вторник, 4 сентября 2018 г.

ISS: Received the first scientific data from the satellites “SiriusSat-1 &...

ISS – International Space Station logo.

Sept. 4, 2018

From August 28 to September 3, 2018, the first series of payloads of scientific and educational satellites “SiriusSat-1” and “SiriusSat-2” was carried out, and measurements of scientific instruments were obtained and deciphered. The satellites are designed and assembled by schoolchildren in the “Big Challenges” project program at the Sirius Educational Center (Sochi), implemented with the support of the Roskosmos State Corporation.

Image above: Cosmonaut Sergey Prokopyev hand-deploys a SiriusSat nano-satellite into Earth orbit while tethered to the Pirs airlock on the International Space Station. Image Credit: NASA TV.

“The detectors of charged particles and gamma-radiation detectors detected on the satellites SiriusSat-1 and SiriusSat-2 make it possible to investigate the rapid variations of electron fluxes at the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt and at the boundary of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The Earth will be transmitted as monitoring data – particle counting rates 1 time per second, and detailed data on all interactions in the detector with a time resolution of 20 microseconds, which will allow us to study the time and spectral characteristics of micro-precipitation of electrons from the Earth’s radiation belts. Another problem is the study of the dynamics of particle and gamma-ray fluxes in very low orbits, depending on the geomagnetic conditions. Additional possibilities are given by the analysis of the sequential passage by two closely-flying satellites of the same region of trapped or precipitated particles, “says the senior research fellow of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Moscow State University, Ph.D. Mr. Vitaliy Vladimirovich Bogomolov, the head of the work with the payload of the satellites “SiriusSat”.

The useful load of the SiriusSat satellites is the detector of charged particles and gamma radiation developed in the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Moscow State University and jointly created by the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Moscow State University and the satellite company “Satellite” in the energy release range 0.3-3 MeV. The detector is a scintillation spectrometer made on the basis of an assembly of a plastic scintillator and crystals CsI (Na) and CsI (Tl), which has a sensitive area of ​​~ 4 cm2. Daily information of each of the satellites is about 1 MB.

The first monitoring data received from the SiriusSat-1 satellite on August 29, 2018 is shown in the figure. You can observe a significant increase in the readings of the device at the time of approaching South America. This growth is related to the particles of the inner radiation belt present in the low orbit around the South Atlantic Anomaly.

First scientific data. Image Credit: Roscosmos

The “SiriusSat” satellites were delivered to the ISS by the Progress-MS-09 cargo ship on July 10, 2018, and on August 15, 2018 Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev and Sergey Prokopyev sent the aircrafts on their own.

The satellite was collected by schoolchildren at the Sirius Educational Center in Sochi and was demonstrated to President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin during his visit in July 2017 to the Sirius Educational Center. Then the guys who designed the spacecraft asked Vladimir Vladimirovich a question about the possibility of a subsequent launch.

Satellites orbit. Image Credit: Roscosmos

State Corporation Roscosmos and PJSC RSC Energia provided assistance in organizing the dispatch of SiriusSat-1,2 into orbit as part of a program of cooperation with the Education Center. The Foundation for the Promotion of Innovation provided financial support for the creation of nanosatellites.

Before sending to the ISS, the apparatus passed all the necessary verification procedures on the basis of the laboratories of the Sirius Educational Center and RSC Energia. The satellites were collected by schoolchildren in cooperation with SPUTNIKS specialists from Skolkovo on the basis of the nano-satellite platform “OrbiCraft-Pro” developed by the company. The platform has a standardized international standard CubeSat 1U. The SiriusSat spacecraft have been further developed to meet the launch requirements: they have a handle for launching an astronaut, flexible antennas, a system for the manual activation of a spacecraft, and also equipped with specially designed protective quick-release covers and soft shipping containers. The weight of each unit with a handle is 1.45 kg. The dimensions of the satellite without taking into account the open antennas are 130 × 131 × 236 mm. The active life of satellites is at least 3 months, the ballistic period is about 1.5 years.

Currently, the satellites are at the stage of flight tests, an analysis of the performance of the systems of vehicles in different modes is carried out, the rotation of the satellites specified at the start is gradually stabilized, and a limited inclusion of the payload is made. Systems of devices work normally.

How to launch satellites by hand

Video above: Expedition 56 Flight Engineers Oleg Artemyev and Sergey Prokopyev of the Russian space agency Roscosmos manually launched four small technology satellites, two Tanusha (Tanyusha-/Танюша) and two SiriusSat nanosatellites, during the extravehicular activity on 15 August 2018. Video Credits: NASA TV/SciNews.

