четверг, 11 октября 2018 г.

NASA’s Terra Satellite Celebrates 100,000 Orbits


NASA – EOS Terra Mission patch.


Oct. 11, 2018


More than 400 miles above Earth, a satellite the size of a school bus is earning its frequent flyer miles. On Oct. 6, NASA’s Terra completed 100,000 orbits around Earth. Terra joins a handful of satellites to mark this orbital milestone, including the International Space Station, Earth’s Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), Landsat 5 and Landsat 7. Terra, which launched Dec. 18, 1999, is projected to continue operation into the 2020s.



Image above: Illustration of Terra satellite in orbit of Earth. Image Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Chris Meaney.


The five scientific instruments aboard Terra provide long-term value for advancing scientific understanding of our planet — one of the longest running satellite climate data records — and yield immediate benefits in such areas as public health. For example, recently scientists analyzed 15 years of pollution data in California, collected by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) instrument, and discovered that the state’s clean air programs have been successful in reducing particle pollution. More urgently, data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) and MISR provided crucial information about the air quality and land change conditions around Hawaii’s erupting Kilauea volcano, informing critical public health and safety decisions.




Image above: Members of the Terra design team stand in front of a true-to-size model of the satellite in the mid-1990s. Image Credits: courtesy of Dick Quinn.


But just as a plane can’t fly without a crew, the Terra satellite never could have provided these vital benefits to society for this long without decades of dedicated work by engineers and scientists.


Completing more than 2.5 billion miles of flight around Earth over almost 19 years, by a satellite designed to operate for five years, does not happen unless a satellite is designed, constructed and operated with great care.


“Multiple, different aspects in the team make it work,” said Eric Moyer, deputy project manager ­– technical at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.




Image above: NASA scientists, engineers and designers pose for a group photo in front of the Terra model. Image Credits: courtesy of Dick Quinn.


“The Terra team includes flight operations, subsystem engineers, subject matter experts, the instrument teams and the science teams for each of the instruments. Overall it all has to be coordinated, so one activity doesn’t negatively impact another instrument,” said Moyer, who worked on Terra during construction and continues to be involved with its operations today.


Dimitrios Mantziaras, Terra mission director at Goddard, summed up what it takes: “A well-built spacecraft, talented people running it and making great science products, with lots of people using the data, that’s what has kept Terra running all these years.”


Designing a Pioneer


Terra was unique from the beginning. It was one of the first satellites to study Earth system science, and the first to look at land, water and the atmosphere at the same time. Unlike many previous, smaller satellites, Terra didn’t have a previously launched satellite platform to build upon. It had to be designed from scratch.


“Unlike the Landsat mission, which continues to improve upon its original design, nothing like Terra had ever been built,” said Dick Quinn, Terra’s spacecraft manufacturing representative from Lockheed Martin, who still works part-time at with the team responsible for Terra’s continued flight.



Image above: Terra’s test team stands in front of the satellite during its construction and testing phase. Image Credits: courtesy of Dick Quinn.


Terra was meant to be the first in a series of satellites, known as AM-1, 2 and 3, each with a design life of about five years. Instead, the mission team ended up designing a satellite that lasted longer than the combined design life of three generations of Terra satellites.


Constructing and Operating a Solid Satellite 


The built-in redundancies and flexibility of the satellite were put to the test in 2009, when a micrometeoroid struck a power cell, degrading the thermal control for the battery.


“We had to change the way we manage the battery to keep it operating efficiently and keep it at the right temperature,” said Jason Hendrickson, Terra flight systems manager at Goddard, who joined the team in 2013. To do this, the team used the charge and discharge cycle of the battery itself to generate the heat necessary to keep the battery operating. They have been finetuning this cycle ever since.


Terra engineers and scientists continually plan for worst-case scenarios, anticipating problems that may never develop.


“We are always thinking, if this were to fail, how are we going to respond?” Hendrickson said. “You can’t just go to the garage and swap out parts.”



