четверг, 13 сентября 2018 г.

2018 September 13 Comet, Clusters and Nebulae Image Credit…


2018 September 13


Comet, Clusters and Nebulae
Image Credit & Copyright: Mohammad Nouroozi


Explanation: Bright enough for binocular viewing Comet 21P / Giacobini-Zinner stands out, even in this deep telephoto mosaic of the star cluster and nebula rich constellation Auriga the Charioteer. On the night of September 9 its greenish coma and diffuse tail contrast with the colorful stars and reddish emission nebulae in the almost 10 degree field of view along the Milky Way. The comet was near its perihelion and closest approach to Earth, about 200 light-seconds away. Riding across the distant background just above the comet’s tail are well-known Auriga star clusters M38 (left of center) and M36 (toward the right) about 4,000 light-years away. At the top left, emission region IC 405 is only 1,500 light-years distant, more dramatically known as the Flaming Star Nebula. To its right lies IC 410, 12,000 light-years away and famous for its star-forming cosmic tadpoles. A child of our Solar System Giacobini-Zinner is a periodic comet orbiting the Sun once every 6.5 years, and the parent body of October’s Draconids meteor shower.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180913.html


Keeping an Eye on Hurricance Florence

What do hurricanes look like from space? It depends on how

you look! We have satellites, cameras and instruments all working together to

give us the big picture of storms like Florence.


As the International Space Station passed over Hurricane

Florence
, astronauts and cameras on board got a look down into the hurricane’s

eye.




Our Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission sees

storms all around the planet by measuring rainfall. These measurements come from

a constellation of satellites working together, including some from our partner

organizations like the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).


image

On Sept. 7, our GPM core observatory satellite flew over

Florence, capturing a 3D image as the storm’s clouds started to break apart

before reforming.


image

Other NOAA satellites, like GOES, gather high-resolution, detailed

views of hurricanes, letting us peek into the eye of the storm.


image

Zooming out a bit, the Suomi-NPP satellite helps us track

Hurricane Florence, and the following tropical storms, as they move closer to

landfall or dissipate over the ocean.


image

From farther away (a

million miles from Earth!), the EPIC instrument on NOAA’s DSCOVR satellite

captured images of all three of these storms as they moved closer to North

America.


image

We use our space-based and airborne instruments to provide

innovative data on hurricanes to advance scientists’ understanding of these

storms. You can follow our latest views of Hurricane Florence here and get the

latest forecast from NOAA’s National Hurricane Center here.


Aeolus wows with first wind data


ESA – Aeolus Mission logo.


12 September 2018


Just one week after ESA’s Aeolus satellite shone a light on our atmosphere and returned a taster of what’s in store, this ground-breaking mission has again exceeded all expectations by delivering its first data on wind – a truly remarkable feat so early in its life in space.


Florence Rabier, Director General of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), said, “We always knew that Aeolus would be an exceptional mission, but these first results have really impressed us.



Winds imaged by Aeolus

“The satellite hasn’t even been in orbit a month yet, but the results so far look extremely promising, far better than anyone expected at this early stage.


“We are very proud to be part of the mission. Aeolus looks set to provide some of the most substantial improvements to our weather forecasts that we’ve seen over the past decade.”


ESA’s Aeolus mission scientist, Anne Grete Straume, explained, “These first wind data shown in the plot made by ECMWF are from one orbit. In the profile we can see large-scale easterly and westerly winds between Earth’s surface and the lower stratosphere, including jet streams.


“In particular, you can see strong winds, called the Stratospheric Polar Vortex, around the South Pole. These winds play an important role in the depletion of the ozone layer over the South Pole at this time of the year.”


Named after Aeolus, who in Greek mythology was appointed ‘keeper of the winds’ by the Gods, this novel mission is the fifth in the family of ESA’s Earth Explorers, which address the most urgent Earth-science questions of our time.


It carries the first instrument of its kind and uses a completely new approach to measuring the wind from space.



Earth’s wind patterns

ESA’s Earth Explorer Programme manager, Danilo Muzi, said, “Aeolus carries revolutionary laser technology to address one of the major deficits in the Global Observing System: the lack of direct global wind measurements.


“The essence of an Earth Explorer mission is to deliver data that advances our understanding of our home planet and that demonstrates cutting-edge space technology. With the first light measurements and now these amazing wind data, Aeolus has wowed us on both fronts.”



