respiratory system that enables powered flight. But paleontologists have long debated whether those superlungs arose only in birds or earlier in dinosaurs.

Unlike humans and other mammals, whose lungs expand and deflate, bird lungs are rigid. Special air sacs alongside the lungs do the heavy lifting instead, pumping air through the lungs, where the oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream. The lungs are attached to the vertebrae and ribs, which form the “ceiling” of the rib cage—all of which helps keep the lungs stationary. A connector called the costovertebral joint, where the ribs and vertebrae meet, provides further support. That setup allows for a continuous stream of oxygen and requires less energy than inflating and deflating the lungs. It also allows paleontologists studying fossils to learn a lot about the lungs by examining the bones around them.

To find out when these superlungs evolved, paleobiologists Robert Brocklehurst and William Sellers of The University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, and biologist Emma Schachner of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge turned to computer models. They compared the shapes of skeletal features like vertebrae and ribs in a range of bird and nonavian dinosaur species.

Many dinosaurs, including therapods like Velociraptor and Spinosaurus, a large carnivorous dinosaur, had similar lung architecture to birds, the team reports today in Royal Society Open Science. These dinosaurs sported a costovertebral joint and the birdlike bony “ceiling” of vertebrae and ribs that helps keep the lungs rigid.

All of this suggests dinos had the same kind of efficient respiratory organs as birds, the team concludes. These superlungs may help explain why dinosaurs were able to dominate and spread, despite the rarified air of the Mesozoic, Brocklehurst says. Back then, the air was only 10% to 15% oxygen, compared with 20% today.

The work sheds light on how birds’ extraordinary lungs evolved, says Jingmai O’Connor, a paleontologist with the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. “Birds are really weird compared to all other animals,” she says. “They have this highly evolved respiration system, [and] we’ve always wondered, ‘How did this evolve?'” Now, it seems likely that superlungs first developed in dinosaurs, and only later on evolved to support powered flight in birds, she says.

But O’Connor adds that just because a fossil has the bone structure for birdlike lungs doesn’t necessarily mean it actually had such lungs. Finding lung tissue, which is almost never preserved, would be the clincher. She described what may be the first preserved lungs found in a bird fossil at the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology’s annual meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, last week and in a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences yesterday. In that 120-million-year-old, dove-size bird from China, she and her team noted that although the putative lungs were sophisticated, the skeletal structure around them was primitive, suggesting bones and soft tissue may not evolve in lockstep.

Not everyone is sure O’Connor’s bird organs are really lungs, however. The structures could be a mineral artifact, speculates Corwin Sullivan, a paleontologist at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, who studies the evolution of avian respiratory systems. But even if so, he says, the specimen is “absolutely fascinating.”

Author: April Reese | Source: Chinese Academy of Sciences [October 24, 2018]



Excavation of Elgin’s shipwrecked brig “Mentor” yields passenger items,...

Underwater exploration this September of the historic wreck of “Mentor”, a brig which belonged to Lord Elgin and sank off Kythira Island in 1802 carrying antiquities of the Acropolis, revealed more information about the brig’s construction, the Ministry of Culture said on Tuesdasy.

Excavation of Elgin's shipwrecked brig "Mentor" yields passenger items, construction details
Measurements and stamping of the brig’ keel [Credit: Hellenic Ministry of Culture/
Underwater Antiquities Ephorate/Alexis Tourtas]

The excavation was conducted by the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities and archaeologist Dimitris Kourkoumelis.
“The Mentor, which belonged to Lord Elgin, sank during a storm in the St. Nicholas cove in southeastern Kythira in 1802, while transporting part of the antiquities Lord Elgin’s team had removed from the Parthenon, the Acropolis and other Athens monuments,” the Ministry of Culture said.

