пятница, 7 сентября 2018 г.

Гриб Мухомор красный Mushroom Amanita muscaria

https://rumble.com/embed/u7bmu.v3qjmn/
 Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом.
  Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits.Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits. Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits. Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits. Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits. Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits. Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits.       Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits. Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits.
.Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits.
 Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits. Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits. Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом. Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had a religious significance in local culture. Shamans of Ob Ugrians also ate fly agaric to reach trance. Mordva and the Mari considered the fly agaric food of the gods and spirits.
Мухомор красный использовался как опьяняющее вещество и энтеоген в Сибири и имел религиозное значение в местной культуре. Шаманы обских угров также ели мухоморы чтобы достичь транса. Мордва и марийцы считали мухоморы пищей богов и духов. Мухомор красный (лат. Amanita muscaria) — ядовитый психоактивный гриб рода Мухомор, или Аманита (лат. Amanita) порядка агариковых (лат. Agaricales), относится к базидиомицетам.Плодовое тело гриба содержит ряд токсичных соединений, некоторые из которых обладают психотропным эффектом. Содержит Мусцимол — основное психоактивное вещество. Обладает седативно-гипнотическим, диссоциативным эффектом.

Source: Гриб Мухомор красный Mushroom Amanita muscaria by Weathernature

Норвежская лайка идёт по следам Хозяина

Source: Пёс идёт по следам хозяина Dog jumps over the water by Weathernature
 Тольятти, прибрежная полоса реки Волга, Россия. Пёс идёт по следам хозяина, ступая по воде, идя по камням, по тем же по которым шёл хозяин.
 Порода Норвежский чёрный элкхунд или норвежская чёрная лосиная лайка (норв. norsk elghund sort), — порода шпицеобразных охотничьих собак, выведенная в Норвегии, разновидность норвежского серого элкхунда, отличающаяся меньшим размером и окрасом, но имеющая собственный стандарт. Название происходит от elg (с норв. — «лось») и hund (с норв. — «собака»). Используется для охоты на лося и других копытных.

  Тольятти, прибрежная полоса реки Волга, Россия. Пёс идёт по следам хозяина, ступая по воде, идя по камням, по тем же по которым шёл хозяин. Порода Норвежский чёрный элкхунд или норвежская чёрная лосиная лайка (норв. norsk elghund sort), — порода шпицеобразных охотничьих собак, выведенная в Норвегии, разновидность норвежского серого элкхунда, отличающаяся меньшим размером и окрасом, но имеющая собственный стандарт. Название происходит от elg (с норв. — «лось») и hund (с норв. — «собака»). Используется для охоты на лося и других копытных.
 The dog follows the owner's footsteps A dog of mixed breed, his father Norwegian lundehund mother Siberian Laika. The owner of the dog is Pasha, the dog's name is Sayan. The Black Norwegian Elkhound (Norsk Elghund Svart) is a modern variant of the Grey Norwegian Elkhound. It is a small Spitz breed and is very rare outside the Nordic countries of Scandinavia.

 https://rumble.com/embed/u7bmu.v3qj69/

Прогулка по берегу


Source: Walking along the beach with a dog by Weathernature

Камера на ошейнике

Source: Dog from the first person by Weathernature

Glacier Turns into a ‘Snow Swamp’

In just four days this summer, miles of snow melted from

Lowell Glacier in Canada. Mauri Pelto, a glaciologist at Nichols College,

called the area of water-saturated snow a “snow swamp.”


image

These false-color images

show the rapid snow melt in Kluane National Park in the Yukon Territory. The

first image was taken on July 22, 2018, by the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2;

the next image was acquired on July 26, 2018, by the Landsat 8 satellite.


Ice is shown as light blue, while meltwater is dark blue. On

July 26, the slush covered more than 25 square miles (40 square km).


During those four days, daily temperatures 40 miles (60 km)

northeast of the glacier reached 84 degrees Fahrenheit (29 degrees Celsius) —

much higher than normal for the region in July.


Read more: https://go.nasa.gov/2Q9JSeO



Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


2018 September 7 Saturn’s North Polar Hexagon Image…


2018 September 7


Saturn’s North Polar Hexagon
Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, Space Science Institute, Hampton University


Explanation: In full view, the amazing six-sided jet stream known as Saturn’s north polar hexagon is shown in this colorful Cassini image. Extending to 70 degrees north latitude, the false-color video frame is map-projected, based on infrared, visible, and ultraviolet image data recorded by the Saturn-orbiting spacecraft in late 2012. First found in the outbound Voyager flyby images from the 1980s, the bizarre, long-lived feature tied to the planet’s rotation is about 30,000 kilometers across. At its center lies the ringed gas giant’s hurricane-like north polar storm. A new long term study of Cassini data has found a remarkable higher-altitude vortex, exactly matching the outlines of the north polar hexagon, that formed as summer approached the planet’s northern hemisphere. It appears to reach hundreds of kilometers above these deeper cloud tops, into Saturn’s stratosphere.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180907.html


Bone cells round trip to space, rinse and repeat


ESA / DLR – Columbus Laboratory patch.


