четверг, 25 октября 2018 г.

3000yr old Scottish Rock Art, Kelvingrove Museum and Gallery, Glasgow, 25.10.18.


3000yr old Scottish Rock Art, Kelvingrove Museum and Gallery, Glasgow, 25.10.18.


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Prehistoric Cup and Ring Marks, Bluebell Wood, Langside, Kelvingrove Museum and Gallery,...


Prehistoric Cup and Ring Marks, Bluebell Wood, Langside, Kelvingrove Museum and Gallery, Glasgow, 25.10.18.


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Prehistoric Pottery and Beakers, Kelvingrove Museum and Gallery, Glasgow, 25.10.18.A...











Prehistoric Pottery and Beakers, Kelvingrove Museum and Gallery, Glasgow, 25.10.18.


A selection of domestic and funerary pottery from prehistoric Scotland.


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Deciphering Diversity When fending off dangerous intruders,…


Deciphering Diversity


When fending off dangerous intruders, our body’s strength comes from diversity. Antibodies, our molecular security system’s frontline warriors, specifically bind to and neutralise countless potential threats. How they lock on to such varied molecules was hotly debated for years until Marian Koshland – born on this day in 1921 – showed with elegant experiments in the 1960s that different antibodies were formed of different amino acids [the building blocks of proteins]. Rather than all being alike and adapting to incomers, a large stock of antibodies each fends off specific molecules, like having different outfits for every occasion instead of just making one work for any event. This revelation helped steered the debate towards the understanding that underpins immunology today. Koshland’s career spanned six decades, included countless discoveries – including the J chain, a key part of antibody structure that allows them to move through the body – and powered the field of immunology forward.


Written by Anthony Lewis



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NASA’s InSight Will Study Mars While Standing Still


NASA – InSight Mission logo.


October 25, 2018


You don’t need wheels to explore Mars.


After touching down in November, NASA’s InSight spacecraft will spread its solar panels, unfold a robotic arm … and stay put. Unlike the space agency’s rovers, InSight is a lander designed to study an entire planet from just one spot.



Image above: This artist’s concept depicts NASA’s InSight lander after it has deployed its instruments on the Martian surface. Image Credits:NASA/JPL-Caltech.


This sedentary science allows InSight to detect geophysical signals deep below the Martian surface, including marsquakes and heat. Scientists will also be able to track radio signals from the stationary spacecraft, which vary based on the wobble in Mars’ rotation. Understanding this wobble could help solve the mystery of whether the planet’s core is solid.


Here are five things to know about how InSight conducts its science.


1. InSight Can Measure Quakes Anywhere on the Planet


Quakes on Earth are usually detected using networks of seismometers. InSight has only one – called SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) – so its science team will use some creative measurements to analyze seismic waves as they occur anywhere on the planet.


SEIS will measure seismic waves from marsquakes and meteorite strikes as they move through Mars. The speed of those waves changes depending on the material they’re traveling through, helping scientists deduce what the planet’s interior is made of.


Seismic waves come in a surprising number of flavors. Some vibrate across a planet’s surface, while others ricochet off its center. They also move at different speeds. Seismologists can use each type as a tool to triangulate where and when a seismic event has happened.


This means InSight could have landed anywhere on Mars and, without moving, gathered the same kind of science.


2. InSight’s Seismometer Needs Peace and Quiet


Seismometers are touchy by nature. They need to be isolated from “noise” in order to measure seismic waves accurately.


SEIS is sensitive enough to detect vibrations smaller than the width of a hydrogen atom. It will be the first seismometer ever set on the Martian surface, where it will be thousands of times more accurate than seismometers that sat atop the Viking landers.


To take advantage of this exquisite sensitivity, engineers have given SEIS a shell: a wind-and-thermal shield that InSight’s arm will place over the seismometer. This protective dome presses down when wind blows over it; a Mylar-and-chainmail skirt keeps wind from blowing in. It also gives SEIS a cozy place to hide away from Mars’ intense temperature swings, which can create minute changes in the instrument’s springs and electronics.


3. InSight Has a Self-Hammering Nail


Have you ever tried to hammer a nail? Then you know holding it steady is key. InSight carries a nail that also needs to be held steady.


