вторник, 24 июля 2018 г.

Repetitive Strain With symptoms including fevers and rashes,…

Repetitive Strain

With symptoms including fevers and rashes, scrub typhus is a disease estimated to affect a million people annually, mostly in Asia, and is caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. Transmitted by the bites of mite larvae, known as chiggers, O. tsutsugamushi is an obligate intracellular pathogen, meaning that it must be inside a host cell to survive. Compared to other closely-related bacteria with a similar lifestyle, it has a large genome, featuring many repeated sequences of DNA. These repeats are represented in this diagram: along the genome, pictured as a grey circle, each coloured bar indicates a region of DNA with multiple copies, linked together to show where the repeats are found. Piecing together a genome with so many repeats is challenging, but new sequencing techniques recently enabled more accurate reconstructions of genomes from multiple O. tsutsugamushi strains, providing more detailed insights into an important yet relatively poorly-understood pathogen.

Written by Emmanuelle Briolat

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New insights into plants’ conquest of land

The Earth is filled with diverse and remarkable plant forms from the tallest redwoods that pierce forest canopies, to the smallest mosses that blanket the ground underfoot.

New insights into plants' conquest of land
Spiralling division planes that lead to 3D plant forms in the shoot tip of a moss, Physcomitrella
[Credit: Dr Jill Harrison, University of Bristol]

However, these striking forms came from much simpler origins. The ancestors of land plants were string-like (2D), aquatic green algae that looked very different from the three-dimensional (3D), upright stems and leaves of plants we are familiar with today.

Now, researchers at the University of Bristol have revealed exciting insights into how land plants evolved these 3D forms that were crucial for their advancement onto land.

The research, published in the journal Current Biology, led by Dr Jill Harrison from the University’s School of Biological Sciences, and collaborators, found that small proteins known as CLAVATA peptides, control the growth and division of cells at the very tips of plants, which generate organs such as the shoots and leaves.

CLAVATA is a peptide and receptor based signalling system. The peptide moves to the receptor to set the cell division planes.

However, when the researchers looked for CLAVATA molecules in the aquatic algae ancestors, they could not find them.

This showed that CLAVATA proteins evolved just as the first plants moved onto land.

Using mosses to exemplify the 2D to 3D growth transition, the researchers showed that CLAVATA protein rotate cell divisions at the tips of plant stems enabling growth in multiple directions.

Dr Harrison, a Royal Society University Research Fellow, said: “The CLAVATA genes were found to be specific to land plants to regulate their unique 3D growth patterns and so it looks like these genes were instrumental in enabling plants to get going on land.

“After this fundamental change in cell division patterns, plants could now develop many different forms, enabling them to dominate almost every environment on Earth, and so this work reveals a key role for these small proteins in plants’ conquest of land.”

Source: University of Bristol [July 19, 2018]




Dingoes may provide clues to understanding how Australia evolved

Researchers from The University of Western Australia and the Australian National University have uncovered new evidence that suggests dingoes arrived in Australia between 3,348 and 3,081 years ago, more recently than previously thought.

Dingoes may provide clues to understanding how Australia evolved
Oral history suggests dingoes were closely associated with some Indigenous cultures
[Credit: ABC Open contributor outdoorsnap]

By the time Europeans came to Australia, Aboriginal people had a well-established relationship with dingoes that provided warmth, protection and assistance with hunting.

A more precise date for the arrival of dingoes in Australia is important as it answers questions about the relationship between dingoes and Aboriginal people and the dingoes’ possible contribution to the extinction of animals such as the Tasmanian devil and Tasmanian tiger on mainland Australia.

The timing of the arrival of dingoes has been the subject of great debate over the years, with estimates ranging from about 4000 years ago based on archaeological deposit dates to as much as 18,000 years ago based on DNA age estimates.

Now direct dates on dingo bones from Madura Cave on the Nullarbor Plain in southern Australia have allowed scientists to paint a clearer picture of when dingoes first inhabited Australia.

Lead researcher Professor Jane Balme from UWA said the scientists had used a precise radiocarbon dating technique to date the bones uncovered from Madura Cave which provides the most accurate indication of dingo arrival in Australia to date.

“The dingo is the only placental land mammal aside from rats, mice and bats to have made it over water to reach Australia prior to European arrival and their arrival provides the only evidence of external visits by people to mainland Australia after first Indigenous settlement 65,000 years ago,” Professor Balme said.