Ozone hole, Antarctica

ESA’s Aeolus instrument manager, Denny Wernham, noted, “These first results are truly amazing. It took years to develop this remarkable mission and everyone’s hard work is really paying off.


“Aeolus’ Aladin instrument is extremely sensitive. When we switched it on we increased its energy levels step by step, checking it after every move.


“It is indeed wonderful to see that it is behaving superbly so soon after launch.”



Keeper of the winds

Nicola Chamussy, Head of Airbus Space Systems, said, “These initial results look wonderful. Thanks to the meticulous preparatory work and testing, the mission is in really good shape. Our Aladin system engineer, Olivier Lecrenier, tells me that it has exceeded his best expectations.


“Huge congratulations to everyone involved in this world first.”


Related links:


Aeolus: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Aeolus


ECMWF: https://www.ecmwf.int/


Airbus Defence and Space: http://www.airbus.com/


DLR: http://www.dlr.de/dlr/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10002/


Centre Spatial de Liège: http://www.csl.uliege.be/jcms/c_5053/en/home


Leonardo: http://www.leonardocompany.com/en


Images, Text, Credits: ESA/ECMWF/AOES Medialab/KNMI–Temis/ATG medialab.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


NASA Satellites and Space Station Crew Watching Powerful Hurricane Florence



NASA & NOAA – Suomi NPP Mission patch / ISS – Expedition 56 Mission patch.


September 10, 2018


Florence (was Potential Tropical Cyclone 6) 2018


NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over the eye of powerful Category 4 Hurricane Florence and found the storm over 400 miles in diameter and the capability to generate very heavy rainfall.



Image above: On Sept. 12 at 2:12 a.m. EDT (0612 UTC) the VIIRS instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite captured an infrared image of powerful Hurricane Florence with a very distinct eye. Coldest cloud top temperatures (yellow) of strongest thunderstorms were in the eyewall, the area of thunderstorms surrounding the open eye. Those storms had cloud tops as cold as or colder than minus 80F/minus 62.2C. They were surrounded by powerful storms (red) with cloud tops as cold as minus 70F/minus 56.6C. Image Credits: NOAA/NASA/NRL.


At 8 a.m. EDT on Wednesday, Sept. 12, NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) warned “Dangerous Florence heading toward the U.S. southeast coast and is expected to bring life-threatening storm surge and rainfall to portions of the Carolinas and Mid-Atlantic States.”


Putting the Size and Surge of the Storm in Perspective


Florence is about 400 miles in diameter. For an understanding of how large the system is 400 miles is the distance from Baltimore, Maryland to Boston, Massachusetts.


This is a life-threatening situation. In some areas, the NHC said that storm surge could be as high as 13 feet, which is over the first floor of a house or building.


NHC said “Persons located within these areas should take all necessary actions to protect life and property from rising water and the potential for other dangerous conditions. Promptly follow evacuation and other instructions from local officials.” A Storm Surge Warning means there is a danger of life-threatening inundation, from rising water moving inland from the coastline, during the next 36 hours in the indicated locations.


Warnings and Watches: Storm Surge, Hurricane, Tropical Storm


 The warnings and watches are numerous from Virginia to South Carolina. A Storm Surge Warning and a Hurricane Warning are both in effect for South Santee River, South Carolina to Duck, North Carolina and the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, including the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers. A Storm Surge Watch and a Hurricane Watch is in effect for Edisto Beach, South Carolina to South Santee River, South Carolina.


A Tropical Storm Warning and Storm Surge Watch is in effect for north of Duck, North Carolina to the North Carolina/Virginia border. A Tropical Storm Watch is in effect for north of the North Carolina/Virginia border to Cape Charles Light, Virginia and for the Chesapeake Bay south of New Point Comfort.


A NASA Satellite View of a Massive Rainmaker


On Sept. 12 at 2:12 a.m. EDT (0612 UTC) the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite captured an infrared view of Florence (above). VIIRS infrared imagery showed that the eye of Florence remains very distinct. There has been little change to the cloud top temperatures surrounding the eye overnight. The VIIRS imagery also showed that the overall structure has become slightly more symmetric.



