воскресенье, 26 августа 2018 г.

Wreck of 2,000-year-old Roman ship found near Croatia’s island of Pag

While diving with a group of tourists near the Croatian island of Pag, Vedran Dorušić, president of the Diving Tourism Organisation at the Croatian Chamber of Economy, stumbled upon a wreck of a Roman ship believed to date to the beginning of the first century BC.











Wreck of 2,000-year-old Roman ship found near Croatia's island of Pag
Credit: CroatiaWeek

The wreck was lying completely on the sea floor and was slowly falling apart. Around 600 amphorae are said to be scattered about the wreck.


Wreck of 2,000-year-old Roman ship found near Croatia's island of Pag


Wreck of 2,000-year-old Roman ship found near Croatia's island of Pag











Wreck of 2,000-year-old Roman ship found near Croatia's island of Pag
Credit: CroatiaWeek

Although more investigations will be carried out, it is believed that the ship may have sought shelter from the bura winds in the bay of Simuni on Pag, where there are vestiges of a Roman harbour.











Wreck of 2,000-year-old Roman ship found near Croatia's island of Pag
Credit: CroatiaWeek

“The latest archaeological finding in Croatian waters has led the Ministry of Culture, with the cooperation of diving centres, to protect these sites with video surveillance and other measures and to develop new ways to help tourism promotion,” Dorišić is reported to have said.


Source: Croatia Week [August 23, 2018]



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Salt of the Alps: ancient Austrian mine holds Bronze Age secrets

All mines need regular reinforcement against collapse, and Hallstatt, the world’s oldest salt mine perched in the Austrian Alps, is no exception. But Hallstatt isn’t like other mines.











Salt of the Alps: ancient Austrian mine holds Bronze Age secrets
Exploited for 7,000 years, its excavation has yielded not only a steady supply of salt but also archaeological
discoveries attesting to the existence of a rich civilisation dating back to the early
part of the first millennium BC [Credit: AFP/Alex Halada]

Exploited for 7,000 years, the mine has yielded not only a steady supply of salt but also archaeological discoveries attesting to the existence of a rich civilisation dating back to the early part of the first millennium BC.


So far less than two percent of the prehistoric tunnel network is thought to have been explored, with the new round of reinforcement work, which began this month, protecting the dig’s achievements, according to chief archaeologist Hans Reschreiter.


“Like in all the mines, the mountain puts pressure on the tunnels and they could cave in if nothing is done,” Reschreiter told AFP.


Hallstatt was recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997 and the work aims to protect it for “future generations”, said Thomas Stelzer, governor of Upper Austria state where the mine is located.











Salt of the Alps: ancient Austrian mine holds Bronze Age secrets
Towering over a natural lake—today frequented by masses of tourists, particularly from Asia, who come to admire
the picture-perfect Alpine scenery—the Hallstatt mine lies more than 800 metres (2,600 feet) above sea level
[Credit: AFP/Alex Halada]

Towering over a natural lake—today frequented by masses of tourists, particularly from Asia, who come to admire the picture-perfect Alpine scenery—the Hallstatt mine lies more than 800 metres (2,600 feet) above sea level.


The vast deposit of sea salt inside was left by the ocean that covered the region some 250 million years ago.


Among the most striking archaeological discoveries was that of an eight-metre-long wooden staircase dating back to 1100 BC, the oldest such staircase found in Europe.


“It was so well preserved that we could take it apart and reassemble it,” Reschreiter said.











Salt of the Alps: ancient Austrian mine holds Bronze Age secrets
“Thousands of bodies have been excavated, almost all flaunting rich bronze ornaments,
typically worn by only the wealthiest,” Reschreiter said. “The remains bore the marks
 of hard physical labour… while also showing signs of unequalled prosperity”
[Credit: AFP/Alex Halada]

Other items date back much further. Excavated in 1838, an axe made from staghorn dating from 5,000 BC showed that as early as then, miners “tried hard to extract salt from here,” Reschreiter said.


In the mid-19th century, excavations revealed a necropolis that showed the site’s prominence during the early Iron Age.


The civilisation became known as “Hallstatt culture”, ensuring the site’s fame.


“Thousands of bodies have been excavated, almost all flaunting rich bronze ornaments, typically worn by only the wealthiest,” Reschreiter said. “The remains bore the marks of hard physical labour from childhood, while also showing signs of unequalled prosperity.”