It is expected that the youth will continue to participate in the work with the SiriusSat spacecraft and in the analysis of scientific data, both for senior students trained in the design changes of Sirius, and for students of the Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov and other universities specializing in space research. Data from particle detectors and board telemetry can also be obtained and analyzed by students of space circles and radio amateurs using ground stations operating in the radio amateur band. Satellites operate at radio amateur frequencies and have the following callsign: “SiriusSat-1” – call sign RS13S (frequency 435.570 MHz), “SiriusSat-2” – callsign RS14S (frequency 435.670 MHz).

On the July program of this year, the work on the creation of other devices of the series was continued at the Sirius Educational Center. Students not only designed the satellite, but also planned its scientific mission and calculated, at what moments the “coussat” will transmit data to Earth. The grouping of several similar scientific and educational satellites launched into space and a network of ground stations will allow scientists and specialists to observe the state of “space weather” in low orbit simultaneously in different parts of near-Earth space in real time.

Roscosmos Press Release: https://www.roscosmos.ru/25470/

Related article:

Cosmonauts Wrap Up Russian Spacewalk for Science Work

Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: Roscosmos/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link

Large Hadron collider celebrates 10 years

CERN – European Organization for Nuclear Research logo.

Sept. 4, 2018

The most powerful particle accelerator in the world has made it possible to confirm the existence of the Higgs boson.

On 10 September 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was started at CERN. The physicists had at the time placed a lot of hopes in this formidable machine to dissect the matter. Ten years later, they can say they are satisfied.

The most powerful particle accelerator in the world has allowed to confirm experimentally, in 2012, the existence of the Higgs boson. Elusive until then, this boson was only deduced from the theory. It explains why subatomic particles have a mass and why others do not have one.

Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Image Credit: CERN

This discovery was a big step forward in understanding the infinitely small and supported the standard model of particle physics, the theory describing particles and their interactions. Physicists have not yet had to change all their plans to adapt to a new reality.

Even though Higgs bunching has been a priority mission for the LHC, the accelerator also allows other advances in areas worthy of a science fiction series. Experiments are thus conducted on the mysterious dark matter, the properties of antimatter, the search for hidden dimensions.

A jewel of technology

The LHC is not only one of the most extraordinary machines ever built. The particle accelerator also represents an extraordinary technological feat. Buried 100 meters underground, the 27-kilometer ring is lined with powerful magnets charged with guiding beams of protons and ions.

The tube is cooled to minus 271 degrees Celsius, 2 degrees more than the absolute zero, so that the magnets can operate in the state of superconducting. It is in this freezer that the collisions between protons occur, at energies that had never before reached an accelerator.

Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Animation Credit: CERN

In a first phase of operation of the LHC, the protons clashed at 7 TeV (teraelectronvolt). In 2015, collision energy gradually increased to 13 TeV. By 2021, this value will even be increased to 14 TeV, the maximum capacity of the machine.

At such levels of energy, scientists go on to explore unknown lands, and surprises could await them, pushing them to radically change their worldview. The LHC’s competitors do not come close to it in this area. Thus, the Fermilab of Chicago reaches 2 TeV.

Already after

The LHC is scheduled to run until 2040. By that time the accelerator will undergo a large moult to significantly increase the number of proton collisions it produces. Currently, the number of collisions is 1 billion per second. In 2026, this figure will be multiplied by five.

CERN – Actual configuration. Image Credit: Phillipe Mouche.

Scientists will have more data to analyze and more likely to come across new events. Particles still invisible today could be detected with the improved machine. The Higgs boson can also be better studied because it will be produced in larger quantities.

Building a machine such as the LHC takes time and especially anticipation. Thus, CERN is already thinking of the successor of the Large Hadron Collider. It would be an accelerator of 100 kilometers in circumference. It would be located astride the Franco-Swiss border, as is the LHC.


CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s largest and most respected centres for scientific research. Its business is fundamental physics, finding out what the Universe is made of and how it works. At CERN, the world’s largest and most complex scientific instruments are used to study the basic constituents of matter — the fundamental particles. By studying what happens when these particles collide, physicists learn about the laws of Nature.

The instruments used at CERN are particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before they are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions.

Founded in 1954, the CERN Laboratory sits astride the Franco–Swiss border near Geneva. It was one of Europe’s first joint ventures and now has 22 Member States.