Image above: Celebrating the 10th anniversary of Terra in 2009, the flight operations leads and managers posed around a model of the satellite. Image Credits: courtesy of Alan Lampe.


Not only does the team plan for many possible scenarios, but it also looks back at the response and figures out how it can be improved.


However, most of the time, they don’t have to wait for a system failure to practice contingency plans. For example, in 2017 the team executed the second lunar deep space calibration maneuver in Terra’s lifetime. The satellite turned to look at deep space, instead of at Earth.


“We had to take into account what would happen if the computer were to fail when we were pointed at deep space,” Hendrickson said.



Image above: The Terra working group, including representatives from science teams, instruments teams and flight operations teams meet in Boulder, Colorado, in 2015. Image Credits: courtesy of Tassia Owen.


The calibration maneuver was executed successfully and the team never had to conduct their contingency plan. The science gained from calibrating Terra’s data against deep space allowed the scientists to improve the data collected by the ASTER instrument. ASTER, a collaborative instrument with Japan and the United States, is one of five instruments on Terra. It monitors volcanic eruptions, among many other objectives and provides high resolution imagery of locations all over the world.


In addition to ASTER, the instruments on Terra make many contributions and benefit people worldwide:


– The Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collects data on land cover, land and sea surface temperatures, aerosol particle properties and cloud cover changes. For example, MODIS data is used to protect people’s lives and property through operations like MODIS rapid response, which monitors wildfires daily: https://terra.nasa.gov/about/terra-instruments/modis


– MISR continues to provide data useful for health researchers studying the effects of particulate matter on populations all over the world, as well as fundamental studies of how aerosol particles and clouds affect weather and climate and investigations of terrestrial ecology: https://terra.nasa.gov/about/terra-instruments/misr


– Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), a collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency, is used to study carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, an indicator of pollution concentrations, also a contributor to global health issues: https://terra.nasa.gov/about/terra-instruments/mopitt


– Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides data on Earth’s energy budget, helping monitor the outgoing reflected solar and emitted infrared radiation of the planet: https://terra.nasa.gov/about/terra-instruments/ceres


The science teams for each instrument work with the operations and technical teams to ensure that the scientific data provided is accurate and useful to the researchers who access it.



Image above: The offline Terra mission operations team stands in front of an image of the fleet of NASA Earth Observing Satellites. Image Credits: courtesy of Jason Hendrickson.


The data is free and is valued by people all over the world. Not only can it be accessed daily, there are over 240 direct broadcast sites, where data can be downloaded in near real-time, all over the world. Moyer said that one of the most rewarding parts of working with Terra is that “the science data is truly valued by people we don’t even know. People all over the world.”


ASTER: https://terra.nasa.gov/about/terra-instruments/aster


Terra Satellite: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/terra/index.html


For more information on Terra, visit: https://terra.nasa.gov


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Rob Garner/Goddard Space Flight Center, by Tassia Owen.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Meteor Activity Outlook for August 18-24, 2018

Meteor over Przedmieście Czudeckie (Poland), August 12th 2018 © Michal Ziembicki (CC)
Nikon D700

16.0 mm ƒ/2.8, 30s, ISO800

During this period the moon will reach its first quarter phase on Saturday August 18th. At that time the moon will lie 90 degrees east of the sun in the sky and will set near midnight local daylight saving time (LDT) as seen from mid-northern latitudes. As the week progresses the waxing gibbous moon will encroach upon the morning hours, limiting the time observers have to view under moonless conditions. The estimated total hourly meteor rates for evening observers this week is near 4 as seen from mid-northern latitudes and also 3 for those viewing from subtropical southern latitudes (25S). For morning observers the estimated total hourly rates should be near 23 for those viewing from mid-northern latitudes and also 15 for those viewing from subtropical southern latitudes (25S). The actual rates will also depend on factors such as personal light and motion perception, local weather conditions, alertness and experience in watching meteor activity. Evening rates are reduced during this period due to moonlight. Note that the hourly rates listed below are estimates as viewed from dark sky sites away from urban light sources. Observers viewing from urban areas will see less activity as only the brighter meteors will be visible from such locations.