Suomi NPP satellite. Image Credits: NASA/NOAA

Coldest cloud top temperatures of strongest thunderstorms were in the eyewall, the area of thunderstorms surrounding the open eye. Those storms had cloud tops as cold as or colder than minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius). They were surrounded by powerful storms with cloud tops as cold as minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 degrees Celsius).


NASA research has shown that cloud top temperatures in excess of 63F/53C can produce heavy rainfall. Florence has a very wide area of storms where cloud tops are colder than that threshold, indicating that the storm has the capability to generate very heavy rainfall over a large area.


NHC said Florence is expected to produce heavy and excessive rainfall in the following areas:  Coastal North Carolina…20 to 30 inches, isolated areas may see 40 inches; South Carolina, western and northern North Carolina…5 to 10 inches, isolated areas may see 20 inches; Elsewhere in the Appalachians and Mid-Atlantic states…3 to 6 inches, isolated areas may see 12 inches.


Florence’s Status on Sept. 12 at 8 a.m. EDT


At 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC) on Sept. 12, the NHC said the eye of Hurricane Florence was located near latitude 29.4 degrees north and longitude 70.7 degrees west. That’s about 530 miles (855 km) southeast of Cape Fear, North Carolina.


Maximum sustained winds are near 130 mph (215 kph) with higher gusts.  Florence is a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. Hurricane-force winds extend outward up to 70 miles (110 km) from the center and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 175 miles (280 km).


Strengthening is forecast through tonight. While some weakening is expected on Thursday, Florence is forecast to be an extremely dangerous major hurricane when it nears the U.S. coast.


Florence’s Current Forecast Path


Florence is moving toward the west-northwest near 17 mph (28 kph), and this motion is expected to continue this morning. A motion toward the northwest is forecast to begin by this afternoon and continue through Thursday. Florence is expected to slow down considerably by late Thursday into Friday, and move slowly through early Saturday. On the forecast track, the center of Florence will move over the southwestern Atlantic Ocean between Bermuda and the Bahamas today, and approach the coast of North Carolina or South Carolina in the hurricane warning area on Thursday and Friday.


NHC forecasters caution that the path may change and residents along the southeastern U.S. coast should stay vigilant.


Stark View of Florence from ISS



Stark View of Hurricane Florence from ISS

Video above: A high definition camera outside the International Space Station captured a stark and sobering view of Hurricane Florence at 7:50 a.m. EDT on Sept. 12. NASA satellites track the storm: https://go.nasa.gov/2CEmDGQ This video was taken as Florence churned across the Atlantic in a west-northwesterly direction with winds of 130 miles an hour. The National Hurricane Center forecasts additional strengthening for Florence before it reaches the coastline of North Carolina and South Carolina early Friday, Sept. 14. Video Credit: NASA.


Images from the International Space Station



Image above: Tweet from Alexander Gerst, an EU scientist on the International Space Station: “#HurricaneFlorence is so enormous, we could only capture her with a super wide-angle lens from the @Space_Station, 400 km directly above the eye. ” Image Credit: NASA.



Image above: Alexnander Gerst an EU scientist on the ISS tweets this: “#HurricaneFlorence is so enormous, we could only capture her with a super wide-angle lens from the @Space_Station, 400 km directly above the eye. ” Image Credit: NASA.



Image above: Alexander Gerst’s image of Florence’s eye.  Image Credit: NASA


For updated forecasts, visit: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/


NASA’s Suomi NPP satellite: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/main/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, by Rob Gutro.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


HTV Launch Moves to Friday, Crew Looks at Life Science and Florence


ISS – Expedition 56 Mission patch.


September 12, 2018


JAXA’s (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) launch of its HTV-7 resupply ship to the International Space Station has been rescheduled to Friday. U.S. time. Meanwhile, the Expedition 56 crew members focused on life science and sent down imagery and video of Hurricane Florence on Wednesday.


Mission controllers in Japan have rescheduled the HTV-7’s launch to Friday at 4:59 p.m. EDT (5:59 a.m. Sept. 15 Japan standard time) due to weather in the Pacific. The JAXA cargo craft is now planned to deliver over five tons of food, fuel, crew supplies and new science gear to the station Tuesday, Sept. 18, at 7:25 a.m.



Image above: The Japanese HTV-6 cargo vehicle is seen during final approach to the International Space Station on Dec. 13, 2016. Image Credit: NASA.