Excavation of Elgin's shipwrecked brig "Mentor" yields passenger items, construction details

Excavation of Elgin's shipwrecked brig "Mentor" yields passenger items, construction details
Excavation work in the area of the keel [Credit: Hellenic Ministry of Culture/
Underwater Antiquities Ephorate/Alexis Tourtas]

The underwater exploration took place from September 7 to 23, the ministry said, and focused on the area of the stern, to determine how much of it survives. But in the 2 x 2 m trench the team dug it did not find parts of the stern or other significant objects. Most appeared to be items belonging to passengers: glass vials, buttons from clothing, a bronze furniture knob, lead bullets, sections of ropes and other small objects.

Another trench, along the well-preserved keel of the ship, revealed new data on the two-mast ship’s construction. Participating archaeologist Marine Jaouen of the Departement des Recherches Archeologiques Subaquatiques et Sous-Marines of the French Culture Ministry, an expert on ships and shipping of this era, helped explain the way the ship was built, apparently in America, the Greek ministry said.

Excavation of Elgin's shipwrecked brig "Mentor" yields passenger items, construction details
Part of the brig that was uncovered and studied [Credit: Hellenic Ministry of Culture/
Underwater Antiquities Ephorate/Alexis Tourtas]

Excavation of Elgin's shipwrecked brig "Mentor" yields passenger items, construction details
Leaded lining in the ship’s keel area [Credit: Hellenic Ministry of Culture/
Underwater Antiquities Ephorate/Alexis Tourtas]

Excavation of Elgin's shipwrecked brig "Mentor" yields passenger items, construction details
Initial maintenance of the ship’s rope remnains [Credit: Hellenic Ministry of Culture/
Underwater Antiquities Ephorate/Alexis Tourtas]

The excavation and research team also included several archaeologists and staff from the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Support for the excavation came form Peter Maneas, Stathis Trifyllis and Als, an urban nonprofit company.

Source: AMNA [October 24, 2018]



New projectile point style could suggest two separate migrations into North America

Texas A&M University researchers have discovered what are believed to be the oldest weapons ever found in North America: ancient spear points that are 15,500 years old. The findings raise new questions about the settlement of early peoples on the continent.

New projectile point style could suggest two separate migrations into North America
An excavation takes place at the Debra L. Friedkin site in 2016
[Credit: Texas A&M University]

Michael Waters, distinguished professor of anthropology and director of the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M, and colleagues from Baylor University and the University of Texas have had their work published in the current issue of Science Advances.
The team found the numerous weapons — about 3-4 inches long — while digging at what has been termed the Debra L. Friedkin site, named for the family who owns the land about 40 miles northwest of Austin in Central Texas. The site has undergone extensive archaeological work for the past 12 years.

Spear points made of chert and other tools were discovered under several feet of sediment that dating revealed to be 15,500 years old, and pre-date Clovis, who for decades were believed to be the first people to enter the Americas.

New projectile point style could suggest two separate migrations into North America
A 15,000 year old stemmed point [Credit: Texas A&M University]

“There is no doubt these weapons were used for hunting game in the area at that time,” Waters said. “The discovery is significant because almost all pre-Clovis sites have stone tools, but spear points have yet to be found. These points were found under a layer with Clovis and Folsom projectile points. Clovis is dated to 13,000 to 12,700 years ago and Folsom after that. The dream has always been to find diagnostic artifacts — such as projectile points — that can be recognized as older than Clovis and this is what we have at the Friedkin site.”
Clovis is the name given to the distinctive tools made by people starting around 13,000 years ago. The Clovis people invented the “Clovis point,” a spear-shaped weapon made of stone that is found in Texas and parts of the United States and northern Mexico and the weapons were made to hunt animals, including mammoths and mastodons, from 13,000 to 12,700 years ago.

“The findings expand our understanding of the earliest people to explore and settle North America,” Waters said. “The peopling of the Americas during the end of the last Ice Age was a complex process and this complexity is seen in their genetic record. Now we are starting to see this complexity mirrored in the archaeological record.”

Author: Keith Randall | Source: Texas A&M University [October 24, 2018]



Experimental work reproduces the knapping process at Olduvai

Alfonso Benito Calvo, a geologist at the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH) has participated in a paper published recently in the journal Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, which reproduced the knapping process observed at Olduvai (Tanzania), using one of the most abundant raw materials at those sites, quartzite rocks.