The radiant (the area of the sky where meteors appear to shoot from) positions and rates listed below are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning August 18/19. These positions do not change greatly day to day so the listed coordinates may be used during this entire period. Most star atlases (available at science stores and planetariums) will provide maps with grid lines of the celestial coordinates so that you may find out exactly where these positions are located in the sky. A planisphere or computer planetarium program is also useful in showing the sky at any time of night on any date of the year. Activity from each radiant is best seen when it is positioned highest in the sky, either due north or south along the meridian, depending on your latitude. It must be remembered that meteor activity is rarely seen at the radiant position. Rather they shoot outwards from the radiant so it is best to center your field of view so that the radiant lies near the edge and not the center. Viewing there will allow you to easily trace the path of each meteor back to the radiant (if it is a shower member) or in another direction if it is a sporadic. Meteor activity is not seen from radiants that are located far below the horizon. The positions below are listed in a west to east manner in order of right ascension (celestial longitude). The positions listed first are located further west therefore are accessible earlier in the night while those listed further down the list rise later in the night.





Radiant Positions at 22:00 LDT


Radiant Positions at 22:00

Local Daylight Saving Time






Radiant Positions at 01:00 LDT


Radiant Positions at 0100

Local Daylight Saving Time






Radiant Positions at 4:00 LDT


Radiant Positions at 04:00

Local Daylight Saving Time





These sources of meteoric activity are expected to be active this week.


The August Draconids (AUD) were discovered by Zdenek Sekanina in his study of meteor streams using radio methods. This stream is active from August 13-19 with maximum activity occurring on the 16th. The radiant is currently located at 18:12 (273) +59, which places it in southern Draco, 8 degrees northeast of the 2nd magnitude star known as Eltanin (gamma Draconis). This radiant is best placed near 2200 (10pm) local daylight saving time (LDT), when it lies on the meridian and is located highest in the sky. With an entry velocity of 21 km/sec., the average August Draconid meteor would be of slow velocity. Rates this week are expected to be less than 1 per hour no matter your location


The last of the kappa Cygnids (KCG) are expected this weekend from a radiant located near 19:16 (289) +55. This area of the sky lies in northwestern Cygnus, 1 degree north of the 4th magnitude star known as kappa Cygni. This radiant is best placed near 2300 (11pm) LDT, when it lies on the meridian and is located highest in the sky. Rates should be less than 1 per hour no matter your location. Unfortunately these meteors are not well seen from the southern hemisphere due to their low radiant altitude. With an entry velocity of 21 km/sec., the average meteor from this source would be of slow velocity.


The center of the large Anthelion (ANT) radiant is currently located at 22:36 (339) -09. This position lies in central Aquarius, 4 degrees southeast of the 4th magnitude star known as Ancha (theta Aquarii). Due to the large size of this radiant, Anthelion activity may also appear from eastern Capricornus and western Pisces, as well as Aquarius. This radiant is best placed near 0200 LDT, when it lies on the meridian and is located highest in the sky. Hourly rates at this time should be near 2 no matter your location. With an entry velocity of 30 km/sec., the average Anthelion meteor would be of medium-slow velocity.


The Northern delta Aquariids (NDA) are active from July 23 through August 27. The radiant is currently located at 23:28 (352) +04. This position is located in western Pisces, 3 degrees south of the 4th magnitude star known as theta Piscium. Maximum activity was expected on August 14, so hourly rates should be near 1 per hour no matter your location. The radiant is best placed near 0300 LDT, when it lies highest in the sky. With an entry velocity of 38 km/sec., these meteors would be of medium velocities. This shower seems to be a continuation of the Northern June Aquilids, which had been active since early June.


