среда, 12 сентября 2018 г.

A Galactic Gem

ESO – European Southern Observatory logo.

12 September 2018

ESO’s FORS2 instrument captures stunning details of spiral galaxy NGC 3981

A Galactic Gem

FORS2, an instrument mounted on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, has observed the spiral galaxy NGC 3981 in all its glory. The image was captured as part of the ESO Cosmic Gems Programme, which makes use of the rare occasions when observing conditions are not suitable for gathering scientific data. Instead of sitting idle, the ESO Cosmic Gems Programme allows ESO’s telescopes to be used to capture visually stunning images of the southern skies.

This wonderful image shows the resplendent spiral galaxy NGC 3981 suspended in the inky blackness of space. This galaxy, which lies in the constellation of Crater (the Cup), was imaged in May 2018 using the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT).

Digitized Sky Survey image around the spiral galaxy NGC 3981

FORS2 is mounted on Unit Telescope 1 (Antu) of the VLT at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile. Amongst the host of cutting-edge instruments mounted on the four Unit Telescopes of the VLT, FORS2 stands apart due to its extreme versatility. This ”Swiss Army knife” of an instrument is able to study a variety of astronomical objects in many different ways — as well as being capable of producing beautiful images like this one.

The sensitive gaze of FORS2 revealed NGC 3981’s spiral arms, strewn with vast streams of dust and star-forming regions, and a prominent disc of hot young stars. The galaxy is inclined towards Earth, allowing astronomers to peer right into the heart of this galaxy and observe its bright centre, a highly energetic region containing a supermassive black hole. Also shown is NGC 3981’s outlying spiral structure, some of which appears to have been stretched outwards from the galaxy, presumably due to the gravitational influence of a past galactic encounter.

NGC 3981 in the constellation of Crater

NGC 3981 certainly has many galactic neighbours. Lying approximately 65 million light years from Earth, the galaxy is part of the NGC 4038 group, which also contains the well-known interacting Antennae Galaxies. This group is part of the larger Crater Cloud, which is itself a smaller component of the Virgo Supercluster, the titanic collection of galaxies that hosts our own Milky Way galaxy.

NGC 3981 is not the only interesting feature captured in this image. As well as several foreground stars from our own galaxy, the Milky Way, FORS2 also captured a rogue asteroid streaking across the sky, visible as the faint line towards the top of the image. This particular asteroid has unwittingly illustrated the process used to create astronomical images, with the three different exposures making up this image displayed in the blue, green and red sections of the asteroid’s path.

Zooming into NGC 3981

This image was taken as part of ESO’s Cosmic Gems programme, an outreach initiative to produce images of interesting, intriguing or visually attractive objects using ESO telescopes, for the purposes of education and public outreach. The programme makes use of telescope time that cannot be used for science observations. In case the data collected could be useful for future scientific purposes, these observations are saved and made available to astronomers through ESO’s science archive.

Panning across NGC 3981

More information:

ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It has 15 Member States: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile and with Australia as a strategic partner. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer as well as two survey telescopes, VISTA working in the infrared and the visible-light VLT Survey Telescope. ESO is also a major partner in two facilities on Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre Extremely Large Telescope, the ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.


ESOCast 177 Light: A Galactic Gem: https://www.eso.org/public/videos/eso1830a/

ESO’s Cosmic Gems programme: https://www.eso.org/public/outreach/gems/

Images of the VLT: https://www.eso.org/public/images/archive/search/?adv=&subject_name=Very%20Large%20Telescope

ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT): https://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/paranal-observatory/vlt/

FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2): http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/vlt/vlt-instr/fors/

ESO’s Paranal Observatory: http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/paranal/

Images, Text, Credits: ESO/Calum Turner/Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin/IAU and Sky & Telescope/Videos: ESO/James Creasey/Digitized Sky Survey 2/N. Risinger (skysurvey.org). Music: Astral Electronic.

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link

‘Space debris – a journey to Earth’ nominated for design award

ESA – Clean Space logo.

12 September 2018

‘Space debris – a journey to Earth’ takes viewers on a voyage from the outer Solar System back to our home planet, passing some of the thousands of now defunct human-made objects that surround it. Produced for the 7th European Conference on Space Debris, this striking film has been shortlisted for the 2018 Beazley Designs of the Year exhibition at the Design Museum, London.

Reducing debris creation

In a collaboration between ESA, ID&Sense and ONiRiXEL, ‘Space debris — a journey to Earth’ looks at how past decisions in space have affected our ability to make use of this finite resource, limiting the future potential of space exploration unless we take action to counter the problem today.

