понедельник, 6 августа 2018 г.

Turtle Control Life unfolds to a blueprint written in our DNA,…


Turtle Control


Life unfolds to a blueprint written in our DNA, but our environment also plays a huge role in how we develop. The outside world affects molecules surrounding important genes, changing how they’re read or expressed. These epigenetic controls also change as we age, or with some diseases. In red-eared slider turtles, temperature affects the epigenetics around a gene called Kdm6b, which helps to decide their sex. Here a turtle gonad develops into a testicle at 26 degrees (left), yet by blockingKdm6b either with genetic engineering (middle) or by turning up the heat to 32 degrees (right), the turtle develops ovaries instead. Red fluorescence highlights the turtle’s own future sex cells – sperm or eggs. Although temperature doesn’t affect mammalian sex determination, these turtles offer a peek at how epigenetics works during development, providing clues to changes in human development that go beyond our genes.


Written by John Ankers



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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/turtle-control-life-unfolds-to-a-blueprint-written-in-our-dna/

Bronze Age Rock Art, Yorkshire Museum, 6.8.18.Located outside…



Bronze Age Rock Art, Yorkshire Museum, 6.8.18.


Located outside the Yorkshire Museum is this displaced piece of Bronze Age Rock Art. Donated to the museum so long ago that no one can remember where it comes from, it now sits outside the museum in the York Gardens. Can someone start a campaign to get it relocated inside the building to preserve it for posterity? Most people don’t even spot it as they enter the museum; this is a sorely unloved piece of prehistoric art. 


Come on Yorkshire Museum, surely this is better than a stone bench or shoe scraper?


Source link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/bronze-age-rock-art-yorkshire-museum-6-8-18-located-outside/

2018 August 6 Live: Cosmic Rays from Minnesota Image Credit:…


2018 August 6


Live: Cosmic Rays from Minnesota
Image Credit: Fermilab, NuMI, NOvA Collaboration


Explanation: Cosmic rays from outer space go through your body every second. Typically, they do you no harm. The featured image shows some of these fast moving particles as streaks going through Fermilab’s NOvA Far Detector located in Ash River, Minnesota, USA. Although the image updates every 15 seconds, it only shows cosmic rays that occurred over a (changing) small fraction of that time, and mostly shows only one type of particle: muons. The NOvA Far Detector’s main purpose is not to detect cosmic rays, though, but rather neutrinos from the NuMI beam shot through the Earth from Fermilab near Chicago, Illinois, USA, 810 kilometers away. Only a few neutrino events are expected in NOvA per week, though. The NuMI / NOvA experiment is allowing humanity to better explore the nature of neutrinos, for example how frequently they change type during their trip. Cosmic rays themselves were discovered only about 100 years ago and can not only alter computer memory, but may have helped to create DNA mutations that resulted in, eventually, humans.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180806.html


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/2018-august-6-live-cosmic-rays-from-minnesota-image-credit/

Historical tomb chambers found in southeast Iran

Over 500 ancient tomb chambers have recently been found across the Mehdiabad-Oliya cemetery, which is located in Rigan county, in the southeastern Iranian province of Kerman.











Historical tomb chambers found in southeast Iran
Credit: Tehran Times

“A team of archaeologists discovered more than 500 ancient tombs during a magnetic survey to determine their dispersion across an 8-hectare area of land,” ISNA quoted Kourosh Mohammadkhani, the team leader, as saying on Tuesday.


The evidences were obtained by Archaeo-Physics research methodology that deals with a powerful sub-surface imaging tool, the report said.


Initial scientific studies on earthenware excavated form the tomb chambers suggest they date from Achaemenid and Sassanid eras, Mohammadkhani added.


The sprawling Kerman province has been a cultural melting pot since antiquity, blending Persian culture with that of subcontinental tribe dwellers.


It is home to myriad historical sites and scenic landscapes such as the UNESCO-registered Bam and its Cultural Landscape, Bazaar-e Sartasari, Jabalieh Dome, Ganjali Khan Bathhouse, Malek Jameh Mosque and Shahdad Desert to name a few.


Source: Tehran Times [August 02, 2018]



TANN



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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/historical-tomb-chambers-found-in-southeast-iran/

2,100-year-old statues discovered in northeastern Turkey

Researchers say they have discovered 2,100-year-old statues during the first scientific archaeological excavations at the ancient Kurul Castle in the port city of Ordu in Turkey’s Black Sea region.











2,100-year-old statues discovered in northeastern Turkey
Credit: Arkeolojihaber

Carried out by a team of 25 archaeologists and 15 workers, the excavations are being supervised by Professor Süleyman Şenyurt of the Department of Archaeology at Gazi University.


