пятница, 27 июля 2018 г.

New excavation campaign at the Villa Arianna in Stabiae

The Roman town of Stabiae, like Pompeii and Herculaneum, was also destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. Discovered in 1749 and explored by the Bourbons until 1782, the site was subwquently abandoned. Excavations only resumed in 1950 by the school principal, Libero d’Orsi.











New excavation campaign at the Villa Arianna in Stabiae
Fresco fragment from the Villa Arianna [Credit:La Repubblica]

Now, the restorers and scholars of the State Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg are investigating room 71 of the Villa Arianna: a cryptoporticus probably in the process of remodelling before the eruption in 79 AD.











New excavation campaign at the Villa Arianna in Stabiae
Clay statuette recovered by the experts of the Hermitage: it was already discovered by the Bourbons
and discarded during the excavation [Credit:La Repubblica]

Surveys of the long corridor, already partly cleaned and restored in the summer of 2017, confirmed that the entire area was used as a dump site in the 18th century, at the end of the excavation campaigns at the Villa Arianna conducted by the Bourbons.











New excavation campaign at the Villa Arianna in Stabiae
Terracotta lamps [Credit:La Repubblica]

The main element of interest that emerged during last year’s excavation campaign was the discovery of an intact section of a collapsed part of the ceiling and the remains of the plaster layer from the encased room 71.











New excavation campaign at the Villa Arianna in Stabiae
Roman Key [Credit:La Repubblica]

The project of the summer of 2018 provided for the extension to the south (on an additional 30 square metres) of the interventions begun last season, in order to learn more about the excavations of the 18th century and also to determine the state of this sector of the villa during the moments immediately preceding its destruction in 79 AD.











New excavation campaign at the Villa Arianna in Stabiae
Cleaning phase and excavation of the collapsed ceiling on the floor of the cryptoporticus
[Credit:La Repubblica]

The working group, composed of 13 archaeologists and restorers of Russian and Italian nationality, under the supervision of the Pompeii Archaeological Park, was involved in both excavation and restoration activities and in the preliminary study of the numerous materials found in the Bourbon backfill layer.


Source: La Repubblica [July 23, 2018]



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Excavations at Himera in Sicily uncover Sanctuary buildings

Interesting discoveries have made during the course of the 2018 excavation campaign carried out by the University of Bern in the ancient Greek colony of Himera in Sicily, destroyed in 409 BC by the Carthaginians.











Excavations at Himera in Sicily uncover Sanctuary buildings
Credit: University of Bern

This 7th campaign, now in its final phase, is concentrated on an area known as the ‘Piano del Tamburino’ where several ‘sacred areas’ have been identified.











Excavations at Himera in Sicily uncover Sanctuary buildings
Credit: University of Bern

One of these areas under excavation is characterized by a vast open space of over 100 square metres with three altars and numerous depositions, and which is thought to have been the heart of the sanctuary where the various rites and sacred activities took place.











Excavations at Himera in Sicily uncover Sanctuary buildings
Credit: University of Bern

This open space was surrounded by two buildings, both of which were investigated. These seem to be related to sacred functions and to the storage and preparation of food. Indeed, the discovery of several domed ovens and the abundant remains of plates and cups suggests that the sanctuary supplied food and bread to visiting supplicants.











Excavations at Himera in Sicily uncover Sanctuary buildings
Credit: University of Bern

A large number of water pitcher (hydria) sherds were also found, and a possible aquifer was located nearby, highlighting the importance of water not only as a source of life, but above all as an essential purifying element for entering the sanctuary.











Excavations at Himera in Sicily uncover Sanctuary buildings
Credit: University of Bern

The excavation is supervised by Prof. Elena Mango of the University of Bern, Dr. Francesca Spatafora, Director of the Archaeological Centre of Palermo, and the Head of Himera Park, Dr. Maria Rosa Panzica.


Source: BlogSicilia [July 23, 2018]



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Roadworks reveal remains of Iron Age village in York

Archaeologists have discovered evidence of what appears to be a prehistoric settlement on the outskirts of York.











Roadworks reveal remains of Iron Age village in York
An enclosure measuring 16 metres across is believed to date from the Iron Age [Credit: City of York Council]

The earliest find – a large ring ditch which could have been an enclosure or roundhouse – appears to date from the Iron Age, around 2,500 years ago. At around 16 metres in diameter, it is one of the biggest to be unearthed in York.