6 September 2018


The bones in your body are constantly dissolving – but don’t worry, healthy people naturally create new cells daily to repair and keep your bones strong. This process of disappearing bone is called osteoclast and its rebuilding at the cellular level is called osteoblast.


For most people this natural cycle happens continuously without us being aware of it. For astronauts and people suffering from osteoporosis something hampers the creation of bone-forming cells, causing their bones to slowly waste away and become more fragile.



Alexander Gerst exercising on Space Station

On average astronauts in space lose 1% bone density a month due to living in weightlessness. Astronauts recuperate back on Earth but sending humans to explore our Solar System on long missions poses serious problems. They might not be able to withstand the gravity on a distant planet after months of travelling through space.


For researchers trying to understand the phenomenon, studying how bones react to spaceflight is crucial. It offers a way to research immediate changes that take weeks to manifest on Earth.


Growing bones in microgravity


The InVitroBone research teams from Italy and France sent the facility into space on the SpaceX Dragon cargo ferry to the International Space Station. The facility is the size of a desk drawer and held two sets of three experiments that monitored bone cells as they reacted to spaceflight in different conditions.


The less time the bone cells spent on Earth, the better for the scientific results, so the researchers had to get everything ready for the last possible moment – 32 hours before liftoff. Working backwards from that moment required careful planning, coordination and practice.



InVitroBone preparation

The consortium  wanted to see if the Irisin protein that has been found to increase bone and muscle growth on Earth works in space too. The results can give clues to how the protein works and might one day be used by astronauts to help them stay healthy. Other experiments looked at how human stem cells turn into bone-forming cells – or adipocytes – in microgravity, this is fundamental to understand what is happening in astronaut’s bones.


The facility is automated, requiring only electricity to run, so astronauts simply moved it from Dragon’s cargo hold to the US Destiny laboratory during its 35-day stay in space. Inside, the cells were fed with fluids at set times all while being monitored from Earth.


Science on a timer


After circling Earth over 500 times the experiment was retrieved after the Dragon splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. From there the equipment was shipped to the payload manufacturer in Canada for refurbishment and the science samples were sent back to each of the science labs for detailed analysis. As a follow-up, the mission hardware and science went through preparations for a reference test at ESA’s Life, Physical Sciences and  Life Support Laboratory at its ESTEC technical centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands.



Dragon spacecraft

The researchers recreated the exact same experiment – minus the microgravity – as a control study to compare results. Preparing the cells, structure, syringes, fluids and so on is a painstaking job that needs to be done meticulously for scientific value.


“Preparing samples in a lab with petri dishes is easy compared to getting everything ready for space where we cannot touch our experiments once launched” says ESA payload manager Nadine Boersma, “avoiding contamination and bubbles in the equipment is hard.”



InVitroBone facility

The experiments have now completed their session on Earth with the researchers already thinking of expanding the study by running the experiments in hypergravity in ESA’s short-arm centrifuge.


ESA’s head of human research, Jennifer Ngo-Anh concludes: “The InVitroBone experiment is a showcase of how ESA covers many interesting topics that are relevant for space but also on Earth, combining science from space exploration as well as science that enables space exploration. There are many applications that stem from space research that have already led to cross-cutting societal and economic benefits and the results from In Vitro Bone will contribute to these.”


Related links:


Human Spaceflight: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight


Experiment archive: http://eea.spaceflight.esa.int/


International Space Station Benefits for Humanity: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/International_Space_Station_Benefits_for_Humanity


European space laboratory Columbus: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/Columbus


Images, Text, Credits: ESA/A. Conigli/NASA.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Astronauts Swap Roles as Scientists, Spacewalkers and Robotics Controllers


ISS – Expedition 56 Mission patch.


September 6, 2018


September is gearing up to be a very busy month aboard the International Space Station. The six Expedition 56 crew members are headlong in the first week of the month switching roles and juggling a wide variety of critical tasks.


Flight Engineer Ricky Arnold of NASA has been swapping roles today as space scientist and spacewalker. The educator-astronaut sequenced RNA today from microbes swabbed from inside the orbital lab’s surfaces. The research is helping scientists understand how life adapts to microgravity providing insights to improve crew health.