Speaking to the press on Tuesday, Şenyurt said the statues were found close to the surface, near what used to be a ritual area, and were made from baked earth.


According to Şenyurt, statues depicting the Greek gods Dionysus and Pan were found, along with several containers with goat figures on them.











2,100-year-old statues discovered in northeastern Turkey
Credit: Arkeolojihaber

“These containers are used in rituals,” he said.


Adding that another statue of a child was found in the same area, Şenyurt said he was hopeful about future discoveries.


The excavations, which began recently, are estimated to continue until October, with the castle expected to be opened to visitors in its entirety next year.











2,100-year-old statues discovered in northeastern Turkey
Credit: Arkeolojihaber

In the past years, researchers discovered a 110-centimeter-long, marble statue of Mother Goddess Cybele in the 2,300-year-old castle.


Kurul, which is believed to be Mithridates VI’s castle, was a significant settlement, according to Professor Şenyurt.


The Mithridatic dynasty, also known as the Pontic dynasty, founded by Mithridates I Ktistes (Mithridates III of Cius) in 281 BC. The dynasty reached its greatest extent under the rule of Mithridates IV, who is considered the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus.


Source: Daily Sabah [August 02, 2018]



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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/2100-year-old-statues-discovered-in-northeastern-turkey/

5,000-year-old snake-head amulet discovered in Belarus

An amulet dating back to the 3rd millennium BC was found by archaeologists on the Krivinsky peatland near Beshenkovichi, Vitebsk Oblast, said local news sources.











5,000-year-old snake-head amulet discovered in Belarus
Credit: Belarus News

The archaeologists are carrying out digs of the Osovets-2 site dating back to the Middle Neolithic, the Later Neolithic and the Bronze Age. The site is located near the village of Osovets in Beshenkovichi District. It is one of ten archaeological sites of the Krivinsky Peat Settlements.


“We are studying a cultural layer. We keep finding many things – pottery fragments, flint flakes used to make flake tools, items from bones and flake. Yesterday night we came across a fragment of a zoomorphic amulet in the form of a snake head, presumably a natrix. Today we have discovered a fragment of an amber button and a bone flute. All these finds date back to approximately mid-3rd millennium before Christ, in other words, they were made some 4,500 years ago,” said Maksim Chernyavsky, head of the expedition from the History Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.


The Krivinsky Peat Settlements date back to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. A layer of peat covers unique wooden and bone items, amulets and amber. Belarusian archaeologists carry out digs at this site every year and find ancient items here every time.

Source: Belarus News [August 02, 2018]



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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/5000-year-old-snake-head-amulet-discovered-in-belarus/

Hellenistic, Roman tombs unearthed in southwestern Turkey

Archaeologists have uncovered and restored seven tombs belonging to Hellenistic and Roman periods in Euromos, an ancient city in southwestern Turkey.











Hellenistic, Roman tombs unearthed in southwestern Turkey
Credit: Anadolu Agency

At least 25 academics and students from both Turkey and abroad are carrying out excavation work in the coastal town of Milas in Mugla province. The team is led by Abuzer Kizil, a lecturer at Mugla University.











Hellenistic, Roman tombs unearthed in southwestern Turkey
Credit: Anadolu Agency

“Euromos is the most important city after Mylasa. These tombs consist of Roman and Hellenistic tiles and sarcophagi,” Kizil told Anadolu Agency.











Hellenistic, Roman tombs unearthed in southwestern Turkey
Credit: Anadolu Agency

The ancient city of Euromos, founded in the 6th century BC, contains numerous interesting buildings, inluding the temple of Zeus Lepsinos from the Roman times during the reign of Roman emperor Hadrian between 117 and 138.











Hellenistic, Roman tombs unearthed in southwestern Turkey
Credit: Anadolu Agency

The temple of Zeus Lespinos, dedicated to the Greek God, stood at the foothill, according to Turkish archaeological news website.











Hellenistic, Roman tombs unearthed in southwestern Turkey
Credit: Anadolu Agency

Excavations in Euromos were first carried out by Turkish archaeologists in the 70s. However, it has not yet completed.


Author: Durmus Genc | Source: Anadolu Agency [August 03, 2018]



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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/hellenistic-roman-tombs-unearthed-in-southwestern-turkey/

Ancient mosque unearthed in southwest Iran

A team of Iranian archaeologists have recently unearthed parts of an ancient mosque in Arjan, a historical region in the southwestern Khuzestan province.