Roadworks reveal remains of Iron Age village in York
The discovery was made during improvement works along the A1237 [Credit: City of York Council]

Pits and what looks to be a hearth have been found alongside, during roadworks at the roundabout of the junction with the road to Wetherby, on York’s outer ring road.











Roadworks reveal remains of Iron Age village in York
View of the excavations along the A1237 [Credit: City of York Council]

A nearby ditch has produced a series of related finds, including decorated pottery fragments, a piece of quern-stone and industrial waste material in the form of molten slag.











Roadworks reveal remains of Iron Age village in York
Overhead view of the excavations along the A1237 [Credit: City of York Council]

Fragments of possible pumice-stone, a volcanic rock not found locally, have also been discovered indicating possible connections with the wider prehistoric world. Finds have also been made to the north of the enclosure with a series of other ditches that may indicate the boundaries of the settlement.











Roadworks reveal remains of Iron Age village in York
Remains of a hearth found at the site [Credit: City of York Council]

There is evidence of similar activity from later periods, with medieval ditches cutting through the existing ones, showing how the agricultural landscape changed over the centuries.


Ian Milsted, the York Archaeological Trust’s head of archaeology, whose members were on site from the start of the roadworks, described the finds as “important”, adding: “We will now analyse the finds to understand the story of the people who lived here before the Romans founded the city.”


Source: Yorkshire Post [July 24, 2018]



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Making Movies Back in the Victorian era, forensic scientists…


Making Movies


Back in the Victorian era, forensic scientists believed that the last image a person saw before their death would be captured on the retina at the back of their eyeball. While this idea proved to be useless for solving crimes, there’s still a lot of interest in using modern techniques to decode what we see based on the activity of the nerve cells in the retina. Here, researchers have analysed the signals produced by a small patch of around 100 nerve cells in a rat’s retina as the animal watches a pattern of black dots moving on a white background (left panels). Using a complex computer algorithm, the scientists have decoded the signals to reproduce a short movie of the moving dots (right) with greater accuracy and definition than previous methods (middle). It’s not exactly HD TV, but it’s a step forward in understanding how the visual system processes information.


Written by Kat Arney



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HiPOD (27 July 2018): Light-Toned Layering in Louros Valles  …



HiPOD (27 July 2018): Light-Toned Layering in Louros Valles


   – Louros Valles is to the east of Noctis Labyrinthus. (257 km above the surface. Black and white is less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km).


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/hipod-27-july-2018-light-toned-layering-in-louros-valles/

2018 July 27 Mars Opposition Image Credit & Copyright:…


2018 July 27


Mars Opposition
Image Credit & Copyright: NASA, ESA, and STScI


Explanation: Look opposite the Sun in the sky tonight and you’ll see Mars at its brightest. Also within days of its closest approach Mars rises at sunset, near its brightest and best for telescopic observers too, except for the dust storm still blanketing the Red Planet. These two Hubble Space Telescope images compare Mars’ appearance near its 2016 and 2018 oppositions. In 2016 the martian atmosphere was clear. Captured just days ago, the 2018 image shows almost the same face of Mars. Surface features obscured by dust, the planet’s cloud enshrouded south pole is tilted more toward the Sun. Increased heat in the southern hemisphere spring and summer likely triggers planet wide dust storms. Of course, if you look opposite the Sun in the sky tonight, you’ll also see a Full Moon near Mars. Skygazers NOT located in North America could see the Red Planet near a Red Moon during a Total Lunar Eclipse.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180727.html


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/2018-july-27-mars-opposition-image-credit-copyright/

Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship

Cannons, hand grenades, and up to a thousand soldiers were on board the large Swedish warship when it exploded in the Baltic Sea, 454 years ago.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
Cannons on the ship are up to 4.8 metres long [Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

The ship, known as Mars, belonged to the Swedish navy and was one of Northern Europe’s largest and most feared naval vessels used in the Northern Seven Years’ War. The remains were discovered at the bottom of the Baltic Sea in 2011, near to the Swedish island of Öland. The latest discoveries from the wreckage were revealed during a press conference in Öland.


“This year, we have come closer to the people aboard. We found more skeletal parts, including a femur with trauma around the knee which we believe to stem  from a sharp-edged weapon,” says maritime archaeologist Rolf Fabricius Warming, who is one of the researchers involved in the investigation.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
Professional divers investigated the wreck, which sits at the bottom of the sea, 70 metres below sea level 
[Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

“We also found large guns and a hand grenade. We can see from the wreckage that it was a very intense and tough battle. Between 800 and 1,000 men were on board. That is comparable to the population of an entire medium-sized town at the time. Most of them died in the explosion or when the ship sank into the watery depths,” he says.