Image above: NASA astronaut Ricky Arnold works on an experiment that extracts RNA from biological samples to help researchers decipher the changes in gene expression that take place in microgravity. Image Credit: NASA.


Arnold then joined his fellow crew mates, Commander Drew Feustel of NASA and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of ESA, at the end of the day for a review of two spacewalks scheduled for Sept. 20 and 26. The trio reviewed robotics maneuvers and other tasks required for the external battery maintenance work on the Port 4 truss structure at the end of the month.


Feustel also trained for his role as the prime robotics controller when he captures JAXA’s (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) HTV-7 cargo craft with the Canadarm2 robotic arm on Sept. 14. JAXA’s seventh resupply ship to visit the space station is due to launch Monday at 6:32 p.m. EDT.



Image above: The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA) unpiloted H-II Transport Vehicle-6 (HTV-6) makes its final approach to the International Space Station Dec. 13, 2016. Image Credit: NASA.


From inside the cupola, Feustel will command the Canadarm2 to reach out and grapple the HTV-7 as Flight Engineer Serena Auñón-Chancellor backs him up next Friday at 7:40 a.m. Gerst and Auñón-Chancellor both joined Feustel for the robotics training today during their afternoon.


Related article:


NASA Television to Air Launch, Capture of Japanese Cargo Ship to Space Station
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-television-to-air-launch-capture-of-japanese-cargo-ship-to-space-station


Related links:


Expedition 56: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition56/index.html


Sequenced RNA: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7687


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Cosmic Collision Forges Galactic One Ring—in X-rays


NASA – Chandra X-ray Observatory patch.


Sept. 6, 2018



Astronomers have used NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory to discover a ring of black holes or neutron stars in a galaxy 300 million light years from Earth.


This ring, while not wielding power over Middle Earth, may help scientists better understand what happens when galaxies smash into one another in catastrophic impacts.


In this new composite image of the galaxy AM 0644-741 (AM 0644 for short), X-rays from Chandra (purple) have been combined with optical data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope (red, green, and blue). The Chandra data reveal the presence of very bright X-ray sources, most likely binary systems powered by either a stellar-mass black hole or neutron star, in a remarkable ring. The results are reported in a new paper led by Anna Wolter from INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera in Milano, Italy.


Where did the ring of black holes or neutron stars in AM 0644 come from? Astronomers think that it was created when one galaxy was pulled into another galaxy by the force of gravity. The first galaxy generated ripples in the gas of the second galaxy, AM 0644, located in the lower right. These ripples then produced an expanding ring of gas in AM 0644 that triggered the birth of new stars. The first galaxy is possibly the one located in the lower left of the image.


The most massive of these fledgling stars will lead short lives — in cosmic terms — of millions of years. After that, their nuclear fuel is spent and the stars explode as supernovas leaving behind either black holes with masses typically between about five to twenty times that of the Sun, or neutron stars with a mass approximately equal to that of the Sun.


Some of these black holes or neutron stars have close companion stars, and siphon gas from their stellar partner. This gas falls towards the black hole or neutron star, forming a spinning disk like water circling a drain, and becomes heated by friction. This superheated gas produces large amounts of X-rays that Chandra can detect.


While a ring of black holes or neutron stars is intriguing in itself, there is more to the story of AM 0644. All of the X-ray sources detected in the ring of AM 0644 are bright enough to be classified as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). This is a class of objects that produce hundreds to thousands of times more X-rays than most “normal” binary systems in which a companion star is in orbit around a neutron star or black hole. Until recently most astronomers thought that ULXs generally contained stellar-mass black holes, with the possible presence in some cases of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) that contain over a hundred times the mass of the Sun. However, this thinking was overturned when a few ULXs in other galaxies, including M82 and M51, were found to contain neutron stars.



Chandra X-ray Observatory

Several other explanations besides IMBHs have been suggested for the intense X-ray emission of ULXs. They include unusually rapid growth of the black hole or neutron star, or geometrical effects arising from the funneling of infalling material along magnetic field lines.


The identity of the individual ULXs in AM 0644 is currently unknown. They may be a mixture of black holes and neutron stars, and it is also possible that they are all black holes or all neutron stars.


Not all of the X-ray sources in the image are located in the ring of AM 0644. One of the sources is a rapidly growing black hole that’s located well behind the galaxy at a distance of 9.1 billion light years from Earth. Another intriguing source detected by Chandra is a growing supermassive black hole located at the center of the galaxy. In the new study, the researchers also used Chandra observations to study six other ring galaxies in addition to AM 0644. A total of 63 sources were detected in the seven galaxies, and 50 of them are ULXs. The authors see a larger average number of ULXs per galaxy in these ring galaxies than in other types of galaxies. Ring galaxies have stimulated the interest of astronomers because they are ideal testbeds for examining models of how double stars form, and understanding the origin of ULXs.