Related link:

Large Hadron Collider (LHC): https://home.cern/topics/large-hadron-collider

For more information about European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Visit: https://home.cern/

Image, Animation, Text, Credits: CERN/ATS/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link

Viking Age diversity

Four of the ancient Scandinavians from the recent Krzewinska et al. paper on the Viking Age town of Sigtuna made it into my Global25 and North Europe Principal Component Analyses (PCA). Click on the images below to view the hi-res versions of the plots. The relevant datasheets are available here and here. I’ve also updated all of the main Global25 datasheets with these samples. See here and here.

They cover a lot of ground between them, don’t they? Sigtuna_84005 probably has ancestry from what is now Finland, because he’s pulling sharply to the east and overlapping with a western Finn. He also belongs to Y-haplogroup I1a1b3 or I-Z74, which is very common nowadays in western Finland.
The fact that Sigtuna_grt036 is overlapping strongly with Germans suggests that he has ancestry from the southern Baltic region, and indeed his Y-hg I2a2 gels rather nicely with this idea. I don’t know what to make of Sigtuna_grt035’s occidental affinities, but his Y-hg G2a2 is also somewhat unusual for the Baltic region. Interestingly, Sigtuna_stg021 is a female and the only really obvious Scandinavian in this group, but that might be a coincidence.
As far as I know, nothing suggests that any of these males were captives or slaves. So we must assume that they were either migrants or the recent descendants of migrants who settled in Sigtuna for one reason or another, and may even be the ancestors of the Swedes living in the region today.
See also…
Global25 workshop 3: genes vs geography in Northern Europe
Genetic and linguistic structure across space and time in Northern Europe
Modeling genetic ancestry with Davidski: step by step


Hostile and Closed Environments, Hazards at Close Quarters


human journey to Mars, at first

glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to

the Red Planet from fiction to fact, NASA’s Human Research Program has organized some of the hazards

astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

A spacecraft is not only a home,

it’s also a machine. NASA understands that the ecosystem inside a vehicle plays

a big role in everyday astronaut life.

Important habitability factors

include temperature, pressure, lighting, noise, and quantity of space. It’s

essential that astronauts are getting the requisite food, sleep and exercise

needed to stay healthy and happy. The space environment introduces challenges

not faced on Earth.

Technology, as often is the case

with out-of-this-world exploration, comes to the rescue! Technology plays a big

role in creating a habitable home in a harsh environment and monitoring some of

the environmental conditions.

Astronauts are also asked to

provide feedback about their living environment, including physical impressions

and sensations so that the evolution of spacecraft can continue addressing the

needs of humans in space.

Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five

known hazards of spaceflight, including hostile and closed environments, like

the closed environment of the vehicle itself. To learn more, and find out what

NASA’s Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in

space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight" website.

Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston

We Have a Podcast,” in which host Gary Jordan

further dives into the threat of hostile and closed environments with Brian

Crucian, NASA immunologist at the Johnson Space Center.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

2018 September 4 Moon behind Lava Fountain Image Credit &…

2018 September 4

Moon behind Lava Fountain
Image Credit & Copyright: Marcella Giulia Pace (GreenFlash.Photo)

Explanation: What’s happened to the Moon? Nothing, but something has happened to the image of the Moon. The heat from a volcanic lava fountain in the foreground has warmed and made turbulent the air nearby, causing passing light to refract differently than usual. The result is a lava plume that appears to be melting the Moon. The featured picture was taken as the full Sturgeon Moon was setting behind Mt. Etna as it erupted in Italy about one week ago. The picture is actually a composite of two images, one taken right after the other, with the same camera and lens. The first image was a quick exposure to capture details of the setting Moon, while the second exposure, taken after the Moon set a few minutes later, was longer so as to capture details of the faint lava jets. From our Earth, we can only see the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars as they appear through the distortion of the Earth’s atmosphere. This distortion can not only change the images of familiar orbs into unusual shapes, it can –unexpectedly at times – delay sunset and moonset by several minutes.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180904.html

Drumtrodden Rock Art, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 31.8.18.Extensive prehistoric rock...

Drumtrodden Rock Art, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 31.8.18.

Extensive prehistoric rock art on a rocky outcrop, near to Drumtrodden Standing Stones.

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Prehistoric Spindle Whorls, Stranraer Museum, Scotland, 1.9.18.

Prehistoric Spindle Whorls, Stranraer Museum, Scotland, 1.9.18.

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Cairnholy I Burial Chamber Walk Around Video. Dumfries and…

Cairnholy I Burial Chamber Walk Around Video. Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 31.8.18. (Silent Footage)

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Glenquicken Stone Circle Walk Around Video, Dumfries and…

Glenquicken Stone Circle Walk Around Video, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 31.8.18. (Silent Footage)

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