Experimental work reproduces the knapping process at Olduvai
Credit: CENIEH

This was experimental work on which members from the CENIEH, University College London, Max Planck Institute and from the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona have collaborated, based on studying the spatial patterns of the refits, that is to say, the assembly or matching of the lithic material to reconstruct the original geometry prior to knapping.
First, the quartzite rocks were knapped, and then the position and orientation of each resulting fragment were plotted exhaustively, yielding detailed maps showing the distribution of the materials.

“Starting from these maps, we have carried out a spatial analysis of the layout of the fragments and their refits, using GIS applications, designed for specialist analysis of spatial databases,” explains Benito.
The results obtained have shown very different spatial patterns characteristic of each knapping technique: bipolar or freehand. Comparison of these theoretical experimental patterns with the distribution found in the sites will allow the amount of post-depositional disturbance suffered by the sites to be quantified, and thus further investigation of the processes which have affected them.

Source: CENIEH [October 24, 2018]



Irish Famine victims’ heavy smoking led to dental decay, new research reveals

Irish Famine victims were heavy smokers which caused badly rotten teeth, researchers from the University of Otago and Queen’s University Belfast, in Ireland, have discovered.

Irish Famine victims' heavy smoking led to dental decay, new research reveals
The dentition of a 26-35 year old male from the Irish Famine era, showing dental caries (tooth decay), tooth loss,
abscesses, calculus (tartar), periodontal disease and a clay-pipe facet [Credit: Jonny Geber]

The research was carried out on on the teeth of 363 adult victims of the Great Irish Famine, who died in the Kilkenny Union Workhouse between 1847 and 1851. Their remains were discovered in an unmarked mass burial ground by archaeologists in 2005.

The findings show poor oral health among most of the famine victims, with 80 per cent of the adult remains showing evidence of tooth decay, and over half missing teeth. There were also revealing signs of pipe smoking marks on their teeth.

This is the first study that explores the relationship between smoking and oral health in an archaeological sample of a historical population.

Professor Eileen Murphy, from the School of Natural and Built Environment at Queen’s University Belfast explains this research is important as the current clinical understanding of how smoking affects oral health is not fully understood, and this study adds to that discourse.

“As well as this, the study also gives us a unique insight into the living conditions of the working classes in Victorian Irish society at the time of the Great Famine,” Professor Murphy says.

“Smoking was evidently an important part of life for these people, a habit that they could enjoy amongst deprived social conditions and a very harsh and difficult life, but it may have contributed to their ill health,” she says.

“Despite a vast amount of historical records surviving from the nineteenth century, very little is known about the experienced living conditions of the poor and labouring classes.”

Dr Jonny Geber, from the Department of Anatomy at the University of Otago says: “We believe the bad condition of the teeth studied was because of widespread pipe smoking in both men and women, rather than their diet of potatoes and milk, as a comparative study of the 20th century population on the same diet didn’t have the same evidence of poor oral health.”

“Our study shows that it is not only diet that affects your oral health, but many other factors — and we believe that smoking was a major contributing factor in the Kilkenny population sample,” Dr Geber says.

“The high frequency of clay pipe facets or marks from clenching a pipe between the teeth in many of the skeletons was evidence of smoking in both males and females.

“The current study adds to the growing body of evidence that demonstrates that smoking is not only bad for your health; it is also bad for your teeth.”

The findings are published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Source: University of Otago [October 24, 2018]



Medieval houses, ship remains discovered in central Swedish town

A team of archaeologists have found parts of a centuries-old ship in the central Swedish town of Enköping.

Medieval houses, ship remains discovered in central Swedish town
The archaeologists in the middle of the excavation [Credit: SHM Arkeologerna/Upplandsmuseet]

The finds include parts of a merchant vessel, a cog, dating back to the 13th century, as well as some imported German and Danish ceramics, possibly brought to Sweden on the same ship.
This could be evidence that Enköping was an important trade city in the Mälardalen area, archaeologist and project manager Emelie Sunding told The Local.