Space debris includes all human-made, non-functioning objects in orbit around Earth, some of which regularly re-enter the atmosphere. As of the end of 2017, it was determined that 19 894 observable bits of space junk were circling our planet, with a combined mass of at least 8135 tonnes – that’s more mass than the entire metal structure of the Eiffel Tower.

Space debris

Originally designed to explore the universe, these remnants of past exploration are now a challenge for modern space flight. ‘Space debris — a journey to Earth’ takes a closer look at different regions around our planet, the ‘junk’ that inhabits them, and its effect on the present and future use of space.

The shortlisted film will be on display from 12 September 2018 – 6 January 2019 at the Beazley Designs of the Year exhibition at the Design Museum, London, alongside fascinating debris-related artefacts to accompany it. Winners will be announced in November.

Clean Space’s e.Deorbit mission

Space debris — a journey to Earth’ can be viewed here: https://www.esa.int/spaceinvideos/Videos/2017/04/Space_debris_2017_-_a_journey_to_Earth

For more information on the Beazley Designs of the Year visit the website and follow #BeazleyDesignsoftheYear on twitter. https://designmuseum.org/exhibitions/beazley-designs-of-the-year-2018

Related links:

Design Museum: https://designmuseum.org/

Space Debris: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Operations/Space_Debris

Clean Space: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Engineering_Technology/Clean_Space

Space Situational Awareness: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Operations/Space_Situational_Awareness

Animation, Images, Text, Credits: ESA/David Ducros/CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO.

Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link

2018 September 12 Lunations Video Credit: Data: Lunar…

2018 September 12

Video Credit: Data: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter ; Animation: NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio;
Music: The Blue Danube (Johann Strauss II)

Explanation: Our Moon’s appearance changes nightly. As the Moon orbits the Earth, the half illuminated by the Sun first becomes increasingly visible, then decreasingly visible. The featured video animates images taken by NASA’s Moon-orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to show all 12 lunations that appear this year, 2018. A single lunation describes one full cycle of our Moon, including all of its phases. A full lunation takes about 29.5 days, just under a month (moon-th). As each lunation progresses, sunlight reflects from the Moon at different angles, and so illuminates different features differently. During all of this, of course, the Moon always keeps the same face toward the Earth. What is less apparent night-to-night is that the Moon’s apparent size changes slightly, and that a slight wobble called a libration occurs as the Moon progresses along its elliptical orbit.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180912.html

Круги на поле 13 августа 2018 Англия

Avars and Longobards

Most of the “barbarians” from today’s Amorim et al. paper have made it into the Global25 datasheets. Look for the samples with Collegno and Szolad in their labels. Same links as always…

Global 25 datasheet (scaled)
Global 25 datasheet
Global 25 pop averages (scaled)
Global 25 pop averages

Here’s my usual Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of West Eurasian variation with the same individuals. As seen in the paper, the two females from Avar burials are very European indeed, with no hints of any recent Asian ancestry. The relevant datasheet is available here.

And this is my Global25-derived North European PCA featuring a subset of these samples that plotted firmly with present-day populations from north of the Alps, Balkans and Pyrenees. The aforementioned Avars (red dots) are sitting within the Polish cluster. The relevant datasheet is available here.

See also…
First real foray into Migration Period Europe: the Gepid, Roman, Ostrogoth and others


Chapel Finian, nr. Port William, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 9.9.18.Chapel Finian, a...

Chapel Finian, nr. Port William, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 9.9.18.

Chapel Finian, a 10th century chapel and one of the first sites of Christian worship in the UK. This simple building with its well (Image 6) greeted pilgrims travelling to the shores in western Scotland.

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Exploring the Solar System? You May Need to Pack an Umbrella

NASA – Adaptable Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) logo.

Sept. 11, 2018

Image above: Adaptable Deployable Entry Placement Technology or ADEPT. Image Credits: NASA Ames Research Center.

Gearing up for its first flight test, NASA’s Adaptable Deployable Entry Placement Technology, or ADEPT, is no ordinary umbrella. ADEPT is a foldable device that opens to make a round, rigid heat shield, called an aeroshell. This game-changing technology could squeeze a heat shield into a rocket with a diameter larger than the rocket itself. The design may someday deliver much larger payloads to planetary surfaces than is currently possible.

Spacecraft typically approach planets at speeds tens of thousands of miles per hour —screaming fast. Entering a planet’s atmosphere at those speeds compresses atmospheric gas, creating pressure shock and generating intense heat right in front of the spacecraft.