The paper describing the study of AM 0644 and its sister ring galaxies appeared in the August 10, 2018 issue of the Astrophysical Journal and is available online. The co-authors of the paper are Antonella Fruscione from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Michela Mapelli from INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova in Padova, Italy.


NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.


Read more from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory: http://chandra.si.edu/photo/2018/ring/index.html


For more Chandra images, multimedia and related materials, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/chandra


Image, Animation, Text, credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/INAF/A. Wolter et al; Optical: NASA/STScI.


Greetings, Orbiter.chArchive link


Curiosity Surveys a Mystery Under Dusty Skies


NASA – Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) logo.


Sept. 6, 2018



Image above: This 360-degree panorama was taken on Aug. 9 by NASA’s Curiosity rover at its location on Vera Rubin Ridge. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS.


After snagging a new rock sample on Aug. 9, NASA’s Curiosity rover surveyed its surroundings on Mars, producing a 360-degree panorama of its current location on Vera Rubin Ridge.


The panorama includes umber skies, darkened by a fading global dust storm. It also includes a rare view by the Mast Camera of the rover itself, revealing a thin layer of dust on Curiosity’s deck. In the foreground is the rover’s most recent drill target, named “Stoer” after a town in Scotland near where important discoveries about early life on Earth were made in lakebed sediments.


The new drill sample delighted Curiosity’s science team, because the rover’s last two drill attempts were thwarted by unexpectedly hard rocks. Curiosity started using a new drill method earlier this year to work around a mechanical problem. Testing has shown it to be as effective at drilling rocks as the old method, suggesting the hard rocks would have posed a problem no matter which method was used.



NASA’s Curiosity Mars Rover on Vera Rubin Ridge (360 View)

There’s no way for Curiosity to determine exactly how hard a rock will be before drilling it, so for this most recent drilling activity, the rover team made an educated guess. An extensive ledge on the ridge was thought to include harder rock, able to stand despite wind erosion; a spot below the ledge was thought more likely to have softer, erodible rocks. That strategy seems to have panned out, but questions still abound as to why Vera Rubin Ridge exists in the first place.


The rover has never encountered a place with so much variation in color and texture, according to Ashwin Vasavada, Curiosity’s project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. JPL leads the Mars Science Laboratory mission that Curiosity is a part of.


“The ridge isn’t this monolithic thing — it has two distinct sections, each of which has a variety of colors,” Vasavada said. “Some are visible to the eye and even more show up when we look in near-infrared, just beyond what our eyes can see. Some seem related to how hard the rocks are.”



Image above: A self-portrait by NASA’s Curiosity rover taken on Sol 2082 (June 15, 2018). A Martian dust storm has reduced sunlight and visibility at the rover’s location in Gale Crater. A drill hole can be seen in the rock to the left of the rover at a target site called “Duluth.” Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS.


The best way to discover why these rocks are so hard is to drill them into a powder for the rover’s two internal laboratories. Analyzing them might reveal what’s acting as “cement” in the ridge, enabling it to stand despite wind erosion. Most likely, Vasavada said, groundwater flowing through the ridge in the ancient past had a role in strengthening it, perhaps acting as plumbing to distribute this wind-proofing “cement.”


Much of the ridge contains hematite, a mineral that forms in water. There’s such a strong hematite signal that it drew the attention of NASA orbiters like a beacon. Could some variation in hematite result in harder rocks? Is there something special in the ridge’s red rocks that makes them so unyielding?


For the moment, Vera Rubin Ridge is keeping its secrets to itself.


Two more drilled samples are planned for the ridge in September. After that, Curiosity will drive to its scientific end zone: areas enriched in clay and sulfate minerals higher up Mt. Sharp. That ascent is planned for early October.


Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video (NASA/JPL), Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/JPL/Andrew Good.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Global25 nMonte runner

Those of you who are having trouble with making use of your Global25 coordinates on your own computers, please be aware that there’s an online tool that might be of help. It’s called the Global25 nMonte runner and very easy to use. To get started see here.



See also…


Genetic ancestry online store (to be updated regularly)


Modeling genetic ancestry with Davidski: step by step


If you’re using my tools to find Jewish ancestry please read this


AM 0644-741: Cosmic Collision Forges Galactic One Ring — in X-rays



 AM 0644-741

Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/INAF/A. Wolter et al; Optical: NASA/STScI








Astronomers have used NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory to discover a ring of black holes or neutron stars in a galaxy 300 million light years from Earth.