Medieval houses, ship remains discovered in central Swedish town
A cog dating back to the 13th century [Credit: SHM Arkeologerna/Upplandsmuseet]

Medieval houses, ship remains discovered in central Swedish town
A rudder belonging to another boat from the 14th century [Credit: SHM Arkeologerna/Upplandsmuseet]

In medieval times, Enköping was close to the shoreline, with a beach located in what is now the city centre. That location made the town a crucial international location for medieval trade.
After the outbreak of the Black Plague in the 14th centrury, though, Enköping’s importance was lost in history, which Sunding said makes the new findings even more exciting.

Medieval houses, ship remains discovered in central Swedish town
Remains of early or late medieval house [Credit: Adam Hultberg, Upplandsmuseet]

Medieval houses, ship remains discovered in central Swedish town
Two-room kitchen from the 16th century [Credit: Adam Hultberg, Upplandsmuseet]

“They can help us restore history a bit,” she said.
“We have been excavating many soil deposits and found lots of remains,” said Sunding, whose team has been carrying out digs in the area for over a year.

Medieval houses, ship remains discovered in central Swedish town
Archaeologists Mathias Bäck and Emelie Sunding document
one of the houses [Credit: Upplandsmuseet]

Medieval houses, ship remains discovered in central Swedish town
Cobblestone level of the historic street that passes through the survey area,
which disappeared with city regulation after the fire in 1799
[Credit: Adam Hultberg, Upplandsmuseet]

These remains have included parts of 16th-century living quarters and traces of urban cultivation during the 12th and 13th centuries. An analysis of the cultural layer from that period then showed that the people cultivated plants. The archaeologists will now continue searching for remains in the deeper soil deposits.

“We are not quite done yet,” said Sunding. “In fact, we are expecting to excavate some older remains, which could date back to the 10th century.”

Source: The Local [October 24, 2018]



BepiColombo magnetometer boom deployed – sequence

ESA – BepiColombo Mission patch.

26 October 2018

The 2.5 m long boom carrying the magnetometer sensors onboard ESA’s BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) has been successfully deployed. The sensors are now prepared to measure the magnetic field on the way to Mercury.

Following launch last weekend, and having completed the ‘launch and early orbit phase’ on Monday, confirming the spacecraft and systems were healthy and functioning now they are in space, attention has now turned to checking the suite of scientific instruments on the science orbiters.

Animation above: BepiColombo magnetometer boom deployed – gif sequence. Animation Credits: ESA/BepiColombo/MTM, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO.

As part of this activity, one more piece of hardware had to be deployed: the magnetometer boom onboard the MPO. The deployment, which took about one minute to complete, was captured in a series of images taken by one of the monitoring cameras onboard the Mercury Transfer Module (MTM).

The transfer module is equipped with three monitoring cameras – or M-CAMs – which provide black-and-white snapshots in 1024 × 1024 pixel resolution. The magnetometer boom is seen in M-CAM 2. The images were taken with an exposure of 40 milliseconds, and a time interval of six seconds between images, starting at 12:40:09 UTC (14:40:09 CEST) on 25 October. Eleven images were taken in the sequence – eight of them capture the motion of the boom, as seen here.

Image above: BepiColombo magnetometer boom deployed. Image Credits: ESA/BepiColombo/MTM , CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO.

At the same time, the sensors in the boom itself recorded the local magnetic field during the deployment.

The M-CAMs already returned space ‘selfies’ in the days after launch, featuring the MTM’s deployed solar wings and MPO’s antennas – activities which were confirmed first by telemetry. A portion of the array can be seen towards the right in this orientation, and the cone-shaped medium-gain antenna is in the lower part of the image on the left.

Image above: BepiColombo’s first space selfies. Image Credits: ESA/BepiColombo/MTM, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO.

The monitoring cameras will be used at various occasions during the seven year cruise phase. While the MPO is equipped with a high-resolution scientific camera, this can only be operated after separating from the MTM upon arrival at Mercury in late 2025 because, like several of the 11 instrument suites, it is located on the side of the spacecraft fixed to the MTM during cruise.