Dingoes may provide clues to understanding how Australia evolved
A bone from Madura Cave analysed in the study [Credit: Jane Balme]

“Because Australia is separated from Southeast Asia by water, with the minimal distance between the two more than 90 kilometres, it is extremely unlikely that dingoes arrived in Australia independently of humans,” Professor Balme said.

“These new findings indicate it is most likely that dingoes were brought here as tamed animals around 3000 years ago.”

Professor Balme said the research also suggested dingoes had spread far more rapidly than previously thought.

“This may have been facilitated by their strong relationship with humans and may have contributed to the extinction of a number of species including the Tasmanian devil and Tasmania tiger on mainland Australia because of the increased hunting pressure,” she said.

Professor Balme said the next step would be to examine bone fossils from archaeological and palaeontological sites to identify how dingoes may have changed people’s subsistence activities and the impact that dingoes have had on the Australian environment.

“We have made a start on this by dating of dingo bones from the Nullarbor but analysis of dingo bones from other parts of Australia will help test our hypothesis of their rapid rate of spread.”

The research will be published in Scientific Reports.

Source: University of Western Australia [July 20, 2018]




Build an ark? Biologists discuss conservation prioritization

Conservation biologists recognize a sobering reality. “We’re losing species left, right and center,” says Utah State University scientist Will Pearse. “We call it the ‘Noah’s Ark Problem,’ and we have to pick species to save. We can’t save them all.”

Build an ark? Biologists discuss conservation prioritization
Photo illustration of tree kangaroo and phylogenetic tree. An international team of scientists, supported by sDIV,
the Leipzig-Germany based Synthesis Center for Biodiversity Sciences, say preserving phylogenetic
diversity among species preserves functional diversity [Credit: Florent Mazel]

The biblical mariner seemed capable of building a vessel to accommodate mating pairs of all the world’s creatures. The metaphor, today, however, would portray the harried Noah bailing water and valiantly trying to prioritize saving animals most beneficial for the future, as his boat rapidly sank.

Pearse, with colleagues Florent Mazel, Arne Mooers and Caroline Tucker of Simon Fraser University and the University of British Columbia; Marc Cadotte of the University of Toronto, Sandra Diaz of Argentina’s National University of Cordoba, Giulio Valentino Dalla Riva of the University of British Columbia, Richard Grenyer of the University of Oxford, Fabien Leprieur of the University of Montpellier and David Mouillot of James Cook University, explore phylogenetic diversity as a metric of conservation prioritization in a study published in Nature Communications.

“Our paper tests a fundamental component of conservation biology we refer to as the ‘phylogenetic gambit,'” says Pearse, assistant professor in USU’s Department of Biology and the USU Ecology Center. “That is, conservation biologists often use species’ evolutionary history — their phylogeny — to identify groups of species to save.”

This idea is based on the assumption that preserving phylogenetic diversity among species preserves more functional diversity than selecting species to preserve by chance. Functional diversity is important, Pearse says, because it drives ecosystem health and productivity.

“Yet measuring the effectiveness of functional diversity is difficult,” he says. “So using phylogenetic diversity as a surrogate for functional diversity has made conservation biology much easier and more effective.”

In global datasets of mammals, birds and tropical fishes, the team demonstrates that, for the most part, the phylogenetic gambit holds. Preserving phylogenetic diversity preserves 18 percent more functional diversity than would be expected if species to save were selected at random.

“Worryingly, though, we found in some parts of the world, and in some groups of species, preserving phylogenetic diversity did worse or just the same as random chance,” Pearse says. “Luckily, we identified the areas and reasons this was happening, which still makes this selection technique valid and valuable for conservation biologists.”

The team’s efforts, organized through an international working group initiated by Tucker and Mooers, were funded by the Synthesis Center for Biodiversity Sciences — “sDIV” — based in Leipzig, Germany.

Author: Mary-Ann Muffoletto | Source: Utah State University [July 23, 2018]




Ancient farmers transformed Amazon and left an enduring legacy on the rainforest

Ancient communities transformed the Amazon thousands of years ago, farming in a way which has had a lasting impact on the rainforest, a major new study shows.

