вторник, 14 августа 2018 г.

HiPOD (14 August 2018): Exposed Bedrock in Millochau Crater    –…

HiPOD (14 August 2018): Exposed Bedrock in Millochau Crater 

   – There are some very nice sediments here. The crater measures 115 kilometers in diameter and was named after French astronomer Gaston Millochau. (260 km above the surface. Black and white is less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km).

NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona | #Geology #GeologyPage…

Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona | #Geology #GeologyPage #Arizona

Petrified Forest National Park is a United States national park in Navajo and Apache counties in northeastern Arizona.

Named for its large deposits of petrified wood, the fee area of the park covers about 170 square miles (440 square kilometers), encompassing semi-desert shrub steppe as well as highly eroded and colorful badlands.

Geology Page


Elbaite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Priatnoe,…

Elbaite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral

Locality: Priatnoe, Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno Badakhshan, Tajikistan

Size: 5.4 × 3 × 2.2 cm

Largest Crystal: 5.40cm

Photo Copyright © Piatek Minerals /e-rocks.com

Geology Page


Molybdofornacite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…

Molybdofornacite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral

Locality: Tsumeb Mine, Otavi Highlands, Namibia

Size: 3 × 2 × 1.6 cm

Photo Copyright © Joy Desor Mineralanalytik /e-rocks.com

Geology Page


Galkhaite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Getchell…

Galkhaite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral

Locality: Getchell Mine, Humboldt County, Nevada, United States of America

Size: 3.7 × 2.8 × 1.4 cm

Photo Copyright © Joy Desor Mineralanalytik /e-rocks.com

Geology Page


Native Copper | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…

Native Copper | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral

Locality: Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, USA, North America

Dimensions: 11.2 × 5.3 × 2.8 cm

Photo Copyright © Crystal Classics

Geology Page


Kerið Volcanic Crater Lake | #Geology #GeologyPage #Volcano…

Kerið Volcanic Crater Lake | #Geology #GeologyPage #Volcano #Crater #Iceland

Kerið is a volcanic crater lake located in the Grímsnes area in south Iceland, along the Golden Circle. It is one of several crater lakes in the area, known as Iceland’s Western Volcanic Zone, which includes the Reykjanes peninsula and the Langjökull Glacier, created as the land moved over a localized hotspot, but it is the one that has the most visually recognizable caldera still intact.

Geology Page


Ty-Gwyn Standing Stone, Anglesey, North Wales, 14.8.18. A…

Ty-Gwyn Standing Stone, Anglesey, North Wales, 14.8.18.

A single standing stone on a prehistoric route across Anglesey from the coast.

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Solar System 10 Things: Spitzer Space Telescope

Our Spitzer Space Telescope is celebrating 15 years since its launch on August 25, 2003. This remarkable spacecraft has made discoveries its designers never even imagined, including some of the seven Earth-size planets of TRAPPIST-1. Here are some key facts about Spitzer:

1. Spitzer is one of our Great Observatories.

Our Great Observatory Program aimed to explore the universe with four large space telescopes, each specialized in viewing the universe in different wavelengths of light. The other Great Observatories are our Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. By combining data from different kinds of telescopes, scientists can paint a fuller picture of our universe.

2. Spitzer operates in infrared light.

Infrared wavelengths of light, which primarily come from heat radiation, are too long to be seen with human eyes, but are important for exploring space — especially when it comes to getting information about something extremely far away. From turbulent clouds where stars are born to small asteroids close to Earth’s orbit, a wide range of phenomena can be studied in infrared light. Objects too faint or distant for optical telescopes to detect, hidden by dense clouds of space dust, can often be seen with Spitzer. In this way, Spitzer acts as an extension of human vision to explore the universe, near and far.

What’s more, Spitzer doesn’t have to contend with Earth’s atmosphere, daily temperature variations or day-night cycles, unlike ground-based telescopes. With a mirror less than 1 meter in diameter, Spitzer in space is more sensitive than even a 10-meter-diameter telescope on Earth.