The last of the Southern delta Aquariids (SDA) are expected this week from a radiant located at 23:58 (359) -09. This position is located in western Cetus, 3 degrees west of the 4th magnitude star known as Deneb Kaitos Shemali (iota Ceti). Hourly rates are now less than 1 per hour no matter your location. The radiant is best placed near 0400 LDT, when it lies highest in the sky. With an entry velocity of 41 km/sec., most activity from this radiant would be of average velocities.


The last of the beta Hydrusids (HDY) is expected this weekend. Activity from this stream is seen from August 15-19 with maximum activity occurring on the 17th. At maximum the radiant lies at 02:25 (036) -75, which places it in southern Hydrus between the bright stars known as beta and gamma Hydri. Due to the far southern location, these meteors are not visible from the northern hemisphere. For southern observers, this area of the sky is best seen during the last dark hour before dawn when the radiant lies highest in a dark sky. Current rates are expected to be less than 1 per hour during this period no matter your location. With an entry velocity of 23 km/sec., the average meteor from this source would be of slow velocity.


The eta Eridanids (ERI) were discovered by Japanese observers back in 2001. Activity from this stream is seen from July 23 though September 17 with maximum activity occurring on August 11. The radiant currently lies at 03:24 (051) -10, which places it in western Eridanus, 2 degrees west of the 4th magnitude star known as Ran (epsilon Eridani). This area of the sky is best seen during the last dark hour before dawn when the radiant lies highest in a dark sky. Current rates are expected to near 1 per hour as seen from the northern hemisphere and near 2 per hour as seen from south of the equator. With an entry velocity of 65 km/sec., the average meteor from this source would be of swift velocity. These meteors were noticeable during the recent Perseid maximum.


The Perseids (PER) are still active from a radiant located at 03:46 (057) +59. This position lies in southern Camelopardalis, 7 degrees northeast of the 3rd magnitude star known as gamma Persei. This area of the sky is best placed for viewing during the last dark hour before dawn when it lies highest in the sky. Rates from dark sky sites are expected to be near 5 per hour as seen from the northern hemisphere and 2 as seen from south of the equator. Unfortunately these meteors are not well seen from the southern hemisphere as the numbers decrease to zero from mid-southern latitudes (S45). With an entry velocity of 59 km/sec., the average meteor from this source would be of swift velocity.


New evidence from video cameras suggest that the Aurigids (AUR) are active as early as August 18. If so, the radiant would be currently located at 04:54 (074) +39. This area of the sky is located on the Perseus/Auriga border, 3 degrees southwest of the 3rd magnitude star known as Haedus (eta Auriga). This area of the sky is best placed for viewing during the last dark hour before dawn when it lies highest in the sky. Rates are expected to be less than 1 no matter your location. With an entry velocity of 66 km/sec., the average meteor from this source would be of swift velocity.


As seen from the mid-northern hemisphere (45N) one would expect to see approximately 14 sporadic meteors per hour during the last hour before dawn as seen from rural observing sites. Evening rates would be near 3 per hour. As seen from the tropical southern latitudes (25S), morning rates would be near 8 per hour as seen from rural observing sites and 2 per hour during the evening hours. Locations between these two extremes would see activity between the listed figures. Rates are reduced during the evening hours due to moonlight.


The list below offers the information from above in tabular form. Rates and positions are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning except where noted in the shower descriptions.








































































