Ancient farmers transformed Amazon and left an enduring legacy on the rainforest
Credit: Daniel Sabatier

Farmers had a more profound effect on the supposedly “untouched” rainforest than previously thought, introducing crops to new areas, boosting the number of edible tree species and using fire to improve the nutrient content of soil, experts have found.

The study is the first detailed history of long-term human land use and fire management in this region conducted by archaeologists, paleoecologists, botanists and ecologists. It shows how early Amazon farmers used the land intensively and expanded the types of crops grown, without continuously clearing new areas of the forest for farming when soil nutrients became depleted.

The research team examined charcoal, pollen and plants remains from soil in archaeological sites and sediments from a nearby lake to trace the history of vegetation and fire in eastern Brazil. This provided evidence that maize, sweet potato, manioc and squash were farmed as early as 4,500 years ago in this part of the Amazon. Farmers increased the amount of food they grew by improving the nutrient content of the soil through burning and the addition of manure and food waste. Fish and turtles from rivers were also a key part of the diets at the time.

The findings explain why forests around current archaeological sites in the Amazon have a higher concentration of edible plants.

Dr Yoshi Maezumi, from the University of Exeter, who led the study, said: “People thousands of years ago developed a nutrient rich soil called Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs). They farmed in a way which involved continuous enrichment and reusing of the soil, rather than expanding the amount of land they clear cut for farming. This was a much more sustainable way of farming.”

The development of ADEs allowed the expansion of maize and other crops, usually only grown near nutrient rich lake and river shores, to be farmed in other areas that generally have very poor soils. This increased the amount of food available for the growing Amazon population at the time.

Dr Maezumi said: “Ancient communities likely did clear some understory trees and weeds for farming, but they maintained a closed canopy forest, enriched in edible plants which could bring them food. This is a very different use of the land to that of today, where large areas of land in the Amazon is cleared and planted for industrial scale grain, soya bean farming and cattle grazing. We hope modern conservationists can learn lessons from indigenous land use in the Amazon to inform management decisions about how to safeguard modern forests.”

Professor Jose Iriarte, from the University of Exeter, said: “The work of early farmers in the Amazon has left an enduring legacy. The way indigenous communities managed the land thousands of years ago still shapes modern forest ecosystems. This is important to remember as modern deforestation and agricultural plantations expand across the Amazon Basin, coupled with the intensification of drought severity driven by warming global temperatures.”

The study is published in the journal Nature Plants.

Source: University of Exeter [July 23, 2018]




Solving the cave shrimp mystery: Geology and evolution in action

Caves are a very special environment characterized by complete darkness, low temperature fluctuations and high humidity. Species that live there have adapted to these conditions and have developed unique characteristics: they are eyeless or have degenerated eyes, and they lack pigments. Often, these animals are endemic – their distribution is restricted to a specific area, sometimes to only one cave. Similarly, the four species of the blind cave shrimp Typhlocaris can be found only in individual karstic groundwater caves around the Mediterranean Sea.

Solving the cave shrimp mystery: Geology and evolution in action
The cave shrimp Typhlocaris ayyaloni [Credit: Sasson Tiram]

Two of the species are found in Israel – Typhlocaris galilea in a cave in Tabgha, near the Sea of Galilee, and Typhlocaris ayyaloni in the Ayalon cave, which was discovered in the coastal plain of Israel in 2006. The two other species are found in a cave system in southeastern Italy, near Lecce, and in Libya in a cave near Benghazi. A group of scientists from Israel and from the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel have now been able to prove a close relationship of a species in Israel and in Italy with the help of genetic and geological investigations.

“Typhlocaris species are ‘living fossils’, remnants of an ancestor shrimp species that existed in the ancient Tethys Sea, millions of years ago”, explains Dr. Tamar Guy-Haim, lead author from GEOMAR and National Institute of Oceanography in Haifa, Israel. “They have survived since then under isolated conditions in a unique ecological system, cut off from the external environment”, Gy-Haim continues. Unlike most ecosystems that are based on sunlight as an energy source for plants, these cave systems are chemoautotrophic, basing on sulphide-oxidizing bacteria as a food source. The Typhlocaris shrimps are the top-predators in the caves, preying mostly on small crustaceans that feed on the sulphide bacteria.