Image above: Twin ADEPT units include a flight unit for the first flight test on Sept. 12 and a spare. The units are shown fully deployed. The heat shields measure 28 inches in diameter. This test configuration includes a payload that is sized to approximate a 3U, or three unit, CubeSat, about 12 by 4 by 4 inches. This design could be adapted to build larger heat shields to support larger payloads. Image Credits: NASA Ames Research Center/Dominic Hart.

Aeroshells slow spacecraft during entry and shield them from heat. ADEPT could be key to future NASA missions that require extra-large aeroshells to protect spacecraft destined to land on the surface of other planets, all without requiring larger rockets.

Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT)

Video Credits: NASA Ames Research Center.

ADEPT’s first flight test is scheduled for Sept. 12 from Spaceport America in New Mexico aboard an UP Aerospace suborbital SpaceLoft rocket. ADEPT will launch in a stowed configuration, resembling a folded umbrella, and then separate from the rocket in space and unfold 60 miles above Earth.

The test will last about 15 minutes from launch to Earth return. The peak speed during the test is expected to be three times the speed of sound, about 2,300 miles per hour. That is not fast enough to generate significant heat during descent, but the purpose of the test is to observe the initial sequence of ADEPT’s deployment and assess aerodynamic stability while the heat shield enters Earth’s atmosphere and falls to the recovery site.

Image above: Brandon Smith, ADEPT principal investigator, and Joseph William, system engineer, in the entry systems and vehicle development lab at Ames perform final checks to the first ADEPT flight unit prior to a deployment test. Image Credits: NASA Ames Research Center/Dominic Hart.

“For a deployable like ADEPT, you can do ground-based testing, but ultimately, a flight test demonstrates end-to-end functionality – surviving launch environments, deploying in zero gravity and the vacuum of space, holding that rigid shape and then entering, in our case, Earth’s atmosphere,” said Paul Wercinski, ADEPT project manager at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley.

This umbrella-like mechanical aeroshell design uses flexible 3D woven carbon fabric skin stretched over deployable ribs and struts, which become rigid when fully flexed. The carbon fabric skin covers its structural surface, and serves as the primary component of the entry, descent and landing thermal protection system.

“Carbon fabric has been the major recent breakthrough enabling this technology, as it utilizes pure carbon yarns that are woven three-dimensionally to give you a very durable surface,” said Wercinski. “Carbon is a wonderful material for high temperature applications.”

Image above: Paul Wercinski, ADEPT project manager and Cole Kazemba, ADEPT system engineer, attach the woven carbon fabric skin to the ribs of an early version of ADEPT in the assembly lab at Ames. Image  Credits: NASA Ames Research Center/ Eric James.

The next steps for ADEPT are to develop and conduct a test for an Earth entry at higher “orbital” speeds, roughly 17,000 miles per hour, to support maturing the technology with an eye towards Venus, Mars or Titan, and also returning lunar samples back to Earth.

The ADEPT aeroshell heat shield technology was developed at Ames. The center leads the agency in the development and innovation of thermal protection system technologies.

Foldable Heat Shield Could Help NASA Deliver Much Bigger Cargo to Deep Space

Video Credits: NASA Ames Research Center.

ADEPT was funded by the Space Technology Mission Directorate’s (STMD) Game Changing Development program. The flight test was funded by STMD’s Flight Opportunities program, managed at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. Through both programs, NASA supports promising technologies from government, industry and academia for development and/or testing. UP Aerospace, based in Highlands Ranch, Colorado, is the flight provider.

To follow the ADEPT project at Ames, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/ames

Adaptable Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT): https://gameon.nasa.gov/adept-sr-1/

Space Technology Mission Directorate’s (STMD): http://nasa.gov/spacetech

Images (mentioned), Videos (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Ames Research Center/Kimberly Minafra and Gianine Figliozzi.

Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link

Almost 500 Explosions Found in Galaxy Cores

This light curve shows the change in brightness of a transient named GNTJ233855.86+433916.86. The colours of the data points indicate which of Gaia’s two fields of view is used. Credit: Zuzanna Kostrzewa-Rutkowska. Large format: [ PNG ]. 

Apart from a billion Milky Way stars, ESA’s Gaia spacecraft also observes extragalactic objects. Its automated alert system notifies astronomers whenever Gaia spots a transient event. A team of astronomers from SRON, Radboud University and the University of Cambridge have found out that by tweaking the existing automated system, Gaia can be used to detect hundreds of peculiar transients in the centres of galaxies. They found about 480 transients over a period of about a year. Their new method will be implemented in the system as soon as possible allowing astronomers to determine the nature of these events. 