Ancient mosque unearthed in southwest Iran
Credit: Tehran Times

“The layout of a mosque was perceived after initial studies were carried out on aerial photographs… moreover, historical documents implied the existence of a mosque in the region,” said archaeologist Ehsan Yaqmaei who heads the excavation, Mehr reported.


“In this regard, we dug two trenches which ultimately resulted in discovering courtyard and a portico… by extending the trenches westward, we found several column bases made of stone and Sarooj [a traditional water-resistant mortar used in Iranian architecture],” he explained.


Findings suggest that the mosque dates back to the early Islamic era when such structures predominantly enjoyed hypostyle halls with abundant columns, he said, adding “The exact age of the mosque would be determined during next round of excavations or whenever an inscription or written document is found.”


Early mosques of Iran inherited the Sassanian vaulting tradition to have a place large enough for the congregation to assemble. However, in the course of history, the colonnaded prayer halls were replaced by larger, square-shaped and domed interiors.


Research Institute for Cultural Heritage and Tourism supervises the excavation project, which its first season will come to an end on August 6.


Source: Tehran Times [August 03, 2018]



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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/ancient-mosque-unearthed-in-southwest-iran/

‘Pot’ burial discovered in Armenia’s Tigranakert

A ‘pot’ burial was unearthed during the archaeological excavation at the ancient Armenian town of Tigranakert, in the Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh Republic/NKR), Hamlet Petrosyan, head of the Tigranakert archaeological expedition told Armenian News.











'Pot' burial discovered in Armenia's Tigranakert
Credit: Armenian News

He added that even in 2010-2012 unique ‘pot’ burials dating back to the 1st century BC, were discovered during archaeological excavations at Karabakh’s Tigranakert.











'Pot' burial discovered in Armenia's Tigranakert
Credit: Armenian News

This year it was decided to continue excavations of ‘pot’ burials, which brought interesting results.











'Pot' burial discovered in Armenia's Tigranakert
Credit: Armenian News

According to Petrosyan, jewellery (earrings, rings, etc.) made from silver, copper and other materials, weapons, as well as ancient coins, were found during the excavations.











'Pot' burial discovered in Armenia's Tigranakert
Credit: Armenian News

One of the interesting finds was a ‘pot’ burial in which a man and a woman were buried together.


Source: Armenian News [August 03, 2018]



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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/pot-burial-discovered-in-armenias-tigranakert/

HiPOD (6 August 2018): A Flow over a Crater Rim in Far Eastern…



HiPOD (6 August 2018): A Flow over a Crater Rim in Far Eastern Daedalia Planum 


   – Lava flow over-topped crater rim and some lava poured down crater wall. Perhaps it is possible to use knowledge of crater rim, wall (slope), etc., as well as lava flow surface morphology, to deduce flow physical properties at the time of emplacement. (251 km above the surface. Black and white is less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km.)


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/hipod-6-august-2018-a-flow-over-a-crater-rim-in-far-eastern/

8th Century CE Rock Cut Graves and St. Patrick’s Chapel,…











8th Century CE Rock Cut Graves and St. Patrick’s Chapel, Horsham, Lancashire, 6.8.18.


This rocky headland possesses distinctive rock cut graves and the ruins of an 8th century chapel that was extended in the 10th century. A hogback stone in the nearby church suggests this was a site visited by Vikings or at least influenced by them.


Source link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/8th-century-ce-rock-cut-graves-and-st-patricks-chapel/

Horses may have been ridden in battle as early as the Bronze Age (Chechushkov et al....

Over at the Journal of Archaeological Science at this LINK. Below is the abstract. Emphasis is mine:



The morphological similarities/dissimilarities between antler and bone-made cheekpieces have been employed in several studies to construct a relative chronology for Bronze Age Eurasia. Believed to constitute a part of the horse bit, the cheekpieces appear in ritual contexts everywhere from the Mycenaean Shaft Graves to the Bronze Age kurgan cemeteries in Siberia. However, these general understandings of the function and morphological changes of cheekpieces have never been rigorously tested. This paper presents statistical analyses (e.g., similarities, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis) that document differences in cheekpiece morphology, comparing shield-like, plate-formed, and rod-shaped types in the context of temporal change and spatial variation. We investigated changes in function over time through the use of experimental replicas used in bridling horses. This experimental work supports the hypothesis that these objects served to bridle harnessed (shield-like) or ridden (plate-formed and rod-shaped) horses. Moreover, comparison of use wear on the ancient artifacts with the replicas provides insight into how long the artifacts were used before they were deposited in the funeral contexts or discarded. These observations support that the Sintashta chariots dating back to ca. 2100 BC were ridden and suggest the end of the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1500–1200 BC) as the earliest possible date for horseback riding in warfare. This study highlights changes in horse exploitation and simultaneous shifts in human societies.