Salt of the Alps: ancient Austrian mine holds Bronze Age secrets
Among the most striking archaeological discoveries was that of an eight-metre-long wooden staircase
dating back to 1100 BC, the oldest such staircase found in Europe [Credit: AFP/Alex Halada]

Salt—long known as “white gold”—was priceless at the time. And Hallstatt produced up to a tonne every day, supplying “half of Europe”, he said, adding that the difficult-to-access location “became the continent’s richest, and a major platform for trading in 800 BC”.


Testifying to this are sword handles made of African ivory and Mediterranean wine bowls found at the site.


A second series of excavations—started by Vienna’s Museum of Natural History some 60 years ago—produced more surprises.


In tunnels more than 100 metres below the surface, archaeologists discovered “unique evidence” of mining activity at an “industrial” scale during the Bronze Age, Reschreiter said.











Salt of the Alps: ancient Austrian mine holds Bronze Age secrets
Along with wooden retaining structures more than 3,000 years old which were perfectly conserved by the salt,
 the excavation unearthed tools, leather gloves and a rope as well as the remains
of millions of wooden torches [Credit: AFP/Alex Halada]

As well as revealing wooden retaining structures more than 3,000 years old which were perfectly preserved by the salt, the excavation unearthed numerous tools, leather gloves and a rope—thick as a fist—as well as the remains of millions of wooden torches.


Also used by Celts and during the Roman era when salt was used to pay legions stationed along the Danube River—it is the origin of the word “salary”—the mine has never stopped working since prehistoric times.


Today, about 40 people still work there, using high-pressure water to extract the equivalent of 250,000 tonnes of salt per year.


“Salt doesn’t have the same value as in antiquity anymore. But some of its new uses, such as in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries, are still highly profitable,” said Kurt Thomanek, technical director of salt supplier Salinen Austria.


Tourism linked to the archaeological discoveries is also “a pillar of our activities”, Thomanek added.


Last year, some 200,000 people visited the Hallstatt mine.


Source: AFP [August 24, 2018]



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Unravelling the complex history of the lost harbour of Pisa

New insights into the evolution and eventual disappearance of Portus Pisanus, the lost harbour of Pisa, are reported in Scientific Reports this week.











Unravelling the complex history of the lost harbour of Pisa
The ancient port in a bas-relief on the Tower of Pisa [Credit: Sailko]

Although it has been described as one of Italy’s most influential seaports during the Roman and Middle Ages, little is known about the relationship between Portus Pisanus’s environment and the main stages of its history.











Unravelling the complex history of the lost harbour of Pisa
The access area to the Porto Pisano, now completely silted up, near Livorno [Credit: ANSA]

To understand the role that long-term coastal dynamics, sea-level rise and a changing environment played in the harbour’s evolution, David Kaniewski and colleagues reconstructed relative sea levels for the eastern Ligurian Sea over a 10,500-year period. They also coupled historical maps with geological data to reconstruct the morphology of the coast around the Pisa harbour basin.











Unravelling the complex history of the lost harbour of Pisa
Roman stone quay and wooden poles, excavation S. Stefano ai Lupi
[Credit: Stefano Genovesi]

They then analysed biological samples from sediment layers to investigate how seawater, freshwater or agricultural activities may have influenced the environment in the area, before comparing and contrasting their data with written sources and archaeological data.











Unravelling the complex history of the lost harbour of Pisa
Subsoil sequence analysed in detail [Credit: Veronica Rossi]

The findings suggest that at approximately 200 BC, a naturally protected lagoon with a good connection to the sea developed south of the city of Pisa that would have benefited navigation and trade, and facilitated the establishment of port complexes.











Unravelling the complex history of the lost harbour of Pisa
Roman-era seabed, archaeological excavation at S. Stefano ai Lupi [Credit: Stefano Genovesi]

The lagoon hosted Portus Pisanus well beyond the 5th century AD but its degree of sea connection began to decline from around 1000-1250 AD, as coastlines shifted towards the sea.











Unravelling the complex history of the lost harbour of Pisa
The Meloria tower off the coast of the Pisan Port in 1284 [Credit: Filippo Gini]

It was cut off from the sea and disappeared around 1500 AD when the basin developed into a coastal lake and Portus Pisanus was replaced by the maritime harbour of Livorno.