In 2013, ESA launched its Gaia spacecraft to measure the location of a billion stars in our Milky Way and tens of millions of galaxies. Each position on the sky enters Gaia’s view once every month, for a total of about seventy times during the mission. This allows the spacecraft to spot transient events, such as supermassive black holes ripping stars apart or stars exploding as a supernova. Gaia will notice a change in brightness when it returns to the same patch of sky a month later. 

Astronomers Zuzanna Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Peter Jonker, Simon Hodgkin and others searched the Gaia database for transient events around the nuclei of galaxies in the period between July 2016 and June 2017. They used a galaxy catalogue – from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Release 12 – and a custom-made mathematical tool. The new tool allows the researchers to identify rare luminous events coming from galactic centers. Of the 480 events found, only five had been picked up previously by the alert system. 

Rapidly alerting the astronomical community is key for following up many of the events found. For about one hundred transients nothing out of the ordinary was observed by Gaia during the months before and after detection, indicating that the event leading to the enhanced emission of light was short. 

“Such events have great value because they could allow astronomers to study for a brief period previously invisible supermassive black holes”, says Jonker. “Especially the short-duration events could point us to the location of the so far elusive intermediate-mass black holes ripping stars apart.” 

The leading explanation for most events is that supermassive black holes residing in the nuclei of galaxies suddenly become much more active as the amount of gas falling into the black hole surges and lights up the close environment of the black hole. This fresh fuel may be extracted from a star which is ripped apart by the enormous gravitational pull of the black hole. 

Zuzanna Kostrzewa-Rutkowska and Peter Jonker have recently started a dense campaign to decipher the nature of the 480 new transients using the William Herschel Telescope.

More information:

Z. Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, P.G. Jonker, S.T. Hodgkin, L. Wyrzykowski, M. Fraser, D.L. Harrison, G. Rixon, A. Yoldas, F. van Leeuwen, A. Delgado, M. van Leeuwen, S. E. Koposov, 2018, “Gaia transients in galactic nuclei”, MNRAS, 481, 307 [ ADS ].

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Largs Viking Festival Village, Largs, Scotland, 8.9.18.Thanks to everyone who made the...

Largs Viking Festival Village, Largs, Scotland, 8.9.18.

Thanks to everyone who made the Viking village such a brilliant place to be on Saturday.

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Barsalloch Iron Age Promontory Fort, nr. Port William, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland,...

Barsalloch Iron Age Promontory Fort, nr. Port William, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 9.9.18.

A raised promontory fort facing out to sea which featured a number of roundhouses and a defensive ditch.

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New HTV Launch Date Adjusts Spacewalk Dates as Science Continues

ISS – Expedition 56 Mission patch.

September 11, 2018

JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has rescheduled the launch of its HTV-7 resupply ship to the International Space Station to Thursday, U.S. time. As a result of the new launch and arrival dates for the HTV-7, the target dates for a pair of maintenance spacewalks have been adjusted as well.

More than five tons of food, fuel, crew supplies and new science gear is due to launch Thursday at 5:21 p.m. EDT from the Tanegashima Space Center in southern Japan. The HTV-7 with the space cargo will take a 3-1/2 day ride to the orbital laboratory where it will be captured Monday with the Canadarm2 robotic arm around 6:50 a.m. It will then be installed on the station’s Harmony module around three hours later. NASA TV will broadcast all the activities live.

Image above: NASA astronauts Serena Auñón-Chancellor and Drew Feustel work a pair of different experiments aboard the International Space Station. Image Credit: NASA.

The HTV-7 is also delivering six new lithium-ion batteries to the station which will be the focus of the upcoming spacewalk activity. Robotics controllers will remove the new batteries from the HTV-7 and install them on the Port 4 truss structure. Then astronauts Alexander Gerst and Drew Feustel will begin the final battery hookup work on the first of two spacewalks on Sept. 23. Gerst will go outside a second time with spacewalker Ricky Arnold on Sept. 29 to complete the battery hookups.

Gerst, Feustel and Arnold spent a couple of hours today reviewing their upcoming spacewalk procedures and discussing their concerns with specialists on the ground. Flight Engineer Serena Auñón-Chancellor cleaned the trio’s spacesuits’ cooling loops and refilled the suits’ water tanks.

Image above: Astronaut Ricky Arnold working on spacesuits, image captured by Roland Berga (on Earth in Switzerland) from International Space Station (ISS) using ISS-HD Live application with EarthCam’s from ISS on September 11, 2018 at 18:30 UTC. Image Credits: Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

The entire Expedition 56 crew did manage to conduct a variety of science experiments exploring biology and physics in microgravity. The astronauts researched how mice adapt to space and swabbed their own bodies to collect microbe samples for analysis.  The crew also studied liquid atomization and the composition of meteorites entering Earth’s atmosphere.