SHOWER DATE OF MAXIMUM ACTIVITY CELESTIAL POSITION ENTRY VELOCITY CULMINATION HOURLY RATE CLASS
RA (RA in Deg.) DEC Km/Sec Local Daylight Saving Time North-South
August Draconids (AUD) Aug 16 18:12 (273) +59 21 22:00 <1 – <1 IV
kappa Cygnids (KCG) Aug 13 19:16 (289) +55 21 23:00 <1 – <1 II
Anthelions (ANT) 22:36 (339) -09 30 02:00 2 – 2 II
Northern delta Aquariids (NDA) Aug 14 23:28 (352) +04 38 03:00 1 – 1 IV
Southern delta Aquariids (SDA) Jul 30 23:58 (359) -09 41 04:00 <1 – <1 I
beta Hydrusids (HDY) Aug 17 02:25 (036) -75 23 06:00 0 – <1 III
eta Eridanids (ERI) Aug 11 03:24 (051) -10 65 07:00 1 – 2 IV
Perseids (PER) Aug 13 03:46 (057) +59 59 07:00 5 – 2 I
Aurigids (AUR) Sep 01 04:54 (074) +39 66 08:00 <1 – <1 II

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Tent Pole Patrol A cutting-edge microscope technique has shown…


Tent Pole Patrol


A cutting-edge microscope technique has shown in exquisite detail that the immune cells which patrol our bodies have miniature, tent-like structures on their surface. Slung between the tent poles are membranes that allow the moving cells, called macrophages, to gulp in fluid. Each gulp is sampled for possible sources of infection and, if any sign of bacteria, virus or cancer is detected, the macrophage triggers an immune response. The macrophages in this video have been exposed to a molecule commonly found on bacteria. Their activity was recorded with lattice light-sheet microscopy, which uses a laser to acquire 3D images with great speed and precision, while causing minimal damage to the cells. This advanced technique could revolutionise our understanding of cell behaviour. Already, it’s known that cancer cells use tent poles to engulf nutrients to sustain their growth. Targeting the tents with drugs could help to block cancer cell survival.


Written by Deborah Oakley



You can also follow BPoD on Instagram, Twitter and Facebook


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Soyuz MS-10 – Emergency landing after a failure


ROSCOSMOS – Soyuz MS-10 Mission patch.


Oct. 11, 2018



The Soyuz rocket a few seconds after the launch

The rocket, which took off Thursday for the International Space Station with two occupants on board, experienced an engine problem.


US astronaut Nick Hague and Russian Alexey Ovchinin landed and are unhurt after failure shortly after taking off one of the engines of the Soyuz rocket that was to transport them to the International Space Station (ISS).


“When the Soyuz MS-10 took off, an unusual situation arose. Rescue systems were activated, the ship landed in Kazakhstan. The crew is alive and the contact has been established with him, “the Russian space agency Roskosmos said in a statement.



Launch of Soyuz MS-10

Video above: A Soyuz-FG rocket launched the Soyuz MS-10 spacecraft with International Space Station Expedition 57-58 crew members, NASA astronaut Nick Hague and Roscosmos cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, on 11 October 2018, at 08 : 40 UTC (14:40 local time). Due to a booster error, the spacecraft entered a ballistic descends and the crew landed in Kazakhstan. Video Credits: Roscosmos TV / NASA TV.


“The rescue teams are heading to the landing zone of the Soyuz ship carrying the two men,” Nasa added on Twitter. A source in the Russian space sector, quoted by Ria Novosti, added that the two men “were not injured” after the failure of one of the engines of the Soyuz rocket that was to override the ISS.



Soyuz MS-10 launch

Video above: A Soyuz-FG rocket launched the Soyuz MS-10 spacecraft with International Space Station Expedition 57-58 crew members, NASA astronaut Nick Hague and Roscosmos cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, on 11 October 2018, at 08 : 40 UTC (14:40 local time). Due to a booster error, the spacecraft entered a ballistic descends and the crew landed in Kazakhstan. Video Credits: Roscosmos TV / NASA TV.


The Soyuz rocket, which was to take the two men on a six-month mission to the orbital station, failed about two minutes after taking off. “Throwing problem, two minutes and 45 seconds,” announced in a perfectly calm voice Alexey Ovchinin, captain of the rocket Soyuz, in the live broadcast of the takeoff.