This unique instrument, called HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package), holds a spike attached to a long tether. A mechanism inside the spike will hammer it up to 16 feet (5 meters) underground, dragging out the tether, which is embedded with heat sensors.


At that depth, it can detect heat trapped inside Mars since the planet first formed. That heat shaped the surface with volcanoes, mountain ranges and valleys. It may even have determined where rivers ran early in Mars’ history.


4. InSight Can Land in a Safe Spot


Because InSight needs stillness – and because it can collect seismic and heat data from anywhere on the planet – the spacecraft is free to land in the safest location possible.


InSight’s team selected a location on Mars’ equator called Elysium Planitia – as flat and boring a spot as any on Mars. That makes landing just a bit easier, as there’s less to crash into, fewer rocks to land on and lots of sunlight to power the spacecraft. The fact that InSight doesn’t use much power and should have plenty of sunlight at Mars’ equator means it can provide lots of data for scientists to study.


5. InSight Can Measure Mars’ Wobble


InSight has two X-band antennas on its deck that make up a third instrument, called RISE (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment). Radio signals from RISE will be measured over months, maybe even years, to study the tiny “wobble” in the rotation of the planet. That wobble is a sign of whether Mars’ core is liquid or solid – a trait that could also shed light on the planet’s thin magnetic field.


Collecting detailed data on this wobble hasn’t happened since Mars Pathfinder’s three-month mission in 1997 (although the Opportunity rover made a few measurements in 2011 while it remained still, waiting out the winter). Every time a stationary spacecraft sends radio signals from Mars, it can help scientists improve their measurements.



Image above: NASA’s InSight spacecraft is on its way to Mars. Image Credits: NASA/JPL.


About InSight


JPL manages InSight for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. InSight is part of NASA’s Discovery Program, managed by the agency’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built the InSight spacecraft, including its cruise stage and lander, and supports spacecraft operations for the mission.


A number of European partners, including France’s Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), support the InSight mission. CNES provided the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) instrument, with significant contributions from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) in Germany, the Swiss Institute of Technology (ETH) in Switzerland, Imperial College and Oxford University in the United Kingdom, and JPL. DLR provided the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) instrument.


For more information about InSight, visit: https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/


Related links:


Viking landers: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7088


Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS): https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/spacecraft/instruments/seis/


Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3): https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/spacecraft/instruments/hp3/


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/JPL/Andrew Good.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Emerald On Calcite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Emerald On Calcite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Muzo Mine, Boyacá Department, Colombia


Size: 2.3 × 2.1 × 1.8 cm

Largest Crystal: 1.70cm


Photo Copyright © Wittig-Minerals /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com

https://www.instagram.com/p/BpWLtuiFjeB/?utm_source=ig_tumblr_share&igshid=exbxq7452mhu


Wulfenite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Chah…


Wulfenite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Chah Milleh Mine, Esfahan Province, Iran (Islamic Republic)


Size: 1.5 × 1.3 × 1.1 cm


Photo Copyright © Viamineralia /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com

https://www.instagram.com/p/BpWMEb_Fyxi/?utm_source=ig_tumblr_share&igshid=1ig1780rmbhcs


Ilton Temple near Masham Photoset 4, Yorkshire, 20.10.18.











Ilton Temple near Masham Photoset 4, Yorkshire, 20.10.18.


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HiPOD (24 October 2018): In Central Candor Chasma    – Here’s a…


HiPOD (24 October 2018): In Central Candor Chasma 


   – Here’s a behind the scenes look at observation planning: the individual who planned this image noted: “The Context Camera is starting stereo coverage here. Future targeting specialists, be on the lookout for free stereo!” (268 km above the surface. Black and white is less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km.)


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


2018 October 25 Barnard 150: Seahorse in Cepheus Image Credit…


2018 October 25


Barnard 150: Seahorse in Cepheus
Image Credit & Copyright: Data – Steve Milne & Barry Wilson, Processing – Steve Milne


Explanation: Light-years across, this suggestive shape known as the Seahorse Nebula appears in silhouette against a rich, luminous background of stars. Seen toward the royal northern constellation of Cepheus, the dusty, obscuring clouds are part of a Milky Way molecular cloud some 1,200 light-years distant. It is also listed as Barnard 150 (B150), one of 182 dark markings of the sky cataloged in the early 20th century by astronomer E. E. Barnard. Packs of low mass stars are forming within from collapsing cores only visible at long infrared wavelengths. Still, colorful stars in Cepheus add to the pretty, galactic skyscape.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap181025.html


How to replicate the universe of space bases in Microsoft Flight Simulator X


October 24, 2018



To begin, you must have a CD version of FSX, because the download version on Steam is “locked”, it is not possible to add add-ons other than those paying on Steam. So if like me you have all the original CD versions, you will be able to install the add-ons that I recommend in this article.