Once at Mercury, the magnetometer will measure the planet’s magnetic field, the interaction of the solar wind, and the formation and dynamics of the magnetosphere – the magnetic ‘bubble’ around the planet. Together with measurements captured by a similar instrument suite onboard JAXA’s Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, the spacecraft will provide scientists with data that will help investigate the dynamic environment of the planet, as well as the origin, evolution and current state of the planet’s magnetic field and its interior.

BepiColombo approaching Mercury. Image Credits: ESA/ATG medialab/NASA/JPL

BepiColombo is a joint endeavour between ESA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA. It is the first European mission to Mercury, the smallest and least explored planet in the inner Solar System, and the first to send two spacecraft to make complementary measurements of the planet and its dynamic environment at the same time.

Related article:

BepiColombo blasts off to investigate Mercury’s mysteries:

Related links:

BepiColombo: http://sci.esa.int/bepicolombo/

BepiColombo overview: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/BepiColombo_overview2

BepiColombo in depth: http://sci.esa.int/bepicolombo/

Animation (mentioned), Images (mentioned), Text, Credit: European Space Agency (ESA).

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link

A changing crater: Honouring a renowned Mars scientist

ESA – Mars Express Mission patch.

26 October 2018

Mars Express

The surface of Mars may appear to be perpetually still, but its many features are ever-changing – as represented in this Mars Express view of the severely eroded Greeley impact crater.

Greeley crater, named for the renowned planetary scientist Ronald Greeley, is located in one of the most ancient parts of Mars: a section of the planet’s southern highlands named Noachis Terra.

 Perspective view of Greeley Crater

This region is thought to be some four billion years old, and is thus home to many features that formed in the very earliest days of the Solar System. Many craters have formed, changed, and eroded away in Noachis Terra, and Greeley crater is no exception.

The subject of these Mars Express images sits between two huge, deep impact basin plains, Argyre and Hellas, and is a great example of a very old crater that has endured significant erosion over time.

Greeley Crater in context

Wind, water, ice, and subsequent impacts have all played a part in wearing down the once-fresh structure of the crater. They have smoothed away and removed its walls and rims, erased any characteristic patterns in the nearby landscape that may have formed alongside the crater (such as ‘ejecta’, or rays of material flung out from an impact site), and infilled and flattened out its floor.

This floor is covered with a number of smaller impact pits and pockmarks that have occurred since Greeley crater’s formation – another clear indication of the crater’s immense age. With a depth of only 1.5 km Greeley crater is actually relatively shallow for a martian crater, making it somewhat difficult to pick out from the surrounding terrain.

Mars Express plan view of Greeley Crater

Accompanying views of the crater show it in a wider context on Mars, colour-coded by topography – highlighting the relative depths of the crater, its broken-down wall, smaller superimposed craters, and other features throughout the region – and also via an oblique perspective, which looks across the crater towards the south-west. Together, these images well-characterise the crater and its environment, and offer an intriguing insight into this ancient region on our planetary neighbour.

Greeley crater earned its moniker following a proposal by the International Astronomical Union in 2015 to name the crater after distinguished planetary scientist Ronald Greeley. Greeley passed away on 27 October 2011.

Topography of Greeley Crater

Alongside significant work in planetary science spanning not only Mars and related missions but also lunar research and missions to Venus, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune, Greeley was a Regents’ Professor of planetary geology at Arizona State University from 1977 to 2011, and co-investigator of the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) – the instrument that gathered the data used in these images.

Related links:

Mars Express: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Mars_Express

Mars Express overview: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Mars_Express_overview

Animation, Images, Text, Credits: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO/NASA MGS MOLA Science Team/ATG Medialab.

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link

Meteor Activity Outlook for October 27-November 2, 2018

This is Michel Deconinck’s impression of the 2018 Perseids as seen from Artignosc Provence, France on the night of August 12/13.