3. Spitzer was the first spacecraft to fly in an Earth-trailing orbit.

Rather than circling Earth, as Hubble does, Spitzer orbits the Sun on almost the same path as Earth. But Spitzer moves slower than Earth, so the spacecraft drifts farther away from our planet each year.

This “Earth-trailing orbit” has many advantages. Being farther from Earth than a satellite, it receives less heat from our planet and enjoys a naturally cooler environment. Spitzer also benefits from a wider view of the sky by orbiting the Sun. While its field of view changes throughout the year, at any given time it can see about one-third of the sky. Our Kepler space telescope, famous for finding thousands of exoplanets – planets outside our solar system – also settled in an Earth-trailing orbit six years after Spitzer.

4. Spitzer began in a “cold mission.”

Spitzer has far outlived its initial requirement of 2.5 years. The Spitzer team calls the first 5.5 years “the cold mission” because the spacecraft’s instruments were deliberately cooled down during that time. Liquid helium coolant kept Spitzer’s instruments just a few degrees above absolute zero (which is minus 459 degrees Fahrenheit, or minus 273 degrees Celsius) in this first part of the mission.

5. The “warm mission” was still pretty cold.

Spitzer entered what was called the “warm mission” when the 360 liters of liquid helium coolant that was chilling its instruments ran out in May 2009.

At the “warm” temperature of minus 405 Fahrenheit, two of Spitzer’s instruments – the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) – stopped working. But two of the four detector arrays in the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) persisted. These “channels” of the camera have driven Spitzer’s explorations since then.

6. Spitzer wasn’t designed to study exoplanets, but made huge strides in this area.

Exoplanet science was in its infancy in 2003 when Spitzer launched, so the mission’s first scientists and engineers had no idea it could observe planets beyond our solar system. But the telescope’s accurate star-targeting system and the ability to control unwanted changes in temperature have made it a useful tool for studying exoplanets. During the Spitzer mission, engineers have learned how to control the spacecraft’s pointing more precisely to find and characterize exoplanets, too.

Using what’s called the “transit method,” Spitzer can stare at a star and detect periodic dips in brightness that happen when a planet crosses a star’s face. In one of its most remarkable achievements, Spitzer discovered three of the TRAPPIST-1 planets and confirmed that the system has seven Earth-sized planets orbiting an ultra-cool dwarf star. Spitzer data also helped scientists determine that all seven planets are rocky, and made these the best-understood exoplanets to date.

Spitzer can also use a technique called microlensing to find planets closer to the center of our galaxy. When a star passes in front of another star, the gravity of the first star can act as a lens, making the light from the more distant star appear brighter. Scientists are using microlensing to look for a blip in that brightening, which could mean that the foreground star has a planet orbiting it. Microlensing could not have been done early in the mission when Spitzer was closer to Earth, but now that the spacecraft is farther away, it has a better chance of measuring these events.

7. Spitzer is a window into the distant past.

The spacecraft has observed and helped discover some of the most distant objects in the universe, helping scientists understand where we came from. Originally, Spitzer’s camera designers had hoped the spacecraft would detect galaxies about 12 billion light-years away. In fact, Spitzer has surpassed that, and can see even farther back in time – almost to the beginning of the universe. In collaboration with Hubble, Spitzer helped characterize the galaxy GN-z11 about 13.4 billion light-years away, whose light has been traveling since 400 million years after the big bang. It is the farthest galaxy known.

8. Spitzer discovered Saturn’s largest ring.

Everyone knows Saturn has distinctive rings, but did you know its largest ring was only discovered in 2009, thanks to Spitzer? Because this outer ring doesn’t reflect much visible light, Earth-based telescopes would have a hard time seeing it. But Spitzer saw the infrared glow from the cool dust in the ring. It begins 3.7 million miles (6 million kilometers) from Saturn and extends about 7.4 million miles (12 million kilometers) beyond that.

9. The “Beyond Phase” pushes Spitzer to new limits.

In 2016, Spitzer entered its “Beyond phase,” with a name reflecting how the spacecraft operates beyond its original scope.