In space, four Expedition 56 astronauts teamed up throughout Wednesday to study how living in space affects microbes living inside the gastrointestinal system of rodents. Results will help doctors devise plans and treatments to keep astronauts healthy on long-term missions in outer space.



Image above: Cameras outside the International Space Station captured a view of Hurricane Florence the morning of Sept. 12 as it churned across the Atlantic in a west-northwesterly direction with winds of 130 miles an hour. Image Credit: NASA.


In the Atlantic, Hurricane Florence is headed for the east coast of the United States and forecasted to gain strength before landfall early Friday. As the orbital lab flew 250 miles above the category four storm this morning, the crew took the opportunity to capture photo and video of Florence.


ISS Video of Florence
 



Hurricane Florence From Space on September 12

Video above: A high definition camera outside the International Space Station captured a stark and sobering view of Hurricane Florence at 7:50 a.m. EDT on Sept. 12. NASA satellites track the storm: https://go.nasa.gov/2CEmDGQ This video was taken as Florence churned across the Atlantic in a west-northwesterly direction with winds of 130 miles an hour. The National Hurricane Center forecasts additional strengthening for Florence before it reaches the coastline of North Carolina and South Carolina early Friday, Sept. 14. Video Credit: NASA.



Image above: Tweet from Alexander Gerst, an EU scientist on the International Space Station: “#HurricaneFlorence is so enormous, we could only capture her with a super wide-angle lens from the @Space_Station, 400 km directly above the eye. ” Image Credit: NASA.



Image above: Alexnander Gerst an EU scientist on the ISS tweets this: “#HurricaneFlorence is so enormous, we could only capture her with a super wide-angle lens from the @Space_Station, 400 km directly above the eye. ” Image Credit: NASA.



Image above: Alexander Gerst tweets: “Ever stared down the gaping eye of a category 4 hurricane? It’s chilling, even from space. #HurricaneFlorence #Horizons https://flic.kr/s/aHsmsk7Krv”. Image Credit: NASA.



Image above: Alexander Gerst’s tweet on Florence’s eye: “Ever stared down the gaping eye of a category 4 hurricane? It’s chilling, even from space. #HurricaneFlorence #Horizons https://flic.kr/s/aHsmsk7Krv ”. Image Credit: NASA.



Image above: Alexander Gerst’s image of Florence’s eye. Image  Credit: NASA.



Image above: ISS Astronaut Ricky Arnold tweets: “#HurricaneFlorence this morning with Cape Hatteras #NorthCarolina in the foreground. The crew of @Space_Station is thinking of those who will be affected.” Image Credit: NASA.


Related links:


Expedition 56: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition56/index.html


Gastrointestinal system of rodents: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7425


Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) HTV: http://global.jaxa.jp/projects/iss_human/index.html


Spacewalk: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/spacewalks


NASA TV: https://www.nasa.gov/nasatv


Space Station Research and Technology:  https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS):  https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


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Gastric Rings Developing in the stomach, gastric cancer (GC)…


Gastric Rings


Developing in the stomach, gastric cancer (GC) is the third deadliest cancer type worldwide. Treatment is complicated by the variability of the disease, classified into different types based on the phenotype of the tumours, their appearance and behaviour, and on their genotype, the genetic abnormalities linked to the disease. To explore this diversity in more detail, researchers used cells from GC patients to generate a suite of gastric organoids, aggregations of cells replicating the properties of stomach tissue, allowing them to study the many forms of GC in the laboratory. Microscopy reveals considerable variation in the structure of these organoids (pictured); for each one, cell nuclei are shown in blue, cytoskeleton actin fibres in green, and integrin, an attachment molecule, in red. Matching the genetic origins of GC tumours in these organoids to their morphology and their response to treatments should help us understand how to tackle this multi-faceted cancer.


Written by Emmanuelle Briolat



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Reconstructed Iron Age Roundhouse, Whithorn Museum and Priory, Whithorn, Dumfries and...








Reconstructed Iron Age Roundhouse, Whithorn Museum and Priory, Whithorn, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 9.9.18.


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Reconstructed Iron Age Roundhouse, Whithorn Museum and Priory, Dumfries and Galloway,...











Reconstructed Iron Age Roundhouse, Whithorn Museum and Priory, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 9.9.18.


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