During this period the moon will reach its last quarter phase on Wednesday October 31st. At this time the moon will be located 90 degrees west of the sun and will rise between 2200 and 2300 local daylight saving time (DST). This weekend the bright waning gibbous moon will rise during the early evening hours and will spoil the remainder of the night by obscuring all but the brighter meteors. The estimated total hourly meteor rates for evening observers this week is near 3 for those viewing from the northern hemisphere and 2 for those located south of the equator. For morning observers the estimated total hourly rates should be near 14 as seen from mid-northern latitudes and 9 from the southern tropics. Rates are reduced during this period due to moonlight. The actual rates will also depend on factors such as personal light and motion perception, local weather conditions, alertness and experience in watching meteor activity. Note that the hourly rates listed below are estimates as viewed from dark sky sites away from urban light sources. Observers viewing from urban areas will see less activity as only the brighter meteors will be visible from such locations.

The radiant (the area of the sky where meteors appear to shoot from) positions and rates listed below are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning October 27/28. These positions do not change greatly day to day so the listed coordinates may be used during this entire period. Most star atlases (available at science stores and planetariums) will provide maps with grid lines of the celestial coordinates so that you may find out exactly where these positions are located in the sky. A planisphere or computer planetarium program is also useful in showing the sky at any time of night on any date of the year. Activity from each radiant is best seen when it is positioned highest in the sky, either due north or south along the meridian, depending on your latitude. It must be remembered that meteor activity is rarely seen at the radiant position. Rather they shoot outwards from the radiant so it is best to center your field of view so that the radiant lies at the edge and not the center. Viewing there will allow you to easily trace the path of each meteor back to the radiant (if it is a shower member) or in another direction if it is a sporadic. Meteor activity is not seen from radiants that are located far below the horizon. The positions below are listed in a west to east manner in order of right ascension (celestial longitude). The positions listed first are located further west therefore are accessible earlier in the night while those listed further down the list rise later in the night.

Radiant Positions at 9pm LST

Radiant Positions at 21:00

Local Daylight Saving Time

Radiant Positions at 01:00 Local Daylight Saving Time

Radiant Positions at 01:00

Local Daylight Saving Time

Radiant Positions at 5am LDT

Radiant Positions at 5:00

Local Daylight Saving Time

These sources of meteoric activity are expected to be active this week.

Details on each source will be continued next week when the moon will not be such a problem.

RA (RA in Deg.) DEC Km/Sec Local Daylight Saving Time North-South
Andromedids (AND) Nov 05 00:50 (013) +25 18 00:00 <1 – <1 III
Northern Taurids (NTA) Nov 02 02:56 (044) +19 28 02:00 2 – 1 II
Southern Taurids (STA) Oct 29 03:08 (047) +13 27 02:00 2 – 2 II
omicron Eridanids (OER) Nov 04 03:10 (047) -03 29 02:00 <1 – <1 IV
chi Taurids (CTA) Nov 03 03:46 (056) +25 41 03:00 <1 – <1 IV
Orionids (ORI) Oct 22 06:48 (102) +15 67 05:00 3 – 3 I
nu Eridanids (NUE) Sep 24 07:18 (109) +13 67 06:00 <1 – <1 IV
Southern lambda Draconids (SLD) Nov 03 10:18 (155) +70 49 09:00 <1 – <1 IV
lambda Ursae Majorids (LUM) Oct 28 10:29 (157) +48 62 09:00 <1 – <1 IV
Leonis Minorids (LMI) Oct 22 11:04 (166) +34 62 10:00 1 – <1 II

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Prehistoric Tools, Kirkcudbright Stewartry Museum, Kirkcudbright, Dumfries and Galloway,...

Prehistoric Tools, Kirkcudbright Stewartry Museum, Kirkcudbright, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 22.10.18.

A collection of prehistoric axe heads and weaponry from the region.

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The Loch Glashan Log Boat, inconclusive dating from 1st to 10th century CE, Kelvingrove...

The Loch Glashan Log Boat, inconclusive dating from 1st to 10th century CE, Kelvingrove Museum and Gallery, Glasgow, 25.10.18.

A log boat made from a single piece of oak and found in the vicinity of the Loch Glashan Crannog.

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https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...