“By comparison of genetic markers in the Typhlocaris species we found that one of the Israeli species, Typhlocaris ayyaloni, was genetically closer to the species from Italy”, explains Professor Yair Ahituv from Bar-Ilan Universität, Israel, co-author of the study. “Although Typhylocaris salientina, lives more than thousand kilometres away it is closer related than to the other Israeli species Typhlocaris galilea, which is only 120 kilometres away”, Ahituv continues.

Solving the cave shrimp mystery: Geology and evolution in action
Typhlocaris – distribution map. Guy-Haim et al. (2018), Multiple transgressions and slow evolution shape
the phylogeographic pattern of the blind cave-dwelling shrimp Typhlocaris [Credit: Guy-Haim]

To explain this strange genetic affinity, the researchers dated the species divergence based on the age of a geological formation in the area of the cave in the Galilee. Accordingly, Typhlocaris galilea was separated from the ancestor shrimp seven million years ago, during the uplift of the central mountain ridge of Israel. Then, about 5.7 million years ago, at the time of the Messinian Salinity event, when the Mediterranean Sea has almost completely dried up, Typhlocaris ayyalon and Typhylocaris salientina diverged into two separate species.

In addition, the researchers calculated the rates of evolution in Typhlocaris and other cave-dwelling crustaceans and found that they were particularly low compared to non-cave crustaceans. The researchers hypothesize that the unique conditions in the caves – stability of environmental conditions (such as temperature), lack of light, and low metabolic rates – led to a slowdown in the pace of evolutionary changes.

The Typhlocaris species are classified as endangered and are listed in the IUCN Red List (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). The caves in which they live are exposed to severe threats such as pollution, intensive groundwater pumping following infiltration of brackish water, and climate change. Israel Nature and Parks Authority, in cooperation with the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo, has established a captive breeding programme of Typhlocaris, in order to conserve it in case that all efforts to save it from extinction in nature fail.

The study is published in the scientific journal PeerJ.

Source: Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [July 23, 2018]




New sources of melanin pigment shake up ideas about fossil animals’ colour

A team of palaeontologists, led by University College Cork (UCC) and including the University of Bristol, have discovered new sources of the pigment melanin, calling for a rethink of how scientists reconstruct the colour of fossil birds, reptiles and dinosaurs.

New sources of melanin pigment shake up ideas about fossil animals' colour
10 million-year-old frog from Libros, Spain, showing dark internal melanosomes in the chest
cavity and legs [Credit: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain]

Many recent studies of fossil colour have assumed that fossilized granules of melanin – melanosomes – come from the skin. But new evidence shows that other tissues – such as the liver, lungs, and spleen – can also contain melanosomes, suggesting that fossil melanosomes may not provide information on fossil colour.

The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, is led by UCC’s Dr. Maria McNamara in collaboration with her Ph.D. student Valentina Rossi, Dr. Paddy Orr from University College Dublin and an international team of palaeontologists from the UK and Japan.

The team studied internal tissues in modern frogs with powerful microscopes and chemical techniques to show that internal melanosomes are highly abundant.

Dr. McNamara said: “This means that these internal melanosomes could make up the majority of the melanosomes preserved in some fossils.”

The team also used decay experiments and analysed fossils to show that the internal melanosomes can leak into other body parts during the fossilization process—like snowflakes inside a snow globe, according to Dr. Orr.

There is a way, however, to tell the difference between melanosomes from internal organs and the skin.

Dr. McNamara added: “The size and shape of skin melanosomes is usually distinct from those in internal organs.

“This will allow us to produce more accurate reconstructions of the original colours of ancient vertebrates.”

Source: University of Bristol [July 23, 2018]




Nether Largie South Cairn Exterior and Interior, Kilmartin Glen,…

Nether Largie South Cairn Exterior and Interior, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland 14.7.18.

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The Dark Side of Dust Avalanches   Changes on the Martian…

The Dark Side of Dust Avalanches

   Changes on the Martian surface are detected by imaging the same area more than once. Here, we see several new dust avalanches on the slopes of ridges within the Olympus Mons Aureole. These changes occurred within six years. (Also see the animated GIF).

Dust avalanches create slope streaks that expose darker materials usually hidden below a lighter-toned layer. Cascading fine-grained material easily diverts around boulders or alters direction when encountering a change in slope (see the top right corner of the first close-up). The dark steak in another close-up is approximately 1 kilometer in length that we didn’t see in a previous image. Past avalanche sites are still visible and fading slowly as dust settles out of the atmosphere and is deposited on the dark streaks over time.