Soyuz MS-10 escape capsule landing with both crew members safe and sound

“There was a problem with the engine a few seconds after the separation of the first stage of the rocket,” said NASA commentators, who broadcast the launch live.


According to an AFP photographer on the spot, the takeoff went well but “after the separation of the first floor, we had the impression that there was a kind of flash”. “Thank God they are alive,” Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov told reporters.


Roscosmos Press Release: https://www.roscosmos.ru/25594/


Related links:


Expedition 57: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition57/index.html


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images, Video, Text, Credits: ROSCOSMOS/NASA/AFP/ROSCOSMOS TV/NASA TV/SciNews/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Meteorite fall in Arizona on July 27th

It was a rainy, cloudy and lightening across most of the Arizona state on July 27th. Very few people saw the bright meteor that flew over Phoenix, AZ that night. The American Meteor Society has only received 12 reports about this event – mostly from Phoenix but also from Chandler, Queen Creek, Paulden, Tucson and Peoria. One of the witness reported a sonic boom associated to the event.


AMS Event#2624-2018 – Witnesses location and estimated ground trajectory

The event has been caught on video by the famous meteorite hunter Mike Farmer who’s now operating a camera of the AMS camera network.










Few days later, Cody Horvath from Glendale, AZ noticed the black rock standing out amid the tan gravel of his yard. The rock was a deep black, with a nice fusion crust…


AMS Event#2624-2018, Meteorite found by Cody Horvath © Cody Horvath

ASU professor Laurence Garvie, curator of the university’s Center for Meteorite Studies quickly confirmed it was an 85 grams ordinary chondrite – the 5th witnessed fall meteorite in Arizona. Some meteorites hunters hunted the area for few days but they have found no more pieces so far.


Even though the AMS only received 12 reports about this event, the meteorite has been found less than 5 miles away from the end of the estimated trajectory computed only based on the witness reports. Considering the first stone was found in a dense residential neighborhood everyone on this side of Phoenix should be checking their back yards for meteorites.


Meteorite Hunter and AMS Camera Operator Robert Ward with the Glendale Meteorite

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2018 October 11 West Coast Launch and Landing Image Credit…


2018 October 11


West Coast Launch and Landing
Image Credit & Copyright: John Kraus


Explanation: A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launch dazzled viewers along the U.S. west coast after sunset on October 7. Rising from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, planet Earth, the Falcon 9’s first stage then returned to a landing zone some 400 meters from the launch site less than 8 minutes after liftoff. Both launch and first stage landing (left) are captured in the frame of this two image stack, recorded by a stationary, sound-activated camera set up on a nearby hill. This Falcon 9 rocket delivered its payload, an Earth-observing satellite developed by Argentina’s national space agency, to low Earth orbit. Of course, the Falcon 9 first stage had flown before. Following a launch from Vandenberg on July 25 it was recovered after landing on the autonomous drone ship Just Read the Instructions.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap181011.html


HiPOD (10 October 2018): A Fresh Impact Near Airy Crater   –…



HiPOD (10 October 2018): A Fresh Impact Near Airy Crater


   – By “fresh,” we are speaking in geological terms, of course, as this impact did not occur in our lifetimes. But we can still see the rim and the ejecta around the crater fairly well. This is located just southeast of the 43-kilometer diameter Airy Crater. (268 km above the surface. Black and white is less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km.)