The ship contained silver treasure


Researchers had previously discovered silver treasure among the Mars wreckage. This time, one of the most spectacular finds was a large grapnel (grappling hook) an anchor-like hook, which hung from the bowsprits of warships and was used to cling onto another ships in order to board it.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
Divers found a hand grenade probably made of ceramic [Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

Grapnels are illustrated in historical sources from the 16th century, but no actual surviving examples are known apart from this particular one, says Warming.


“It’s totally unique. Together with other exciting finds, it can shed new light on Medieval and Early Modern naval warfare. ,” he says, and adds that the divers also found remains of possible arms and armour, including helmets and swords.


Danish and Lübeckian soldiers were on board


Mars sunk due to a gunpowder explosion at the front of the ship. But shortly before, it had been under attack by Danish and Lübeckian warships according to written sources.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
Divers found weapons and skeletal remains, along with utensils, which were part of the crew’s 
everyday life aboard the ship. They could sail for months at a time, says Rolf Warming 
[Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

“Soldiers fought with hand grenades, lances, and spears, which they threw down from the masts. The fighting was structured and carefully calculated but an absolute ruckus” says Warming.


Danish soldiers, allied with soldiers from Lübeck, managed to defeat the Swedish crew and capture the warship. When the ship exploded and sank, it had three to four hundred Dano-Lübeckian soldiers aboard.


A Swedish change of tactics


The new examination of the Mars shipwreck provides new insights into the events that took place between Denmark and Sweden during the Northern Seven Years’ War between 1563 and 1570.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
The well-preserved wreck was discovered in 2011 [Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

They have documented a change in Swedish tactics from a focus on close quarter combat to long distance fighting, as indicated by large cannons up to 4.8 metres long.


Despite the large cannons, the Swedish crew did not manage to avoid engaging in close quarter combat with their enemies. The soldiers aboard were positioned underneath a net that covered the deck and was designed to prevent the enemy from jumping on board – a so-called anti-boarding net.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
The wreckage is so deep that divers can only stay down at this depth for 40 minutes at a time 
[Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

“We know about the use of anti-boarding nets in this battle from richly detailed written sources. The Swedish Admiral, Jacob Bagge, describes in his own account of the battle how he was injured in the shoulder by a javelin thrown from one of the fighting tops of the enemy ships. t. We are told he became furious and began shooting at those who had injured him with arquebuses so that they fell into the net below,” says Warming.


A snapshot of a moment in time


Until 2011, historians relied on written sources for information about what happened to Mars, including letters from the Danish admiral Herluf Trolle and the Swedish admiral Jacob Bagge, and official royal documents. But the shipwreck provides an entirely different type of documentation.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
Divers film the wreckage for scientists to view later. From this footage, they have made a 3D-model of the wreck 
[Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

“There’s some ‘fake news’ in the written sources. Many people wanted to claim the honour of defeating the Mars for various political reasons. But when we study the wreckage itself we see a large congruency between the wreck site and the historical sources. One of the most striking observations was that it really was sunk by a large explosion. It was so violent that the front of the ship lies 40 metres away from the other remains,” says Warming.


For maritime archaeologist Mikkel Thomsen from the Viking Ship Museum, Denmark, looking at the well preserved, and complete remains captures a snapshot of a moment in time.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
Mars was built by Eric XIV in 1563. It was one of the largest and most modern warships of its time
[Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

“You really feel that you’re in the killing fields,” says Thomsen, who was not involved in the study. “The wreckage gives a snapshot of a piece of military and political history. It’s also an international history as the Seven Years’ War was fought across national boundaries,” he says.


Divers filmed the shipwreck


The Mars remains lay 70 metres beneath the surface of the Baltic Sea—so deep that researchers could not go down themselves to investigate. Instead, professional divers and ROVs were deployed to film the wreck.


The footage and recordings were used to create 3D-models of the wreck and the artefacts found on the site.











Archaeologists reveal new finds from legendary Swedish warship
Artillery of the Mars warship [Credit: Kirill Egorov/Ocean Discovery/Mars Project]

Scientists and divers have not been granted permission to touch or remove anything from the wreck or nearby, which might be for the best, according to Thomsen.


“The Baltic Sea has extremely good preservation conditions. The water is low in oxygen, cold, and fresh. So boring worms that are usually the greatest threat to wood cannot live there,” says Thomsen.