Source: Nature Eurasia [August 24, 2018]



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Vestiges of Cham towers unveiled in Da Nang

Three excavations saw archaeologists find statues of animals, ceramics and roof tiles. The finding at Phong Le Village is believed to be the site of a Cham place of worship from the 10th to 11th century.











Vestiges of Cham towers unveiled in Da Nang
An excavation site of a Cham tower in Phong Le Village in Cam Le District, 10km away
from Da Nang City’s centre [Credit: Cong Thanh, VNS Photos]

Cham is an indigenous group of Vietnam and Cambodia, who formed an independent kingdom from the 2nd to 17th centuries AD.


Associated Professor Dang Hong Son, a member of the archaeology team, said the third excavation exposed foundation structures of the main tower (Kalan), a gate tower and long house (mandapan) as well as boundary walls.


Son said the team sketched out a map of at least five Cham towers in the area with boundary walls and a structure of a long house.


He said the third excavation season in the village continued trailing evidence and objects (stone, bricks and statues) that were found in the first (2011) and the second seasons (2012).











Vestiges of Cham towers unveiled in Da Nang
A sand-stone statue of lion was found during an excavation of a Cham tower
 in Da Nang City [Credit: Cong Thanh, VNS Photos]

“We expanded excavation under the review and identified ancient items from the previous digging. Foundation structures showed that a typical complex of Cham towers had been built on a high foundation near ancient flows. The complex would have been situated on the defunct estuary of an old river,” Son said.


“We found an intact sand-stone lion (Simha) – which is similar to those found in Tra Kieu Cham tower in Quang Nam Province from 10th-11th century – along with other 22 statues of snakes, elephant, the Garuda (a legendary bird) and the prayer, as well as brick, tile and ceramic (including ceramic objects made by Cham people and potteries from Sung (China) dynasty),” he said.


Son said a tube roof tile that was found during the excavation.


“The round tile has a face of people with a Han script on the forehead,” he said. “The roof tile style is the same as those discovered in Luy Lau Citadel (the second century) in the northern province of Bac Ninh.”











Vestiges of Cham towers unveiled in Da Nang
Artefacts discovered from an excavation of Cham towers in Da Nang [Credit: Cong Thanh, VNS Photos]

The tile has a person’s face on it, which, according to Son, was the first of its kind discovered in central Vietnam.


He said the tile style is also similar to those found in the Cham towers in the UNESCO-recognised world heritage My Son Sanctuary in Quang Nam Province.


According to archaeologists, at least 10 complexes of Cham towers existed in Da Nang City, but rapid urbanisation in the city might bury many.


Previous excavations discovered that foundations of many Cham towers in the city were partly damaged for new constructions of buildings.











Vestiges of Cham towers unveiled in Da Nang
Ceramic and brick fragments of a Cham tower [Credit: Cong Thanh, VNS Photos]

Director of the Museum of Cham Sculpture, Ho Tan Tuan said this was the largest complex of Cham towers in the area.


This latest excavation is 500m away from the Cam Le River, and underneath three houses.


“It took us six years to compensate to villagers for removal of buildings before excavation could take place on the site,” the director said.


“Traces of the old river could be seen as depressed trenches, and archaeologists will continue seeking an old port of a busy waterway trading routes from previous centuries.”











Vestiges of Cham towers unveiled in Da Nang
A ceramic piece of a collapsed Cham tower [Credit: Cong Thanh, VNS Photos]

Director of the city’s Culture, Sports and Tourism Department, Huynh Van Hung, said the city plans to submit procedure for relic status recognisation, and expand protected area for the Cham tower complex in Phong Le Village.


Archaeologist Lam My Dung said the city would have more relic sites that were believed to be 3,500 years old and more research and study should be carried out in the future.


Cultural researcher Vo Van Thang said the Cham towers in Phong Le Village should be preserved as a practical study site for students and young archaeologists as well as a tourism destination.


In 2012, a team of archaeologists from Da Nang’s Cham Sculpture Museum and Ha Noi’s University of Social Sciences and Humanities found a Cham tower foundation in the village – which is one of the biggest such structures ever found in Vietnam.











Vestiges of Cham towers unveiled in Da Nang
A roof tile with a human face [Credit: Cong Thanh, VNS Photos]

The Champa kingdom ruled in the central coast region between the 4th and 13th centuries, so many towers remained undiscovered in the area.