As Spitzer floats away from Earth, its increasing distance presents communication challenges. Engineers must point Spitzer’s antenna at higher angles toward the Sun in order to talk to our planet, which exposes the spacecraft to more heat. At the same time, the spacecraft’s solar panels receive less sunlight because they point away from the Sun, putting more stress on the battery.

The team decided to override some autonomous safety systems so Spitzer could continue to operate in this riskier mode. But so far, the Beyond phase is going smoothly.

10. Spitzer paves the way for future infrared telescopes.

Spitzer has identified areas of further study for our upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, planned to launch in 2021. Webb will also explore the universe in infrared light, picking up where Spitzer eventually will leave off. With its enhanced ability to probe planetary atmospheres, Webb may reveal striking new details about exoplanets that Spitzer found. Distant galaxies unveiled by Spitzer together with other telescopes will also be observed in further detail by Webb. The space telescope we are planning after that, WFIRST, will also investigate long-standing mysteries by looking at infrared light. Scientists planning studies with future infrared telescopes will naturally build upon the pioneering legacy of Spitzer.

Read the web version of this week’s “Solar System: 10 Things to Know” article HERE

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com. 


2018 August 14 M86 in the Central Virgo Cluster Image Credit…

2018 August 14

M86 in the Central Virgo Cluster
Image Credit & Copyright: Mark Hanson, Stan Watson Obs.

Explanation: Is there a bridge of gas connecting these two great galaxies? Quite possibly, but it is hard to be sure. M86 on the upper left is a giant elliptical galaxy near the center of the nearby Virgo Cluster of galaxies. Our Milky Way Galaxy is falling toward the Virgo Cluster, located about 50 million light years away. To the lower right of M86 is unusual spiral galaxy NGC 4438, which, together with angular neighbor NGC 4435, are known as the Eyes Galaxies (also Arp 120). Featured here is one of the deeper images yet taken of the region, indicating that red-glowing gas surrounds M86 and seemingly connects it to NGC 4438. The image spans about the size of the full moon. It is also known, however, that cirrus gas in our own Galaxy is superposed in front of the Virgo cluster, and observations of the low speed of this gas seem more consistent with this Milky Way origin hypothesis. A definitive answer may come from future research, which may also resolve how the extended blue arms of NGC 4435 were created.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180814.html


Menai Stone Circle and Sculptured Stone, Anglesey, North Wales,…

Menai Stone Circle and Sculptured Stone, Anglesey, North Wales, 14.8.18.

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Station Gears Up for Spacewalk During Advanced Science Work

ISS – Expedition 56 Mission patch.

August 13, 2018

Two Expedition 56 cosmonauts packed a Russian resupply ship today before preparing for Wednesday’s spacewalk. The other four International Space Station crew members worked on a variety of space science experiments and lab maintenance duties.

Cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev and Sergey Prokopyev are loading a Progress 69 (69P) cargo craft with trash ahead of its departure next week. The 69P delivered over three tons of food, fuel and supplies in February. The spacecraft will undock on Aug. 22 for a fiery disposal over the Pacific Ocean one week later after a series of engineering tests.

Image above: Expedition 56 Flight Engineer Ricky Arnold inspects U.S. spacesuits and tethers in the Quest airlock ahead of a pair of U.S. spacewalks currently planned for September. Image Credit: NASA.

The cosmonauts then turned their attention to Wednesday’s spacewalk when they will hand-deploy four tiny satellites, install antennas and cables and collect exposed science experiments. They continued setting up their spacewalking gear inside the Pirs airlock today. They will exit Pirs Wednesday at 11:58 a.m. EDT for about six hours of work outside the station’s Russian segment inside their Orlan spacesuits. NASA TV’s live coverage of the spacewalk begins at 11:15 a.m.

Commander Drew Feustel and Flight Engineer Serena Auñón-Chancellor performed the majority of the science work today onboard the orbital complex. Feustel explored how proteins crystallize and grow in microgravity to help scientists develop safer, more advanced drug therapies on Earth. Auñón-Chancellor started her day with a blood draw before researching radio spectrum usage in space which may benefit satellite communications. Finally, she studied the sedimentation of quartz and clay particles possibly assisting future planetary exploration missions and the petroleum industry on Earth.