This ring, while not wielding power over Middle Earth, may help scientists better understand what happens when galaxies smash into one another in catastrophic impacts.


In this new composite image of the galaxy AM 0644-741 (AM 0644 for short), X-rays from Chandra (purple) have been combined with optical data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope (red, green, and blue). The Chandra data reveal the presence of very bright X-ray sources, most likely binary systems powered by either a stellar-mass black hole or neutron star, in a remarkable ring. The results are reported in a new paper led by Anna Wolter from INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera in Milano, Italy.


Where did the ring of black holes or neutron stars in AM 0644 come from? Astronomers think that it was created when one galaxy was pulled into another galaxy by the force of gravity. The first galaxy generated ripples in the gas of the second galaxy, AM 0644, located in the lower right. These ripples then produced an expanding ring of gas in AM 0644 that triggered the birth of new stars. The first galaxy is possibly the one located in the lower left of the image.


The most massive of these fledgling stars will lead short lives — in cosmic terms — of millions of years. After that, their nuclear fuel is spent and the stars explode as supernovas leaving behind either black holes with masses typically between about five to twenty times that of the Sun, or neutron stars with a mass approximately equal to that of the Sun.


Some of these black holes or neutron stars have close companion stars, and siphon gas from their stellar partner. This gas falls towards the black hole or neutron star, forming a spinning disk like water circling a drain, and becomes heated by friction. This superheated gas produces large amounts of X-rays that Chandra can detect.


While a ring of black holes or neutron stars is intriguing in itself, there is more to the story of AM 0644. All of the X-ray sources detected in the ring of AM 0644 are bright enough to be classified as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). This is a class of objects that produce hundreds to thousands of times more X-rays than most “normal” binary systems in which a companion star is in orbit around a neutron star or black hole. Until recently most astronomers thought that ULXs generally contained stellar-mass black holes, with the possible presence in some cases of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) that contain over a hundred times the mass of the Sun. However, this thinking was overturned when a few ULXs in other galaxies, including M82 and M51, were found to contain neutron stars.


Several other explanations besides IMBHs have been suggested for the intense X-ray emission of ULXs. They include unusually rapid growth of the black hole or neutron star, or geometrical effects arising from the funneling of infalling material along magnetic field lines. 


The identity of the individual ULXs in AM 0644 is currently unknown. They may be a mixture of black holes and neutron stars, and it is also possible that they are all black holes or all neutron stars.


Not all of the X-ray sources in the image are located in the ring of AM 0644. One of the sources is a rapidly growing black hole that’s located well behind the galaxy at a distance of 9.1 billion light years from Earth. Another intriguing source detected by Chandra is a growing supermassive black hole located at the center of the galaxy. In the new study, the researchers also used Chandra observations to study six other ring galaxies in addition to AM 0644. A total of 63 sources were detected in the seven galaxies, and 50 of them are ULXs. The authors see a larger average number of ULXs per galaxy in these ring galaxies than in other types of galaxies. Ring galaxies have stimulated the interest of astronomers because they are ideal testbeds for examining models of how double stars form, and understanding the origin of ULXs.


The paper describing the study of AM 0644 and its sister ring galaxies appeared in the August 10, 2018 issue of the Astrophysical Journal and is available online. The co-authors of the paper are Antonella Fruscione from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Michela Mapelli from INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova in Padova, Italy.


NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.



Fast Facts for AM 0644-741:

Scale: Image is about 3.25 arcmin (280,000 light years) across
Category: Normal Galaxies & Starburst Galaxies, Black Holes
Coordinates (J2000): RA 06h 43m 06.1s | Dec -74° 13´ 35
Constellation: Volans
Observation Date: November 17, 2003
Observation Time: 10 hours
Obs. ID: 3969
Instrument: ACIS
References: Wolter, A. et al, 2018, ApJ, 863,43; arXiv:1806.02746
Color Code: X-ray: purple; Optical: red, green, blue
Distance Estimate: About 300 million light years






Archive link


Falling stars hold clue for understanding dying stars

An international team of researchers has proposed a new method to investigate the inner workings of supernovae explosions. This new method uses meteorites and is unique in that it can determine the contribution from electron anti-neutrinos, enigmatic particles which can’t be tracked through other means.











Falling stars hold clue for understanding dying stars
Cosmic clocks. We can estimate the age of heavy elements in the primordial Solar System by measuring the traces left
in meteorites by specific radioactive nuclei synthesized in certain types of supernovae [Credit: NAOJ]

Supernovae are important events in the evolution of stars and galaxies, but the details of how the explosions occur are still unknown. This research, led by Takehito Hayakawa, a visiting professor at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, found a method to investigate the role of electron anti-neutrinos in supernovae.
By measuring the amount of 98Ru (an isotope of Ruthenium) in meteorites, it should be possible to estimate how much of its progenitor 98Tc (a short-lived isotope of Technetium) was present in the material from which the Solar System formed.