Lifting the remains out of the water would lead to breakdown and damage of the materials, he says.



A 3D- model of the shipwreck [Credit: Ocean Discovery/Ingemar Lundgren]


“Moreover, it would be very difficult and extremely expensive to retrieve it from such deep water,” says Thomsen.


The exploration of Mars was carried out by researchers from the Marine Research Institute MARIS at Södertörn University in Sweden, and divers from the diving organization GUE, Västervik Museum, Ocean Discovery, and MMT.


Fifteen divers and ten researchers have participated in the latest exploration of the ship.


Author: Anne Ringgaard | Source: ScienceNordic [July 23, 2018]


This article was originally published by ScienceNordic. Read the original article



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Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north

Excavation works have been accelerated to find out more about a bath and its environs under the Byzantine-era church Balatlar in the northern province of Sinop (Greek Sinope). The site, which has shed light on various eras from the Hellenistic to the Ottoman Empire, is believed to have been used as a recreation center for wealthy Roman people, according to the excavation team.











Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north
Credit: Anadolu Agency

The Sinop Balatlar Church’s archaeological work on architectural remains has continued since 2010. The bath was turned into a church in the 4th century, according to previous findings back in 2014.











Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north
Credit: Anadolu Agency

The head of excavations, Mimar Sinan University Professor Gülgün Köroğlu said they had unearthed burial chambers, pieces of statues, church remains, baths, and mosaics from the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine eras.











Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north
Credit: Anadolu Agency

“The bath and mosaic findings we have unearthed in the site were for wealthy Romans. It is quite possible to say they used this area for recreational purposes in addition to bathing and resting,” Köroğlu told Anadolu Agency.











Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north
Credit: Anadolu Agency

“For instance, the floor mosaics we have recently unearthed offer fairly interesting characteristics. We have seen that a number of graves were built in the bath when the structure was used as a church. Wealthy Romans were buried here and their graves were covered with mosaic panels, on which it was written for whom the grave was built,” Köroğlu said.











Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north
Credit: Anadolu Agency

She added that the site was used as a residential area during the Hellenistic era and a Greek monastery during the Ottoman era.











Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north
Credit: Anadolu Agency

“Our works have shown the site traced back to 2,300 years ago. It may take years to unearth the entire details of this site, which has a long historical past,” Köroğlu said, adding that most of the remains were from the Roman era.











Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north
Credit: Anadolu Agency

A series of churches had been built on the site during the early Byzantine period, she said.











Roman-era baths, mosaics unearthed in Turkey’s north
Credit: Anadolu Agency

She also noted the whole archaeological site should be taken under protection and closed to visitors until all excavation and restoration works are completed.


Source: Hurryet Daily News [July 23, 2018]



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Enduring ‘Radio Rebound’ Powered by Jets from Gamma-Ray Burst


Artist impression of the “reverse shock” echoing back though the jets of the gamma-ray burst (GRB 161219B)

Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF, S. Dagnello



ALMA’s time-lapse movie showing the “afterglow” of a powerful gamma-ray burst. These images of the millimeter-wavelength light reveal details about the energy in the GRB’s jets. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), T. Laskar; NRAO/AUI/NSF, S. Dagnello




Artist animation of a star exploding into a supernova and fueling a gamma-ray burst. Astronomers caught the enduring “afterglow” of one of these cataclysmic explosions with both ALMA and the VLA for the first time. The rebound, or reverse shock, triggered by the GRB’s powerful jets slamming into surrounding debris, lasted thousands of times longer than expected, giving astronomers an unprecedented glimpse into the structure and dynamics of the jets. Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; S. Dagnell.   ALMA Observatory on Vimeo





ALMA Creates Its First-ever Movie of Cosmic Explosion

In the blink of an eye, a massive star more than 2 billion light-years away lost a million-year-long fight against gravity and collapsed, triggering a supernova and forming a black hole at its center.


This newborn black hole belched a fleeting yet astonishingly intense flash of gamma rays known as a gamma-ray burst (GRB) toward Earth, where it was detected by NASA’s Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory on 19 December 2016.


While the gamma rays from the burst disappeared from view a scant seven seconds later, longer wavelengths of light from the explosion — including X-ray, visible light, and radio — continued to shine for weeks. This allowed astronomers to study the aftermath of this fantastically energetic event, known as GRB 161219B, with many ground-based observatories, including the National Science Foundation’s Very Large Array.