Image above: Flying over North Atlantic Ocean, seen by EarthCam on ISS, speed: 27’622 Km/h, altitude: 408,08 Km, image captured by Roland Berga (on Earth in Switzerland) from International Space Station (ISS) using ISS-HD Live application with EarthCam’s from ISS on August 13, 2018 at 20:11 UTC. Image Credits: Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Flight Engineer Ricky Arnold spent some time inspecting U.S. spacesuit lights and replacing fan filters before assisting Feustel with the protein crystal growth experiment. Alexander Gerst of ESA checked out U.S. spacesuit batteries then moved on to verifying the functionality of fire extinguishers and breathing masks.

Related links:

Expedition 56: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition56/index.html

NASA TV’s live coverage of the spacewalk: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-television-to-air-russian-spacewalk-at-international-space-station

Proteins crystallize and grow in microgravity: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7690

Radio spectrum usage in space: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7752

Sedimentation of quartz and clay particles: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=7668

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


Deep Breath – with Labels! Image of the Week – August 13,…

Deep Breath – with Labels! Image of the Week – August 13, 2018


Description: Transmission electron micrograph of a ferret alveolar type II cell has rough endoplasmic reticulum, RER, lamellar bodies, LB, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, M, basement membrane, grey line, telomerase indicated with DNA icon and oval, alveolar space, white.

Author: Marian Miller

Licensing: Public Domain: This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. However, as is the norm in scientific publishing and as a matter of courtesy, any user should credit the content provider for any public or private use of this image whenever possible.

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British Museum to return looted antiquities to Iraq

The British Museum is returning to Iraq a collection of looted antiquities up to 5,000 years old, after identifying the exact temple they came from in a unique piece of archaeological detective work.

British Museum to return looted antiquities to Iraq
Sumerian cuneiform-inscribed fired clay cone [Credit: British Museum]

The eight objects will be handed to the Iraqi embassy on Friday during a private ceremony at the London-based museum from where they will return to Iraq. The main items of the collection are three clay cones.

It also includes a polished, yellowish river pebble, a fragmentary white gypsum mace-head, a white marble amulet pendant in the form of a reclining bull or buffalo and a red marble square stamp seal or amulet depicting two similar animals facing in opposite directions.

British Museum to return looted antiquities to Iraq
Jemdet Nasr bull amulet [Credit: British Museum]

The items were confiscated by British police in May 2003, a few months after the US-led invasion of Iraq, from a now-defunct dealer in London who failed to provide any paperwork for them.
Normally the detailed provenance of such items would be hard to establish, but three of them, fired clay cones, carried Sumerian inscriptions that gave a clue to their origins.

British Museum to return looted antiquities to Iraq
Mace-head fragment [Credit: British Museum]

In a remarkable coincidence, they were identical to cones found on a site in the ancient city of Girsu, now known as Tello, in southern Iraq, where the British Museum has been training Iraqi archaeologists since 2016.

“The broken objects the robbers left next to the looting holes were broken cones with exactly the same inscription that we have on the cones that were seized,” said the team’s lead archaeologist, Sebastien Rey.

British Museum to return looted antiquities to Iraq
Jemdet Nasr-era stamp seal and modern impression [Credit: British Museum]

Identical cones were also found in the walls of a site at the Eninnu temple – pinpointing the looted items’ source with a level of accuracy that Rey said was “completely unique”.
“We could have an idea that maybe these objects came from southern Iraq, but to be able to narrow it down to the particular site, and even to the particular holes – this is extremely rare,” he told AFP news agency.

British Museum to return looted antiquities to Iraq
Group of 8 ancient artefacts identified by the British Museum and returned to Iraq
[Credit: British Museum]

The marbles in the collection both date back to 3000 BC, whereas the cones are believed to be from about 2200 BC.

The identical cuneiform inscriptions on the cones reference the god the temple was built for and the king who built it.