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


Meteor Activity Outlook for August 25-31, 2018

Perseids over Joshua Tree National Park, CA – August, 12 2018
© Richard Schneider – Canon EOS 5D Mark III, EF16-35mm f/4L IS USM, ƒ/4.0, 18.0 mm, 30s, ISO800

During this period the moon will reach its full phase on Sunday August 26th. At that time the moon will lie opposite of the sun in the sky and will remain above the horizon all night long. As the week progresses the waning gibbous moon will rise during the late evening hours with the moon severely hampering efforts to see meteor activity during the more active morning hours. The estimated total hourly meteor rates for evening observers this week is near 3 as seen from mid-northern latitudes and 2 as seen from subtropical southern latitudes (25S). For morning observers the estimated total hourly rates should be near 8 for those viewing from mid-northern latitudes and also 6 for those viewing from subtropical southern latitudes (25S). The actual rates will also depend on factors such as personal light and motion perception, local weather conditions, alertness and experience in watching meteor activity. Rates are reduced during this period due to moonlight. Note that the hourly rates listed below are estimates as viewed from dark sky sites away from urban light sources. Observers viewing from urban areas will see less activity as only the brighter meteors will be visible from such locations.


The radiant (the area of the sky where meteors appear to shoot from) positions and rates listed below are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning August 25/26. These positions do not change greatly day to day so the listed coordinates may be used during this entire period. Most star atlases (available at science stores and planetariums) will provide maps with grid lines of the celestial coordinates so that you may find out exactly where these positions are located in the sky. A planisphere or computer planetarium program is also useful in showing the sky at any time of night on any date of the year. Activity from each radiant is best seen when it is positioned highest in the sky, either due north or south along the meridian, depending on your latitude. It must be remembered that meteor activity is rarely seen at the radiant position. Rather they shoot outwards from the radiant so it is best to center your field of view so that the radiant lies near the edge and not the center. Viewing there will allow you to easily trace the path of each meteor back to the radiant (if it is a shower member) or in another direction if it is a sporadic. Meteor activity is not seen from radiants that are located far below the horizon. The positions below are listed in a west to east manner in order of right ascension (celestial longitude). The positions listed first are located further west therefore are accessible earlier in the night while those listed further down the list rise later in the night.





Radiant Positions at 22:00 LDT


Radiant Positions at 22:00

Local Daylight Saving Time






Radiant Positions at 01:00 LDT


Radiant Positions at 0100

Local Daylight Saving Time






Radiant Positions at 4:00 LDT


Radiant Positions at 04:00

Local Daylight Saving Time





These sources of meteoric activity are expected to be active this week.


Details on each source will continue next week when moonlight will not be such a factor.


 




































































SHOWER DATE OF MAXIMUM ACTIVITY CELESTIAL POSITION ENTRY VELOCITY CULMINATION HOURLY RATE CLASS
RA (RA in Deg.) DEC Km/Sec Local Daylight Saving Time North-South
Anthelions (ANT) 23:00 (345) -06 30 02:00 1 – 1 II
nu Eridanids (NUE) Sep 08 03:18 (050) +01 67 06:00 1 – 1 IV
eta Eridanids (ERI) Aug 11 03:48 (057) -08 65 07:00 1 – 1 IV
Aurigids (AUR) Sep 01 05:36 (084) +39 66 08:00 <1 – <1 II
Daytime zeta Cancrids (ZCA) Sep 03 08:35 (129) +13 42 11:00 <1 – <1 IV

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Roman Artefacts at The Yorkshire Museum, York, 7.10.18.









Roman Artefacts at The Yorkshire Museum, York, 7.10.18.


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Neanderthal-like features in 450,000-year-old fossil teeth from…


Neanderthal-like features in 450,000-year-old fossil teeth from the Italian Peninsula http://www.geologypage.com/2018/10/neanderthal-like-features-in-450000-year-old-fossil-teeth-from-the-italian-peninsula.html


Volcano researcher learns how Earth builds supereruption-feeding…


Volcano researcher learns how Earth builds supereruption-feeding magma systems http://www.geologypage.com/2018/10/volcano-researcher-learns-how-earth-builds-supereruption-feeding-magma-systems.html


GeoSEA array records sliding of Mount Etna’s southeastern flank…


GeoSEA array records sliding of Mount Etna’s southeastern flank http://www.geologypage.com/2018/10/geosea-array-records-sliding-of-mount-etnas-southeastern-flank.html


Oldest fossil of a flying squirrel sheds new light on its…


Oldest fossil of a flying squirrel sheds new light on its evolutionary tree http://www.geologypage.com/2018/10/oldest-fossil-of-a-flying-squirrel-sheds-new-light-on-its-evolutionary-tree.html


Arbeia Roman Fort, Villa and Herb Garden, South Shields, Newcastle upon Tyne









Arbeia Roman Fort, Villa and Herb Garden, South Shields, Newcastle upon Tyne


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Decorated Roman Sword from an Auxiliary Soldier at Arbeia Roman Fort, South Shields, Tyne...