Baikonur Cosmodrome: https://library.avsim.net/esearch.php?DLID=194263



 Baikonur Cosmodrome



Cape Canaveral (1962): https://www.flightsim.com/vbfs/fslib.php?searchid=67058006



Cape Canaveral

Aeroworks Railroad Valley 2013 Scenery Package (Edwards AFB, Nellis Air Force Range, High-technology Aerospace Warfare Center): https://simviation.com/1/search?submit=1&keywords=Aeroworks+Railroad+Valley+2013+Scenery+Package&x=15&y=8


FS2002 / 2004 Kourou Space Center French Guiana (FSX compatible): https://simviation.com/1/search?submit=1&keywords=Kourou+Space+Center+French+Guiana&categoryId=


For you to build a fleet of aircraft’s and helicopters of space agencies, you can download them freely, some full model, others are “repaints” that you have to add to a model for free download, all its add-ons are free, you will at most just have to register on some websites. The “repaints” that are offered on my website, the original models are on the Simviation website: https://simviation.com/1/front-page


Other sites where you will find models that are not on Simviation and my website:


FlightSim.com: https://www.flightsim.com/vbfs/content.php


AVSIM Library: https://library.avsim.net/


Here is the list of my (repainted) models available for free (without registration) on my website:



NASA & DLR Boeing 747/SP SOFIA Observatory Repaint for FS2004 / FSX



Airbus A340-300 Swiss Space Systems (S3) repainted for FSX



NASA Global Hawk RQ-4A for FSX



Lockheed L1011-500 Orbital & Pegasus Rocket for FSX



Airbus A310-300 Zero-G for FSX



Douglas NASA DC8-62 NASA Flight Research Center Repaint for FSX



Eurocopter EC120 Space Center Guyanese CSG for FSX



Eurocopter EC155 ESA EGNOS Calibration Helicopter Test for FSX



Hawker 700 ESA Astronauts Transfer Aircraft for FSX

All available on Simulators.li, the Simmer’s Area: https://simulators.jimdo.com/


Good flight!


N.B.: Feel free to write me a message on orbiter@live.fr  if you find a bug in my add-ons and all feedback are welcome.


Images, Text, Credits: Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


The Pirate of the Southern Skies


ESO – European Southern Observatory logo.


24 October 2018



The Pirate of the Southern Skies

FORS2, an instrument mounted on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, has observed the active star-forming region NGC 2467 — sometimes referred to as the Skull and Crossbones Nebula. The image was captured as part of the ESO Cosmic Gems Programme, which makes use of the rare occasions when observing conditions are not suitable for gathering scientific data. Instead of sitting idle, the ESO Cosmic Gems Programme allows ESO’s telescopes to be used to capture visually stunning images of the southern skies.


This vivid picture of an active star-forming region — NGC 2467, sometimes referred to as the Skull and Crossbones Nebula — is as sinister as it is beautiful. This image of dust, gas and bright young stars, gravitationally bound into the form of a grinning skull, was captured with the FORS instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT).  Whilst ESO’s telescopes are usually used for the collection of science data, they can also capture images such as this — which are beautiful for their own sake.



Digitized Sky Survey image around NGC 2467

It is easy to see the motivation for the nickname Skull and Crossbones. This young, bright formation distinctly resembles an ominous hollow face, of which only the gaping mouth is visible here. NGC 2467 skulks in the constellation Puppis, which translates rather unromantically as The Poop Deck.


This nebulous collection of stellar clusters is the birthplace of many stars, where an excess of hydrogen gas provided the raw material for stellar creation. It is not, in fact, a single nebula, and its constituent stellar cluster are moving at different velocities. It is only a fortuitous alignment along the line of sight from the Earth that makes the stars and gas form a humanoid face. This luminous image might not tell astronomers anything new, but it provides us all with a glimpse into the churning southern skies, bright with wonders invisible to the human eye.