British Museum to return looted antiquities to Iraq
Looting holes at Tello site [Credit: British Museum]

Similar cones have been found in many other sites, but Rey said that until the Tello excavation began in 2016, no one really knew what they were for.
Finding them in their original positions inside temple walls led experts to conclude they were votive objects, dedicated to the gods by Mesopotamian kings.

British Museum to return looted antiquities to Iraq
Cones excavated from the walls of the temple in 1960 [Credit: British Museum]

Iraq’s ambassador to the United Kingdom, Salih Husain Ali, praised the museum’s staff for their “exceptional efforts” in identifying the antiquities.

“Such collaboration between Iraq and the United Kingdom is vital for the preservation and the protection of the Iraqi heritage,” he said in a statement issued by the museum. The protection of antiquities is an international responsibility and in Iraq, we aspire to the global cooperation to protect the heritage of Iraq and to restore its looted objects.”

Source: AFP [August 09, 2018]




‘In Search of Stabiae’ at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

“In Search of Stabia” is the title of an exhibition held at the Antiquarium of Pompeii, presents a voyage of discovery through the history of Ancient Stabiae, using evidence left to us by the finds from the Necropolis of Madonna delle Grazie, with its numerous burials, as well as the connected extra-urban Sanctuary of Privati, with the votive offerings found there which were connected to women, and the protection of fertility and of giving birth.

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples
Credit: Pompeii – Parco Archeologico

Together they constitute two contexts of great importance in the reconstruction of the Stabian territory settlement dynamics, and for their importance in Pre-Roman times.

The Necropolis of Madonna delle Grazie

Between the end of the 7th and the beginning of the 6th century BC, deep transformations in territorial structures and settlement dynamics were triggered by the arrival of new peoples, such as the Etruscans. The populations of the most inland areas of the Sarno plan and the Monti Lattari stretched as far as the Gulf of Naples and opened up to new contacts.

The necropolis of Madonna delle Grazie recounts this complex phase of transformation and offers us information on the inhabitants of the ancient centres which surrounded Pompeii. Investigations have discovered around 300 tombs spread out over an area of around 15,000m2, which spanned a period from the second half of the 7th century BC until the end of the 3rd century BC; they are pit grave, stone coffin or tile-covered burials.

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples
Credit: Pompeii – Parco Archeologico

The displayed objects outline the identity of the deceased and the adoption of wine consumption forms linked to the Greek and Etruscan world: ceramic blend, bucchero cups and goblets, as well as imported crockery, which was also imitated locally, indicating the social status of the deceased.

There are also iron spits and andirons which indicate the cooking of meats, and clothing elements such as bronze fibulae and rings. In later phases (5th – 4th centuries BC), plain vessels, black painted wares and, more rarely, red-figure vases prevailed, indicating social transformations and an adherence to new cultural models.

The Sanctuary of Privati

The Sanctuary of Privati spans a ledge of the Monti Lattari, which slopes panoramically towards the Gulf of Stabiae, and formerly marked the ancient boundary of Stabian territory, in a strategic position for controlling the routes connecting the Sarno Valley and the Sorrento-Amalfi area.

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples
Credit: Pompeii – Parco Archeologico

The Sanctuary, beginning in the 4th century BC, was probably connected to women, and the watching over of fertility and births, as indicated by the terracottas with feminine images, as well as images of children and certain animals.
At the centre of the ledge was a large pit with votive elements, which were often intentionally broken before being deposited, mixed in with burnt earth and animal bones.

The votive offerings were likely thrown away to make room for new offerings for the restructuring of the Sanctuary between the 2nd and 1st century BC.

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples

'In Search of Stabia' at the Pompeii Antiquarium, Naples
Credit: Pompeii – Parco Archeologico

Ceramics predominate among the votives, with shapes linked to the ritual use of water and offering of liquids. Some kinds of statuettes, such as the figure of Athena with a Phrygian cap and Heracles, establish the Sanctuary of Privati as part of a network of places of worship which dotted the Sorrento peninsula, from the Doric Temple of Pompeii to the Athenaion of the Punta della Campanella.

The exhibition will be on display until the 31st January 2019.

Source: Pompeii – Parco Archeologico [August 10, 2018]





https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...