Related links:

Expedition 56: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition56/index.html

Spacewalk: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/spacewalks

NASA TV: https://www.nasa.gov/nasatv

Microbe samples: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1663

How mice adapt to space: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7425

Liquid atomization: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=282

Meteorites entering Earth’s atmosphere: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=1174

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

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NASA’s SDO Spots 2 Lunar Transits in Space

NASA – Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) patch.

Sept. 11, 2018

On Sept. 9, 2018, NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO, saw two lunar transits as the Moon passed in front of the Sun. A transit happens when a celestial body passes between a larger body and an observer. This first lunar transit lasted one hour, from 4:30 pm to 5:30 p.m. EDT and obscured 92 percent of the Sun at the peak of its journey. The second transit happened several hours later at 9:52 p.m. and lasted a total of 49 minutes, ending at 10:41 p.m. EDT. This transit only obscured 34 percent of the Sun at its peak. 

Watch the movie here to see how — from SDO’s perspective — the Moon appears to go in one direction and then switch direction to cross the Moon again. The Moon does not, of course, actually change direction, but it appears to do so from SDO’s perspective based on the fact that the spacecraft’s orbit essentially catches up and passes the Moon during the first transit.

Because the Moon does not have an atmosphere, when a lunar transit occurs no light from the Sun gets distorted, allowing for a distinct view of the Moon’s surface. Although it looks smooth from far away, the surface of the Moon is rugged, sprinkled with craters, valleys and mountains.

SDO captured these images in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light that shows solar material heated to more than 10 million degrees Fahrenheit. Extreme ultraviolet light is typically invisible to the human eye, but satellites like SDO allow us to observe the swirling movement in the Sun’s atmosphere visible only in these wavelengths.

SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory): http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sdo/main/index.html

Image, Animation, Text,  Credits: NASA/Rob Garner/Susie Darling/Goddard/SDO.

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2200-year-old tomb unearthed in ancient Aizanoi, western Anatolia

Turkish archaeologists have unearthed a 2,200-year-old tomb during their excavation works in an ancient city of Aizanoi in the country’s west.

2200-year-old tomb unearthed in ancient Aizanoi, western Anatolia
Credit: AA

Speaking to Anadolu Agency, Prof. Dr. Elif Ozer, chief of the excavation works in Aizanoi, said that important findings pertaining to funerary practices were discovered in the ancient city’s necropolis.
“We understood that people living in the second and first centuries BC in Aizanoi were buried after being cremated. These tombs are nearly 2,200 years old.”, she said.

The archaeologists added that among the finds in one tomb was a jar which once contained an eye cream called ‘lykion’. The eye cream was used for ‘xerophthalmia’ (eye dryness).

2200-year-old tomb unearthed in ancient Aizanoi, western Anatolia
Credit: AA

“We know this jar was used for keeping eye cream during Roman times,” she said, adding that the raw plant which was used to treat eye dryness could still be found in Lycia, in southern Asia Minor, until the end of 18th century and also India.
“Ancient sources say that Roman soldiers in Egypt used eye cream for eye dryness. We found this jar in a male’s tomb believed to be a soldier,” soldiers,” Ozer said.

Relatives of the deceased probably put this jar into the man’s grave to use in the after-life Ozer added.

She said the jar is now displayed in Kutahya Archaeology Museum.

Located in western Turkish province of Kutahya, the Aizanoi ancient city was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List in 2012.

Source: Anadolu Agency [September 06, 2018]



39 Parthian, Sassanid graves discovered in northern Iran

39 ancient graves were discovered during the fourth season of the field research in the ancient enclosure of Liar Sang bon in Amlash, in Iran’s northeastern Gilan Province.

39 Parthian, Sassanid graves discovered in northern Iran

39 Parthian, Sassanid graves discovered in northern Iran
Credit: IRNA

Vali Jahani, head of the exploration team, was quoted by the Public Relations Office of the Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism (RICHT) as saying that explorations were conducted in four areas.

The archaeologist said the discovered graves involve pit, crypt and jar burials and that characteristics of the objects found at the site show the time period of the mid-Parthian to the middle Sassanid periods. He added that C14 tests also confirmed this .

Referring to the history of archaeological study and exploration in the area, Jahani said the area had been explored in previous years and valuable cultural data from those period had been identified.

He further remarked that, generally speaking, the research  carried out so far on the burial site illustrate the regional and trans-regional contact of the inhabitants with various regional cultures, such as the tribes living in the northern shores of the Caspian Sea and steppes of southern Russia or modern Armenia, especially during the Parthian period.

Source: Islamic Republic News Agency [September 06, 2018]




https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...