The French had partially excavated the tower 100 years ago. Some of the stone statues and relics were displayed at the Cham Sculpture Museum – one of the most visited sites in Da Nang City.


Phong Le Village, which is 10km from the city centre, is an historic village with temples, communal houses more than 100 years old, including a 150-year-old temple.


Different excavations in the garden of the Khue Bac Communal House in Da Nang in previous years discovered ceramics, stone axes, coins, mollusc shells dating back to the pre-Sa Huynh Culture (3,000-3,500 years-old).


Source: Vietnam Net [August 24, 2018]



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Massive pyramid, lost city and ancient human sacrifices unearthed in China

A 4,300-year-old city, which has a massive step pyramid that is at least 230 feet (70 meters) high and spans 59 acres (24 hectares) at its base, has been excavated in China, archaeologists reported in the journal Antiquity.











Massive pyramid, lost city and ancient human sacrifices unearthed in China
This figure shows images of the step pyramid. a) part of the stone buttresses of the second and the third steps of the
pyramid; b) eye symbols that decorate the pyramid c) a view of the buttresses under excavation; d) a general view
of the pyramid before excavation [Credit: Zhouyong Sun and Jing Shao]

The pyramid was decorated with eye symbols and “anthropomorphic,” or part-human, part-animal faces. Those figures “may have endowed the stepped pyramid with special religious power and further strengthened the general visual impression on its large audience,” the archaeologists wrote in the article.


For five centuries, a city flourished around the pyramid. At one time, the city encompassed an area of 988 acres (400 hectares), making it one of the largest in the world, the archaeologists wrote. Today, the ruins of the city are called “Shimao,” but its name in ancient times is unknown.


The pyramid contains 11 steps, each of which was lined with stone. On the topmost step, there “were extensive palaces built of rammed earth, with wooden pillars and roofing tiles, a gigantic water reservoir, and domestic remains related to daily life,” the researchers wrote.


The city’s rulers lived in these palaces, and art and craft production were carried out nearby. “Evidence so far suggests that the stepped pyramid complex functioned not only as a residential space for ruling Shimao elites, but also as a space for artisanal or industrial craft production,” the archaeologists wrote.











Massive pyramid, lost city and ancient human sacrifices unearthed in China
A sacrificial pit of human skulls discovered at Shimao. The people sacrificed may have been captives captured in war.
This photo was first published in 2016 in an article in the Chinese language journal Kaogu yu wenwu
[Credit: Zhouyong Sun and Jing Shao]

A series of stone walls with ramparts and gates was built around the pyramid and the city. “At the entrance to the stepped pyramid were sophisticated bulwarks [defensive walls] whose design suggests that they were intended to provide both defense and highly restricted access,” the archaeologists wrote.


The remains of numerous human sacrifices have been discovered at Shimao. “In the outer gateway of the eastern gate on the outer rampart alone, six pits containing decapitated human heads have been found,” the archaeologists wrote.


Some of the victims may be from another archaeological site called Zhukaigou, which is located to the north of Shimao, and the people of Shimao may have conquered the neighboring site. “Morphological analysis of the human remains suggests that the victims may have been related to the residents of Zhukaigou, which could further suggest that they were taken to Shimao as captives during the expansion of the Shimao polity,” the study said.











Massive pyramid, lost city and ancient human sacrifices unearthed in China
Plan of the ancient city Shimao [Credit: Zhouyong Sun and Jing Shao]

Additionally, jade artifacts were inserted into spaces between the blocks in all of Shimao’s structures. “The jade objects and human sacrifice may have imbued the very walls of Shimao with ritual and religious potency,” the archaeologists wrote.


While archaeologists have known about Shimao for many years, it was once thought to be part of the Great Wall of China, a section of which is located nearby. It wasn’t until excavations were carried out in recent years that archaeologists realized that Shimao is far older than the Great Wall, which was built between 2,700 and 400 years ago.


Author: Owen Jarus | Source: LiveScience [August 24, 2018]



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Statue head of Roman emperor unearthed in northern Bulgaria

The head of a statue which dates back to the third century AD and believed to be of Roman Emperor Aurelian has been discovered by archaeologists in Ulpia Oescus, which was one of the most important cities of the Roman Empire in what is today Bulgaria.