The amount of 98Tc in turn is sensitive to the characteristics, such as temperature, of electron anti-neutrinos in the supernova process; as well as to how much time passed between the supernova and the formation of the Solar System.


The expected traces of 98Tc are only a little below the smallest currently detectable levels, raising hopes that they will be measured in the near future.


Hayakawa explains, “There are six neutrino species. Previous studies have shown that neutrino-isotopes are predominantly produced by the five neutrino species other than the electron anti-neutrino. By finding a neutrino-isotope synthesized predominantly by the electron anti-neutrino, we can estimate the temperatures of all six neutrino species, which are important for understanding the supernova explosion mechanism.”


At the end of its life, a massive star dies in a fiery explosion known as a supernova. This explosion blasts most of the mass in the star out into outer space. That mass is then recycled into new stars and planets, leaving distinct chemical signatures which tell scientists about the supernova.


Meteorites, sometimes called falling stars, formed from material left over from the birth of the Solar System, thus preserving the original chemical signatures.


The study is published in Physical Review Letters


Source: National Institutes of Natural Sciences [September 03, 2018]



TANN



Archive


Nearly 100 elephants killed for ivory in Botswana

Ninety elephant carcasses have been discovered in Botswana with their tusks hacked off, a charity said Tuesday, in figures fiercely contested by the government.











Nearly 100 elephants killed for ivory in Botswana
An elephant splashes in the waters of the Chobe river in Botswana, which has Africa’s
largest elephant population [Credit: Chris Jek/AFP]

Elephants Without Borders said the grim discovery of scores of elephant carcasses, made over several weeks during an aerial survey, is believed to be one of Africa’s worst mass poaching sprees.


The charity’s scientists, who carried out the assessment with Botswana’s Department of Wildlife and National Parks, found most of the dead animals were large bulls, which would have had heavy tusks.


“We started flying the survey on July 10, and we have counted 90 elephant carcasses since the survey commenced,” Mike Chase, the charity’s director, told AFP.


“Each day we are counting dead elephants,” he added.


The wild pachyderms were shot with heavy-calibre rifles at watering spots near a popular wildlife sanctuary in the Okavango Delta.


According to Chase, the carcasses’ skulls were “chopped open by presumably very sharp axes, to remove their tusks”. In some cases the trunks were also removed.


“The scale of elephant poaching is by far the largest I have seen or read about in Africa to date,” Chase said, adding that the poaching coincided with Botswana’s rangers being reportedly disarmed earlier this year.


But the Botswana government later rejected the charity’s tally of the carcasses as well as their explanation for the deaths.


“These statistics are false and misleading,” said a statement on the official government Twitter account, which added that “at no point in the last months or recently were 87 or 90 elephants killed in one incident in any place in Botswana”.


It said the EWB had counted 53 carcasses during the survey, adding that it had verified that most of these animals had died of “natural causes”.


The statement confirmed that authorities had withdrawn weapons from rangers, but denied the move had “created any vacuum in anti-poaching operations”.


“Government wishes to reiterate the fact that wildlife remains a national heritage and our citizens will protect it at all costs,” it said.


Botswana had previously had a zero-tolerance approach to poaching, with a “shoot-to-kill” policy against poachers.


The landlocked country with its unfenced parks and wide open spaces has the largest elephant population in Africa at over 135,000.


Earlier Botswana Tourism Minister Tshekedi Khama confirmed to AFP that elephants had been poached.


“I am very concerned, it’s a huge worry,” he said. “I’m aware that the numbers are in double digits, and for Botswana they are high. “Because we had been spared poaching for a long time, I think now we are realising the sophistication of these poachers. Unfortunately sometimes we learn these lessons the hard way,” he said.


Chase said elephants in Zambia and Angola, north of Botswana, “have been poached to the verge of local extinction, and poachers have now turned to Botswana”.


The number of African elephants has fallen by around 111,000 to 415,000 in the past decade, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).


The killing continues at a dizzying pace of about 30,000 elephants a year to meet demand for ivory in Asia, where tusks sell for around $1,000 (864 euros) a kilo (2.2 pounds).


The Botswana poaching occurred just months after former president Ian Khama, deeply passionate about protecting wildlife, stepped down, handing power to his chosen successor Mokgweetsi Masisi.


Global conservationist International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) expressed shock at the slaughter.


