вторник, 31 июля 2018 г.

HiPOD (31 July 2018): It’s All about That Flow   – There are a…

HiPOD (31 July 2018): It’s All about That Flow

   – There are a number of crevasse-like features here. (297 km above the surface, less than 5 km across.)

NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


Геода грозовое яйцо из магмы вулкана


Thundereggs встречаются в потоках риолитовой лавы. Они образуются в газовых карманах в лаве, которые действуют как формы, от действия воды, просачивающейся через пористую породу, несущую кремнезем в растворе. Охлажденные пузырьки постепенно заполнялись водой, просачивающейся через пористую породу с богатыми количествами кремнезема (кварца). Отложения выровнялись и заполняли полость, сначала более темным материалом матрицы, затем внутренним ядром агата или халцедона. Различные цвета происходят из-за различий в минералах, найденных в почве и скале, через которую прошла вода.

Thunder Egg



Symphony of Stars: The Science of Stellar Sound Waves

This artist’s concept shows how sound waves travel through a hypothetical star that has an orbiting planet.
Credits: Gabriel Pérez Díaz, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

We can’t hear it with our ears, but the stars in the sky are performing a concert, one that never stops. The biggest stars make the lowest, deepest sounds, like tubas and double basses. Small stars have high-pitched voices, like celestial flutes. These virtuosos don’t just play one “note” at a time, either — our own Sun has thousands of different sound waves bouncing around inside it at any given moment.

Understanding these stellar harmonies represents a revolution in astronomy. By “listening” for stellar sound waves with telescopes, scientists can figure out what stars are made of, how old they are, how big they are and how they contribute to the evolution of our Milky Way galaxy as a whole. The technique is called asteroseismology. Just as earthquakes (or Earth’s seismic waves) tell us about the inside of Earth, stellar waves — resulting in vibrations or “star quakes” — reveal the secret inner workings of stars.  

NASA’s Kepler space telescope, now approaching the end of its mission, has been a key player in that revolution, delivering observations of waves in tens of thousands of stars since its 2009 launch.

NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), which launched in April 2018, may observe sound waves in up to one million red giants — the massive, evolved stars that represent what our Sun will look like in about 5 billion years. While both Kepler and TESS are most famous for hunting for planets beyond our solar system (exoplanets), they are also powerful, sensitive tools for detecting stellar vibrations. And the more we know about stars, the more we know about planets that orbit them.

Continue reading this story

Written by Elizabeth Landau

Editor: Tony Greicius

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Колебания Земли во время землетрясения...

3D satellite, GPS earthquake maps isolate impacts in real time






Formula: Cu2CO3(OH)2

System: Monoclinic

Colour: Bright green, with …

Lustre: Adamantine, Vitreous, Silky, Dull, Earthy

Hardness: 3½ – 4

Name: Named in antiquity (see Pliny the Elder, 79 CE) molochitus after the Greek μαλαχή, “mallows,” in allusion to the green color of the leaves. Known in the new spelling, malachites, at least by 1661.

Locality: Nizhne-Taglisk, Ural Mountains, Russia.


Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. This opaque, green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, and most often forms botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fractures and spaces, deep underground, where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicular prisms. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also occur.

Physical Properties of Malachite

Cleavage: {201} Perfect, {010} Fair

Color: Green, Dark green, Blackish green.

Density: 3.6 – 4, Average = 3.8

Diaphaneity: Translucent to subtranslucent to opaque

Fracture: Uneven – Flat surfaces (not cleavage) fractured in an uneven pattern.

Hardness: 3.5-4 – Copper Penny-Fluorite

Luminescence: Non-fluorescent.

Luster: Vitreous – Silky

Streak: light green


Azurite, Malachite. Locality: Morenci, Copper Mountain District, Shannon Mts, Greenlee Co., Arizona, USA. Dimensions: 4.4 cm x 4.1 cm x 2.2 cm. Photo Copyright © Rob Lavinsky & irocks.com

Malachite. Locality: Brixlegg – Rattenberg, Brixlegg – Schwaz area, Inn valley, North Tyrol, Tyrol, Austria. FOV: 15 mm. Photo Copyright © Antonio Borrelli

Malachite. Locality: Brixlegg – Rattenberg, Brixlegg – Schwaz area, Inn valley, North Tyrol, Tyrol, Austria. FOV: 22 mm. Photo Copyright © Manfred Kampf

Malachite, Azurite. Locality: Seabra, Bahia, Brazil. Dimensions: 4.5 cm. Photo Copyright © Dick Dionne



2018 July 31 Layers of the South Pole of Mars Image Credit…

2018 July 31

Layers of the South Pole of Mars
Image Credit & License: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin; Bill Dunford

Explanation: What lies beneath the layered south pole of Mars? A recent measurement with ground-penetrating radar from ESA’s Mars Express satellite has detected a bright reflection layer consistent with an underground lake of salty water. The reflection comes from about 1.5-km down but covers an area 200-km across. Liquid water evaporates quickly from the surface of Mars, but a briny confined lake, such as implied by the radar reflection, could last much longer and be a candidate to host life such as microbes. Pictured, an infrared, green, and blue image of the south pole of Mars taken by Mars Express in 2012 shows a complex mixture of layers of dirt, frozen carbon dioxide, and frozen water.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180731.html



https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...