Statue head of Roman emperor unearthed in northern Bulgaria
The statue head from the 3rd century AD believed to depict Roman Emperor Aurelian shortly after its discovery
[Credit: Associate Prof. Dr. Gergana Kabakchieva]

“This is an extremely valuable find from the Roman city of Ulpia Oescus,” lead archaeologist Assoc. Prof. Gergana Kabakchieva from the National Institute and Museum of Archaeology in Sofia has told local news sources.
“The hairstyle, the rendering of the chin, the way the eyes are depicted all speak of the fact that this statue is from the third century AD, the period of the so called barracks emperors, or soldier emperors in the Roman Empire (235 – 284 AD),” Kabakchieva explained.











Statue head of Roman emperor unearthed in northern Bulgaria
The newly discovered colonnade demonstrates that the main residence and main building of Ulpia Oescus
in the Late Antiquity was much larger than previously thought [Credit: Archaeology in Bulgaria]

“After the destruction of Oescus and the abandonment of this building [presently under excavation] somebody attempted to re-use this statue for stone construction. As a result, the ears were damaged. Yet, the head apparently appeared to be too bumpy, didn’t fit with the rest of the building blocks, and was left in this pit [where we found it],” Kabakchieva elaborates.


The archaeological team has also discovered a marble colonnade and additional structures indicating that the central residence, the main building of Ulpia Oescus, was much larger than expected.


The ruins of Ulpia Oescus (today the Ulpia Oescus Archaeological Preserve) are located near the town of Gigen, Gulyantsi Municipality, Pleven District, in Northern Bulgaria.


Source: Archaeology in Bulgaria [August 25, 2018]



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In-duction Period Nestled between the liver, spleen and small…


In-duction Period


Nestled between the liver, spleen and small intestine, the pancreas supports our nutrition with two key functions: secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to regulate blood sugar levels, and producing digestive enzymes. A complex branching system of ducts transports these enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine, where they break down food particles coming from the stomach. In the embryonic mouse pancreas pictured, red staining marks out the insulin-producing islets of Langerhans, while the pancreatic ducts and thicker duodenum, around the outside, are shown in green. Developing this network of pancreatic ducts requires several stages: first, clusters of cells organise to make small tubes, eventually creating a dense web of ducts, which is then pruned to become a more streamlined system, maintaining only the most useful ducts. Investigating this process could help us understand the development of other secretory glands in the body.


Written by Emmanuelle Briolat



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‘Eslie The Greater Stone Circle Walk Around Video,…


‘Eslie The Greater Stone Circle Walk Around Video, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 16.8.18. (Silent Footage)


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2018 August 26 Fire on Earth Image Credit: John McColgan (AFS,…


2018 August 26


Fire on Earth
Image Credit: John McColgan (AFS, BLM)


Explanation: Sometimes, regions of planet Earth light up with fire. Since fire is the rapid acquisition of oxygen, and since oxygen is a key indicator of life, fire on any planet would be an indicator of life on that planet. Most of the Earth’s land has been scorched by fire at some time in the past. Although causing many a tragedy, for many places on Earth fire is considered part of a natural ecosystem cycle. Large forest fires on Earth are usually caused either by humans or lightning and can be visible from orbit. Featured from the year 2000, stunned elk avoid a fire sweeping through Montana’s Bitterroot Valley by standing in a river.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180826.html


Ancient Serpent Mounds, the mystery of the cosmos world order

Ancient Serpent Mounds, the mystery of the cosmos world order
  Ancient Serpent Mounds, the mystery of the cosmos world order
Source: Ancient Serpent Mounds, the mystery of the cosmos world order by SpaceTrack

Alligator Effigy Mound The Alligator Effigy Mound is an effigy mound in Granville, Ohio, United States. The mound is believed to have been built between AD 800 and 1200 by people of the Fort Ancient culture.The mound was likely a ceremonial site, as it was not used for burials. Located on privately owned land, Alligator Mound is one of two extant effigy mounds known in the present-day state of Ohio, along with Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio.It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1971. Effigy mounds were built more often by ancient indigenous peoples located in the areas of the present-day states of Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin than in the Ohio area, and many have survived there. So-called-alligator-mound-ohio.png https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alligator_Effigy_Mound
 