“Until now Botswana’s elephant herds have largely been left in peace, but clearly Botswana is now in the cross-hairs,” said Jason Bell, IFAW’s vice president for conservation.


Poachers have also targeted rhino in Botswana, with six white rhino carcasses were found in recent months.


Source: AFP [September 04, 2018]



TANN



Archive


Hundreds of Hellenistic-period seal impressions discovered at Maresha, Israel

The ancient city of Maresha (located next to Beth Guvrin) contains some of the richest archaeological finds in Israel from the Hellenistic Period (ca. 3-2nd centuries BCE), a time when the city was a major crossroads and commercial center. Discoveries at Maresha have illuminated how the region’s diverse cultures and ethnic groups interacted. The city was conquered in 107 BCE, by the Maccabean King John Hyrcanus I.











Hundreds of Hellenistic-period seal impressions discovered at Maresha, Israel
One of seven newly discovered rooms in a subterranean complex in the Hellenistic-era city of Maresha,
near Beit Guvrin [Credit: Asaf Stern]

Maresha was first excavated in 1900 by Bliss and Macalister on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund. In 1988 Dr. Amos Kloner of the Israel Antiquities Authority and Bar Ilan University returned to the site, working there until 2000. Since 2000, the Maresha expedition has been headed by Dr. Ian Stern, along with Bernie Alpert, of Archaeological Seminars Institute (ASI) and Hebrew Union College (HUC) in coordination with the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.
Maresha is now a national park and a UNESCO world heritage site, best known for the thousands of subterranean caves and chambers that underlie the remains of the ancient Hellenistic city. This wondrous, mysterious, underground city is a favorite destination for family outings, tourist visits and school trips. Hundreds of thousands of people have excavated the caves with ASI’s “Dig for a Day” program. Many of the discoveries have been astonishing.











Hundreds of Hellenistic-period seal impressions discovered at Maresha, Israel
The clay impression of a face used to seal 2,000-year-old documents was discovered in August 2018
at the Maresha excavations as part of a trove of 1,020 sealings [Credit: Asaf Stern]

Last month, while excavating in one of the subterranean complexes, the ASI-HUC team of archaeologists uncovered an opening in the side wall of one of the caves. This is always an exciting “Indiana Jones” moment; the team would be entering unknown, and hopefully, untouched territory. These rooms had not been touched for close to two millenniums.
Initial exploration revealed seven rooms containing both broken and complete pottery vessels strewn over the surface.  Most of these vessels were dated to the Hellenistic period—familiar material to the ASI-HUC team from the previous decades of excavation at Maresha. But it was soon evident these rooms had been disturbed in antiquity. Walls had been breached or broken and trenches had been dug.











Hundreds of Hellenistic-period seal impressions discovered at Maresha, Israel
The clay impression of a face used to seal 2,000-year-old documents was discovered in August 2018
at the Maresha excavations as part of a trove of 1,020 sealings [Credit: Asaf Stern]

Among the many Hellenistic period vessels were two oil lamps and a casserole dish from the Roman period. These later remains stood out since the city had been abandoned ca. 107 BCE and later remains are rare. Since a number of subterranean complexes in the region had been utilized during the Bar Kochba revolt (132-135 CE), this led us to believe that these rooms possibly served as a refuge for the Jewish population in the area during that rebellion.
One small room had been overlooked during our initial survey.  Upon a return visit, Asaf Stern, the ASI-HUC field photographer, entered the room for a closer look with proper lighting.  A minute later he scrambled out trembling with excitement. On the floor, among a group of large broken storage jars, lay more than 1000 clay bullae, or sealings (bullae is plural for bulla).  These unfired bullae sealed the knots of twine binding papyrus scrolls—hundreds of them–that did not survive their 2000 years in the caves’ moist atmosphere.











Hundreds of Hellenistic-period seal impressions discovered at Maresha, Israel
The outlines of papyrus is found on the back of one of the 1,020 uncovered clay sealings found at seven newly
discovered rooms of a subterranean complex in the ancient Hellenistic-era city of Maresha,
near Beit Guvrin [Credit: Asaf Stern]

The imprint of the string and the impression of the papyrus is still visible on many of the bullae.  If a seal was broken the recipient of a document would have known that the contents had already been read. The unfired sealings are extremely fragile and each was carefully collected and brought to the labs of the Israel Antiquities Authority in Jerusalem.
One of the world’s leading experts on such bullae, Dr. Donald Ariel of the Israel Antiquities Authority, examined a batch of 300.  The images on the sealings include Greek deities such as Athena, Apollo, and Aphrodite as well as cornucopia, erotica, animals, and more.  His initial impression is that the bullae represent a very large private archive.