Chechushkov et al., Early horse bridle with cheekpieces as a marker of social change: An experimental and statistical study, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 97, September 2018, Pages 125-136, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.07.012
See also…
Of horses and men
An early Iranian, obviously
Graeco-Aryan parallels

Source


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/horses-may-have-been-ridden-in-battle-as-early-as-the-bronze-age-chechushkov-et-al-2018/

Blast from the past: The Poltavka outlier

The Rakhigarhi ancient DNA paper is coming soon. Very soon.
Yep, you’ve probably read this sort of thing many times in the last few years, including here. But this time, by all accounts, it’s really happening. For the latest Indian press teaser on the topic check out: We Are All Harappans.
At least I don’t have to write up a blog post for the occasion, because I already wrote one over two years ago, and it’s still current, more or less. Click on the screen cap below to teleport yourselves back to January 2016. And make sure to peruse the comments under the article. Hilarious stuff.



Of course, since then I’ve written many more posts dealing with South Asian population history, including some that are based on recently published ancient DNA from the region. Here are my picks:
On the doorstep of India
The mystery of the Sintashta people
Yamnaya isn’t from Iran just like R1a isn’t from India
Indian confirmation bias
The protohistoric Swat Valley “Indo-Aryans” might not be exactly what we think they are
The Out-of-India Theory (OIT) challenge: can we hear a viable argument for once?

Source


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/blast-from-the-past-the-poltavka-outlier/

Stormy seas in Carina

NGC 3199

Credit: ESO


This ESO Picture of the Week shows a crescent-shaped cocoon of gas and dust — a nebula known as NGC 3199, which lies 12 000 light-years away from Earth. It appears to plough through the star-studded sky like a ship through stormy seas. This imagery is very appropriate due to NGC 3199’s location in Carina — a southern constellation which is named after the keel of a ship!


NGC 3199 was discovered by British astronomer John Herschel in 1834 as he compiled his famous catalogue of interesting night sky objects. The nebula has been the subject of numerous observations since, including those by ESO’s 8.2-metre Very Large Telescope (eso0310, eso1117), and 2.6-metre VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The latter made the observations that comprise this image. The nebula’s bright crescent feature is now known to be part of a much larger but fainter bubble of gas and dust.


The nebula contains a notable star named HD 89358, which is an unusual type of extremely hot and massive star known as a Wolf-Rayet star. HD 89358 generates incredibly intense stellar winds and outflows that smash into and sweep up the surrounding material, contributing to NGC 3199’s twisted and lopsided morphology.


The VST, which began operations in 2011, can image a large area of sky at once — an area twice the size of the full Moon — with its 256-megapixel camera, OmegaCAM. This allows it to characterise interesting objects which its larger neighbour, ESO’s Very Large Telescope, can then explore in even greater detail.



Source: ESO/Potw




Archive link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/stormy-seas-in-carina/

Nuclei! Image of the Week – August 6, 2018CIL:40126 -…


Nuclei! Image of the Week – August 6, 2018


CIL:40126http://cellimagelibrary.org/images/40126


Description: The dentate gyrus of a transgenic mouse engineered to overexpress a mutant form of human alpha synuclein (A53T), immunolabeled for mGluR5 (red), alpha synuclein (green) and counterstained with DAPI (blue) to reveal cell nuclei. This image has been downsampled from the raw data image, which can be accessed using the link provided to the Cell Centered Database.


Authors: D.L. Price, E. Rockenstein, M. Ellisman, and E. Masliah


Licensing: Attribution Only: This image is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License


Archive link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/nuclei-image-of-the-week-august-6-2018cil40126/

Blakeley Raise Prehistoric Stone Circle, Cumbria, 4.8.18. A…











Blakeley Raise Prehistoric Stone Circle, Cumbria, 4.8.18.


A reset stone circle positioned on a plateau on a hillside facing out to the Irish Sea.


Source link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/blakeley-raise-prehistoric-stone-circle-cumbria-4-8-18-a/

‘Devil’s Arrows’, Boroughbridge. Yorkshire, 5.8.18.Three…











‘Devil’s Arrows’, Boroughbridge. Yorkshire, 5.8.18.


Three aligned massive prehistoric monoliths made from millstone grit with fluted tops. These three prehistoric monuments seemingly align to the nearby Thornborough Henge complex.


Source link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/08/devils-arrows-boroughbridge-yorkshire-5-8-18-three/

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