Nyttend - Own work
View from the north of the Alligator Effigy Mound, an effigy mound located inside a traffic circle formed by Bryn Du Drive on the eastern side of GranvilleOhioUnited States. Now thought to be a representation of an underwater panther, it appears to have been built by the Fort Ancient culture. As an important archaeological site, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
 
  1.  National Park Service (2008-04-15). "National Register Information System"National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d "Alligator Mound"Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
  3. Jump up to:a b "The Licking County Historical Society - Alligator Mound". The Licking County Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d Ephraim George Squier; Edwin Hamilton Davis (1848). Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi ValleySmithsonian Institution. pp. 217–221.
  5. Jump up^ Lepper, Brad; Frolking, Tod A. (2003). "Alligator Mound: Geoarchaeological and Iconographical Interpretations of a Late Prehistoric Effigy Mound in Central Ohio, USA"Cambridge Archaeological Journal13 (2): 147–167. doi:10.1017/S0959774303000106.
 

Serpent Mound


The Great Serpent Mound in rural, southwestern Ohio is the largest serpent effigy in the world. Numerous mounds were made by the ancient Native American cultures that flourished along the fertile valleys of the Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri Rivers a thousand years ago, though many were destroyed as farms spread across this region during the modern era. They invite us to contemplate the rich spiritual beliefs of the ancient Native American cultures that created them.
The Great Serpent Mound measures approximately 1,300 feet in length and ranges from one to three feet in height. The complex mound is both architectural and sculptural and was erected by settled peoples who cultivated maize, beans and squash and who maintained a stratified society with an organized labor force, but left no written records. Let’s take a look at both aerial and close-up views that can help us understand the mound in relationship to its site and the possible intentions of its makers.
https://www.khanacademy.org  A digital GIS map of Ohio's Great Serpent Mound, created by Timothy A. Price and Nichole I. Stump in March 2002 Serpent Mound Serpent Mound Serpent Mound Last week, I heard Maya Lin speak at the university where I work. Her lecture was uncannily appropriate, since I had planned for my students to learn about Lin last week (before realizing that she was coming to speak). Minutes after the lecture began, I had two distinct impressions: 1) Lin is extremely tired of speaking about the Vietnam War Memorial and 2) Lin has a lot of flexibility in her career, since she established fame and recognition so early in life. Really, because Lin already has public attention and a fan base, she can create whatever she wants; she isn't like many other contemporary artists, who seem to feel the need to be shocking or controversial in order to get attention. One of my favorite parts of the lecture was when Lin discussed her ideas behind her earth art Eleven Minute Line (2004). This squiggly line is 1600 feet long and 12 feet high. And here's the awesome part: it's located in a cow pasture in Sweden. The first time I saw Lin's piece, it immediately reminded me of the Serpent Mound (c. 1070 AD) in Adams County, Ohio (shown below). The Serpent Mound is the largest effigy structure in the United States, and it is thought to have been built by the the Fort Ancient people. (It was originally thought that the structure was built in prehistoric times, but carbon dating of the mound revealed a much later date.) My suspicions regarding the connection between Eleven Minute Line and the Serpent Mound were confirmed during Lin's lecture. The artist is from Ohio, and she has always been struck with the story of the Serpent Mound. When Europeans came to America and discovered the Serpent Mound, they concluded that an earlier group of Europeans must have made the structure and then traveled back to the Old World. Basically, these European explorers could not conceive that Native Americans could have built something so complex and monumental. Lin decided add a subtle element of irony with Eleven Minute Line by turning the tables a bit: she brought a design that was inspired from the New World back to the Old World (i.e. Sweden). http://albertis-window.blogspot.com/2010/04/maya-lin-and-eleven-minute-line.html Adena Culture
  Painting from the Ancient Ohio art series depicting an Early Woodland/Adena (800 BC - AD 1) gathering at a ceremonial earthwork in the Hocking River Valley.
Painting from the Ancient Ohio art series depicting an Early Woodland/Adena (800 BC - AD 1) gathering at a ceremonial earthwork in the Hocking River Valley.
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Adena_Culture The "Adena culture" is an archaeological term used to refer to a pre-contact American Indian culture that lived in Kentucky, southeastern Indiana, southwestern Pennsylvania, and most prominently in the Scioto River and Hocking Valleys in southern Ohio, and the Kanawha Valley near Charleston, West Virginia, during the Early Woodland Period (ca. 2,800-2,000 BP). The name “Adena” originates from the estate of Ohio Governor Thomas Worthington, about one and a half miles northwest of Chillicothe, Ohio, in Ross County, which he called “Adena,” which Worthington’s diary claims comes from a Hebrew name that “was given to places for the delightfulness of their situations.” Worthington’s estate was the home of a 26 foot tall ancient burial mound, hence the “Adena Mound” and “Adena culture.”