Hundreds of Hellenistic-period seal impressions discovered at Maresha, Israel
Smashed pottery and dozens of clay sealings found in one of the seven newly discovered rooms of a subterranean
complex in the ancient Hellenistic-era city of Maresha, near Beit Guvrin [Credit: Asaf Stern]

These bullae can now be added to the wealth of finds and the hundreds of inscriptions in Greek and Aramaic, discovered at Maresha, which have already riveted the attention of scholars throughout the world. Maresha is our richest source for understanding the multicultural world of Hellenistic Israel. This latest sublime discovery will take several years to catalogue and analyze.


Source: Hebrew Union College – Jewish Institute of Religion [September 05, 2018]



TANN



Archive


Glenquicken Stone Circle, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 31.8.18.Described by Aubrey...









Glenquicken Stone Circle, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 31.8.18.


Described by Aubrey Burl as “the finest of all centre-stone circles”; this site consists of a single central orthostat and a circle of smaller, low lying outer stones. The circle benefits from being part of a remote but serenely beautiful landscape.


Source link


Satellites, Space Station Crew Watching Hurricane Florence



NASA & JAXA – GPM Mission patch / ISS – International Space Station patch.


September 6, 2018


Florence (was Potential Tropical Cyclone 6) 2018


Sep. 06, 2018 – Pics from Astronaut Ricky Arnold from the ISS



Image above: Astronaut Ricky Arnold took this image of Hurricane Florence strengthening in the early morning hours over the Atlantic. Image Credits: NASA/Ricky Arnold.



Image above: Astronaut Ricky Arnold captured this image from the ISS of Florence strengthening in the early morning hours over the Atlantic. Image Credits: NASA/Ricky Arnold.


Sep. 06, 2018 – NASA’s GPM Peers Under the Clouds of Hurricane Florence


Hurricane Florence became more powerful over the past few days while moving through the central Atlantic Ocean and wind speeds increased from tropical storm force to a Category 3 hurricane. The GPM core satellite provided a look under the clouds to investigate the rate rain in which was falling throughout the storm.



Image above: On Sept. 15, GPM revealed that storms north of Florence’s eye were producing heavy rainfall at a rate of 50 mm/2 inches per hour (red). The GPM satellite’s Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) scanned the nearly rain-free areas to the west of the hurricane. Image Credit: NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce.


The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core observatory satellite passed over hurricane Florence on Sept. 5, 2018 at 1:14 a.m. EDT (0514 UTC).  Data collected by the GPM satellite’s Microwave Imager (GMI) instruments showed the intensity and location of precipitation around the center of the hurricane. GPM’s GMI revealed that storms north of Florence’s eye were producing heavy rainfall a rate of 50 mm/2 inches per hour. The GPM satellite’s Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) only scanned the nearly rain-free areas to the west of the hurricane.


At NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. a 3D animation was created that showed the estimated heights of storms within hurricane Florence at the time of the GPM satellite pass. Heights are based on data observed by GPM’s radar (DPR Ku Band) blended with estimates from geostationary satellite cloud top temperatures. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA.



GPM Flyby of Florence

Video above: On Sept. 15, GPM revealed that storms north of Florence’s eye were producing heavy rainfall. The GPM satellite’s Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) scanned the nearly rain-free areas to the west of the hurricane. Video Credit: NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce.


At 5 a.m. EDT, the National Hurricane Center noted that Florence was weakening, although still a hurricane. It was centered near latitude 24.1 degrees north and longitude 47.9 degrees west. That’s about 1,060 miles (1,705 km) east-northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands and about 1,170 miles (1,885 km) east-southeast of Bermuda.


Florence is moving toward the northwest near 12 mph (19 kph).  NHC forecasters said a turn toward the west-northwest with a decrease in forward speed is expected later today, followed by a turn toward the west by the weekend. Maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 115 mph (185 kph) with higher gusts.  Florence is a category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.  Some additional weakening is forecast today, but Florence is expected to remain a strong hurricane for the next several days.




Image above: Visualization of the GPM Core Observatory and Partner Satellites. Image Credits: NASA/JAXA.


Although still quite a distance from Bermuda, ocean swells generated by Florence will begin to affect Bermuda on Friday and will reach portions of the U.S. East Coast over the weekend.  These swells are likely to cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.


Hurricane Florence is being steered toward the northwest by the Atlantic subtropical ridge. Early next week the National Hurricane Center (NHC) predicts that hurricane Florence will have moved to a location southeast of Bermuda. Interests in Bermuda should watch the progression of the storm.


For updates on Florence, visit: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/


Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM):


https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GPM/main/index.html


http://global.jaxa.jp/projects/sat/gpm/


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, by Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce.


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