The unique capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), however, enabled a team of astronomers to make an extended study of this explosion at millimeter wavelengths, gaining new insights into this particular GRB and the size and composition of its powerful jets.


“Since ALMA sees in millimeter-wavelength light, which carries information on how the jets interact with the surrounding dust and gas, it is a powerful probe of these violent cosmic explosions,” said Tanmoy Laskar, an astronomer at the University of California, Berkeley, and a Jansky Postdoctoral Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Laskar is lead author of the study, which appears in the Astrophysical Journal.


These observations enabled the astronomers to produce ALMA’s first-ever time-lapse movie of a cosmic explosion, which revealed a surprisingly long-lasting reverse shockwave from the explosion echoing back through the jets. “With our current understanding of GRBs, we would normally expect a reverse shock to last only a few seconds. This one lasted a good portion of an entire day,” Laskar said.


A reverse shock occurs when material blasted away from a GRB by its jets runs into the surrounding gas. This encounter slows down the escaping material, sending a shockwave back down the jet.


Since jets are expected to last no more than a few seconds, a reverse shock should be an equally short-lived event. But that now appears not to be the case.


“For decades, astronomers thought this reverse shock would produce a bright flash of visible light, which has so far been really hard to find despite careful searches. Our ALMA observations show that we may have been looking in the wrong place, and that millimeter observations are our best hope of catching these cosmic fireworks,” said Carole Mundell of the University of Bath, and co-author of the study.


Instead, the light from the reverse shock shines most brightly at the millimeter wavelengths on timescales of about a day, which is most likely why it has been so difficult to detect previously. While the early millimeter light was created by the reverse shock, the X-ray and visible light came from the blast-wave shock riding ahead of the jet.


“What was unique about this event,” Laskar adds, “is that as the reverse shock entered the jet, it slowly but continuously transferred the jet’s energy into the forward-moving blast wave, causing the X-ray and visible light to fade much slower than expected. Astronomers have always puzzled where this extra energy in the blast wave comes from. Thanks to ALMA, we know this energy – up to 85 percent of the total in the case of GRB 161219B – is hidden in slow-moving material within the jet itself.” The bright reverse shock emission faded away within a week. The blast wave then shone through in the millimeter band, giving ALMA a chance to study the geometry of the jet.


The visible light from the blast wave at this critical time, when the outflow has slowed just enough for all of the jet to become visible at Earth, was overshadowed by the emerging supernova from the exploded star. But ALMA’s observations, unencumbered by supernova light, enabled the astronomers to constrain the opening angle of the outflow from the jet to about 13 degrees.


Understanding the shape and duration of the outflow from the star is essential for determining the true energy of the burst. In this case, the astronomers find the jets contained as much energy as our Sun puts out in a billion years.


“This is a fantastical amount of energy, but it is actually one of the least energetic events we have ever seen. Why this is so remains a mystery,” says Kate Alexander, a graduate student at Harvard University who led the VLA observations reported in this study. “Though more than two billion light-years away, this GRB is actually the nearest such event for which we have measured the detailed properties of the outflow, thanks to the combined power of ALMA and the VLA.”


The VLA, which observes at longer wavelengths, continued observing the radio emission from the reverse shock after it faded from ALMA’s view.


This is only the fourth gamma-ray burst with a convincing, multi-frequency detection of a reverse shock, the researchers note. The material around the collapsing star was about 3,000 times less dense than the average density of gas in our galaxy, and these new ALMA observations suggest that such low-density environments are essential for producing reverse shock emission, which may explain why such signatures are so rare.


“Our rapid-response observations highlight the key role ALMA can play in following up transients, revealing the energy source that powers them, and using them to map the physics of the Universe to the dawn of the first stars,” concludes Laskar. “In particular, our study demonstrates that ALMA’s superb sensitivity and new rapid-response capabilities makes it the only facility that can routinely detect reverse shocks, allowing us to probe the nature of the relativistic jets in these energetic transients, and the engines that launch and feed them.”




# # #

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.


Contact:


Charles Blue, 
Public Information Officer
(434) 296-0314;
cblue@nrao.edu



This research is presented in a paper titled “First ALMA Light Curve Constrains Refreshed Reverse Shocks & Jets Magnetization in GRB 161219B,” by T. Laskar et al. in the Astrophysical Journal. [apj.aas.org]


The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI).