 

The term Indian Mounds Park may refer to:
Burial Mounds The burial mound was the very essence of Adena, and the archetypical Adena site was the mound excavated by Mills (1902) in Ohio on Governor Worthington's estate called "Adena". The choice of the name was fitting, for there were many examples of mounds in the Ohio Valley, and Webb relentlessly honed his interpretations of them beginning with his pre-professional excavations of the 1920s (Webb and Funkhouser 1928:72-121), through two phases of work at the Ricketts Mound, in effect his education in systematic Adena archaeology (Funkhouser and Webb 1935, Webb and Funkhouser 1940), through Wright (Webb 1940), Morgan Stone (Webb 1941a),Riley and Landing (Webb l943b), and many others, ending with his anti-climactic excavation and skimpy reporting (by his own standards) of the Dover Mound (Webb and Snow 1959) in the 1950s just prior to his retirement.
The Moundbuilders: North America’s Little-known Native Architects
The Moundbuilders North America’s Little-known Native Architects
The prehistoric people of Central and South America are known worldwide for their fantastic architectural and cultural achievements. However, North American natives are not known as great builders. But that does not mean they didn’t build. It also doesn’t mean that they didn’t have civilizations. Many cultures of pre-European-contact North America did settle down in cities and practice agriculture and have sophisticated religions and ceremonial sites. Some even made copper and iron artifacts, and metallurgy has long been considered a sign of advanced accomplishment. But what is little known is that there were also the moundbuilders in what is now the United States. People in many regions of the prehistoric U.S. built earthen mounds, some of which reached 100 feet (30.48 meters). They built them over the course of 5,000 years, archaeologists have estimated.
Earth’s Milky Way Galaxy over Mound A at Poverty Point, Louisiana, which was built circa 1400 AD.
  Earth’s Milky Way Galaxy over Mound A at Poverty Point, Louisiana, which was built circa 1400 AD. ( Photo by Jenny Ellerbe ) Penn Museum of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in Philadelphia is opening a show later this month called Moundbuilders: Ancient Architects of North America. A press release from the university states: Earthen mounds—including some of the earliest monumental constructions in the world— have been engineered by diverse Native American groups over millennia. Yet the sizes, shapes, and purposes of mounds have varied greatly over time and geographical distance. Mounds have played and continue to play important roles in the religious, social, and political lives of Native American people. Some have been burial mounds; others have been centers of trade and community gatherings; still others have served as the foundations for important buildings or activities. Archaeologists, fascinated by the extraordinary engineering feats of the moundbuilders, have been excavating and mapping this tradition since the 18 th century. To date, many thousands of mounds have been discovered, from those at Cahokia, the massive Native American city outside Saint Louis, Missouri, to smaller mound sites like Smith Creek in Mississippi where the Penn Museum currently excavates. Over time, many mounds have been destroyed by farmers or leveled due to urban expansion; many more are believed to exist, not yet discovered.
 
 The exhibition chronologically explores the changing construction methods and purposes of the Native American mounds. It begins with the earliest known mounds of about 3700 BC. These were built in the Lower Mississippi Valley by small groups of hunter-gatherers. They accomplished these feats without metal tools. Archaeologists believe they built up the mounds by moving dirt to the sites in baskets. As long ago as 1400 BC, at the Poverty Point site in the same region, in Louisiana, there were mounds so large they would have required thousands of workers. At this site researchers have found stone objects that provide evidence of specialized artisans and trade routes over which materials were transported.
This is Mound A or the Great Temple Mound at Etowah Mounds near Cartersville Georgia. It was built around 1250 AD. Many of these mound centers dotted the eastern landscape before Europeans arrive
This is Mound A or the Great Temple Mound at Etowah Mounds near Cartersville Georgia. It was built around 1250 AD. Many of these mound centers dotted the eastern landscape before Europeans arrived. ( Photo by Tom Patton )
www.ancient-origins.net 

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