NGC 2467 in the constellation of Puppis

Puppis is one of three nautically named constellations that sail the southern skies, and which used to make up the single, giant Argo Navis constellation, named after the ship of the mythical Jason and the Argonauts. Argo Navis has since been divided into three: Carina (the keel), Vela (the sails) and Puppis, where this nebula finds its home.  Whilst a heroic figure, Jason is most famous for his theft of the golden fleece, so NGC 2467 rests not only in the midst of a vast celestial ship, but amongst thieves — an appropriate abode for this piratical nebula.



Zooming in on NGC 2467

This image was created as part of the ESO Cosmic Gems programme, an outreach initiative to produce images of interesting, intriguing or visually attractive objects using ESO telescopes, for the purposes of education and public outreach. The programme makes use of telescope time that cannot be used for science observations. All data collected may also be suitable for scientific purposes, and are made available to astronomers through ESO’s science archive.



Panning across NGC 2467

More information:


ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It has 16 Member States: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile and with Australia as a Strategic Partner. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer as well as two survey telescopes, VISTA working in the infrared and the visible-light VLT Survey Telescope. ESO is also a major partner in two facilities on Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre Extremely Large Telescope, the ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.


Links:


ESOcast 180 Light: The Pirate of the Southern Skies: https://www.eso.org/public/videos/eso1834a/


ESO’s Cosmic Gems programme: https://www.eso.org/public/outreach/gems/


Images of the VLT: https://www.eso.org/public/images/archive/search/?adv=&subject_name=Very%20Large%20Telescope


ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT): https://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/paranal-observatory/vlt/?lang


FORS instrument: https://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/paranal-observatory/vlt/vlt-instr/fors/


ESO Cosmic Gems programme: http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/gems.html


ESO’s science archive: https://www.eso.org/public/announcements/ann18062/


Images, Text, Credits: ESO/Calum Turner/Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin/IAU and Sky & Telescope/Videos: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2/N. Risinger (skysurvey.org). Music: astral electronic/Johan B. Monell (www.johanmonell.com).


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Parker Solar Probe Looks Back at Home


NASA – Parker Solar Probe Mission patch.


Oct. 24, 2018


On Sept. 25, 2018, Parker Solar Probe captured a view of Earth as it sped toward the first Venus gravity assist of the mission. Earth is the bright, round object visible in the right side of the image.



Image above: The view from Parker Solar Probe’s WISPR instrument on Sept. 25, 2018, shows Earth, the bright sphere near the middle of the right-hand panel. The elongated mark toward the bottom of the panel is a lens reflection from the WISPR instrument. Image Credits: NASA/Naval Research Laboratory/Parker Solar Probe.


The image was captured by the WISPR (Wide-field Imager for Solar Probe) instrument, which is the only imaging instrument on board Parker Solar Probe. During science phases, WISPR sees structures within the Sun’s atmosphere, the corona, before they pass over the spacecraft. The two panels of WISPR’s image come from the instrument’s two telescopes, which point in slightly different directions and have different fields of view. The inner telescope produced the left-hand image, while the outer telescope produced the image on the right. 


Zooming in on Earth reveals a slight bulge on the right side: that is the Moon, just peeking out from behind Earth. At the time the image was taken, Parker Solar Probe was about 27 million miles from Earth.



Image above: A close-up of Earth from WISPR’s Sept. 25, 2018, image shows what appears to be a bulge on our planet’s right side — this is the Moon. Image Credits: NASA/Naval Research Laboratory/Parker Solar Probe.


The hemispherical shaped feature in the middle of the right-hand image is a lens flare, a common feature when imaging bright sources, which is caused by reflections within the lens system. In this case, the flare is due to the very bright Earthshine. Close passes by Venus and Mercury may occasionally create similar patterns in the future, but these are limited cases and do not affect the science operations of the instrument.



Parker Solar Probe. Image Credit: NASA

Some of the visible objects in the image — like Pleiades to the low-left of Earth in the right-hand image and the two bright objects, Betelgeuse and Bellatrix, near the bottom of the left-hand image — appear elongated because of reflections on the edge of the detector.


Parker Solar Probe: https://www.nasa.gov/solarprobe


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Rob Garner/Goddard Space Flight Center, by Sarah Frazier.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


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