Decorated Roman Sword from an Auxiliary Soldier at Arbeia Roman Fort, South Shields, Tyne and Wear


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NASA Analyzes Category 4 Hurricane Michael Approaching Landfall


NASA & NOAA – Suomi NPP satellite patch.


Oct. 10, 2018


Michael (Gulf of Mexico) 2018


NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite examined Hurricane Michael after it reached Category 4 status and neared the Florida Panhandle on Oct. 10. Suomi NPP provided an infrared and night-time view of the powerful storm.



Image above: NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite obtained a night-time view of Hurricane Michael in the Gulf of Mexico on Oct. 10 at 0732 UTC (2:32 a.m. CDT). At the time, Michael was a Category 4 hurricane and the eye was so well-defined it could be seen clearly by moonlight. Lights from population centers along the Gulf coast appear white. Image Credits: NASA/NOAA/UW-SSEC-CIMSS, William Straka III.


At 9 a.m. EDT on Oct. 10, water levels were quickly rising and winds increasing along the Florida panhandle as potentially catastrophic Michael approached.


Satellite Imagery Reveal


NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite obtained an infrared view of Hurricane Michael in the Gulf of Mexico on Oct. 10 at 0732 UTC (2:32 a.m. CDT). At the time, Michael was a Category 4 hurricane and the eye was so well-defined it could be seen clearly by moonlight. Infrared imagery revealed strong thunderstorms and tropospheric gravity waves in the northwest and western and eastern edges of the hurricane.



NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite. Image Credits: NASA/NOAA

National Hurricane Center forecaster Daniel Brown described Hurricane Michael in visible and infrared imagery, “Michael is an extremely impressive hurricane in visible and infrared satellite imagery this morning. The eye has continued to warm and become even more distinct, while remaining embedded within an area of very cold cloud tops.”


Many Warnings and Watches in Effect


NOAA’s National Hurricane Center has noted many warnings and watches in effect.



Image above: NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite obtained an infrared view of Hurricane Michael in the Gulf of Mexico on Oct. 10 at 0732 UTC (2:32 a.m. CDT). At the time, Michael was a Category 4 hurricane and the image revealed strong thunderstorms and tropospheric gravity waves in the northwest and western and eastern edges of the hurricane. Image Credits: NASA/NOAA/UW-SSEC-CIMSS, William Straka III.


A Storm Surge Warning is in effect for Okaloosa/Walton County Line, Florida to Anclote River, Florida. A Storm Surge Watch is in effect from Anclote River, Florida to Anna Maria Island Florida, including Tampa Bay. A Hurricane Warning is in effect from the Alabama/Florida border to Suwannee River, Florida. A Tropical Storm Warning is in effect from the Alabama/Florida border to the Mississippi/Alabama border and from Suwanee River Florida to Chassahowitzka, Florida and north of Fernandina Beach, Florida to Surf City, North Carolina. A Tropical Storm Watch is in effect from Chassahowitzka to Anna Maria Island, Florida, including Tampa Bay; from the Mississippi/Alabama border to the Mouth of the Pearl River; from Surf City, North Carolina to Duck, North Carolina, and for the Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds.


For updated forecasts, visit: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/


For local warnings and forecasts, visit: http://www.weather.gov/


NASA’s Suomi NPP satellite: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, by Rob Gutro.


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