ALMA construction and operations are led by ESO on behalf of its Member States; by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; and by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA





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Fire Opal Kosmoceras Ammonite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Fossil…


Fire Opal Kosmoceras Ammonite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Fossil #Ammonite


Age: Jurassic

Location: Ulyanovsk, Russia


Photo Copyright © Fossil Museum


Geology Page

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Elbaite On Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Elbaite On Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Stak Nala, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan


Size: 4.7 × 5 × 4.3 cm

Largest Crystal: 5.00cm


Photo Copyright © Wittig-Minerals/e-rocks.com


Geology Page

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Ametrine With Calcite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Ametrine With Calcite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Iraí, Alto Uruguai Region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil


Size: 7.7 × 15.2 × 10.7 cm

Largest Crystal: 6.80cm


Photo Copyright © Wittig-Minerals /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/ametrine-with-calcite-geology-geologypage/

Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Hesselbach…


Fluorite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Hesselbach Mine, Hesselbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany


Size: 7.3 × 7.2 × 6.1 cm


Photo Copyright © Viamineralia /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/fluorite-geology-geologypage-mineral-locality-hesselbach/

Chalcopyrite & Siderite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Chalcopyrite & Siderite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Kalwu Mine, Hezhang County, Bijie Prefecture, Guizhou Province, China (Peoples Republic)


Size: 8.6 × 4.7 × 3.4 cm


Photo Copyright © Viamineralia /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

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Medieval potters’ workshops unearthed in France’s Sevrey

Inrap is currently conducting a preventive archaeological excavation in the heart of the municipality of Sevrey, on request of the State (DRAC Burgundy-Franche-Comté). Carried out as part of a private development, this project is now arousing the interest of the scientific community and considerably enriching knowledge of Sevrey’s past.











Medieval potters' workshops unearthed in France's Sevrey
Credit: Antoine Guicheteau/Inrap

Sevrey, a medieval potters’ village


The archaeological heritage of Sevrey is of great wealth: previous excavations have shown that since the end of Antiquity, many potters have settled here and their products have spread over a large south-eastern quarter of Gaul. This commune is ideally located near a clay deposit, the Saône and the Ferté forest. In the 1970s, archaeological research and surveys led to several research publications on Severtine production. In the 2000s, two preventive excavations made it possible to document several kilns and to distinguish two ceramic types, the so-called “bistre” orange pottery, produced between the 6th and 7th centuries and a greyish pottery produced between the 9th and 11th centuries.











Medieval potters' workshops unearthed in France's Sevrey
Credit: Antoine Guicheteau/Inrap

The discovery of a missing (chronological) link


Between these last two ceramic types there is a chronological hiatus that the excavation currently being carried out by Inrap is completing. In this sense, it constitutes a major discovery for medieval Chalonnais archaeology, and more broadly for the entire Val de Saône. For the first time, archaeologists are identifying ceramics in the context of production, possibly dating from the Carolingian period (8th-9th centuries).











Medieval potters' workshops unearthed in France's Sevrey
Credit: Antoine Guicheteau/Inrap

Among the rare, if not unusual, discoveries made by scientists are four pottery kilns from the early Middle Ages, one of which still contains the very last items produced by the craftsmen of the time. At least two of them were found to be pottery types previously unknown to Sevrey, or whose production had not yet been identified. The site offers the possibility of studying the evolution of techniques and methods in use at this period. The archaeometric studies will complete the ceramic study in order to specify and refine the dating of this assemblage.











Medieval potters' workshops unearthed in France's Sevrey
Credit: Antoine Guicheteau/Inrap

Operating chain of a Pottery Workshops


Beyond the kilns, Inrap archaeologists are also uncovering the whole production process of ceramics, from clay preparation to pottery turning and firing. If the buildings linked to the workshop have since disappeared, the ground still preserves the old traces of the posts of these buildings. Fragments of ceramics and misfired pieces have been discarded in many pits: they will be valuable to ceramists for identifying shapes and techniques. Some rare tools testify to the activity of potters on the site. Further research will help to understand the organization of the workshop and its integration in the village of Sevrey.











Medieval potters' workshops unearthed in France's Sevrey
Credit: Antoine Guicheteau/Inrap

First paleoenvironmental studies in Sevrey


For the first time in Sevrey, Inrap scientists will conduct paleoenvironmental studies on the site being excavated. Micromorphological (soil studies), anthracological (charcoal studies) and carpological (seed studies) studies will measure the impact of these workshops on the Sevrey landscape in the early Middle Ages.


Source: Inrap [July 23, 2018]



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