We also see boulders and their shadows that are a meter or greater in size. Movement of any of these boulders down the slope could trigger future avalanches. (283 km above the surface, less than 5 km across)

NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


2018 July 24 Clouds of Earth and Sky Image Credit &…

2018 July 24

Clouds of Earth and Sky
Image Credit & Copyright: Angelo Perrone

Explanation: If you go high enough, you may find yourself on a picturesque perch between the water clouds of the Earth and the star clouds of the Milky Way. Such was the case last month for one adventurous alpinist astrophotographer. Captured here in the foreground above white clouds are mountain peaks in the Dolomite range in northern Italy. This multi-exposure image was captured from Lagazuoi, one of the Dolomites. Hundreds of millions of years ago, the Dolomites were not mountains but islands an ancient sea that rose through colliding tectonic plates. The Dolomites divergent history accounts for its unusually contrasting features, which include jagged crests and ancient marine fossils. High above even the Dolomites, and far in the distance, dark dust lanes streak out from the central plane of our Milky Way Galaxy. The stars and dust are dotted with bright red clouds of glowing hydrogen gas – such as the Lagoon Nebula just above and to the left of center.

∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180724.html


Further evidence of Bronze Age cemetery at Scotland’s Drumnadrochit

During site clearance for Drumnadrochit’s new care housing site, AOC’s archaeologists uncovered a third cist, a stone slab-built grave (right), which contained an Early Bronze Age Beaker pot, dating to about 4,500-4,000 years ago. AOC has previously excavated two other cists at the site, so this represents another significant discovery at Drumnadrochit’s Kilmore site.

Further evidence of Bronze Age cemetery at Scotland's Drumnadrochit
The burial cist is the third to be found in the area [Credit: AOC Archaeology]

At the time of discovery, it was clear that the cist had already been disturbed. One of the side slabs had been broken and had collapsed into the soil-filled grave while the capstone, or grave lid, was missing. The size of the grave indicates that it would have contained a crouched inhumation burial, which did not survive inside the acidic soil environment. Fragments of the Beaker pot survive (below and bottom), enabling us to clearly interpret the Bronze Age date of the cist, and to connect it to the other burials on the site. This increasingly indicates that the Drumnadrochit site contained a Bronze Age cemetery, with three cists and a fourth burial pit found during our monitoring work. All of the burial sites were located centrally along the slightly raised ground within what would have been a wide flat expanse between the River Enrick and the River Coiltie on the edge of Glenurquhart Bay. Due to the soil conditions, only one of the graves contained human remains, a male inhumation burial, while two other Beaker pots have been recovered, one alongside a stone bracer, or archer’s wrist guard.

Work in another area of the site revealed what we believe was another cist capstone and other prehistoric archaeology. Analysis indicates that the stone was an isolated capstone-like slab sitting within an early soil layer, from which we have provisional radiocarbon dating evidence to suggest that it represents a 14th century, or medieval, soil layer. It is possible that medieval farming activity may be responsible for some of the damage to the Bronze Age burials, and potentially complete destruction of other cists that may have been here.

Further evidence of Bronze Age cemetery at Scotland's Drumnadrochit
Beaker sherds [Credit: AOC Archaeology]

Further archaeological finds were found below the early ploughsoil layer during a previous phase of work on behalf of Compass and Loch Ness Homes. Excavation revealed groups of pits dating to between 3,700-3,500 BC, the Neolithic period that precedes the Bronze Age. Almost all of the pits contained Neolithic pottery, burnt grain and hazelnut shells and stone tools. It is possible that the material was deliberately left inside pits, potentially as an offering related to a belief system linked to the importance of the land and agriculture.

AOC Inverness’ Operations Manager, Mary Peteranna, said, “I believe that around 4,000 years ago, this landscape was already imbued with meaning. In the period preceding this, the Neolithic ancestors were the first farmers becoming increasingly tied to a landscape where they were cultivating wheat and barley – and with that their beliefs were tied into the changing of the seasons, with the need for winter to end and summer to begin. This was an important transition from the more transitory lifestyle of hunter-gatherers. Later, in the Bronze Age, we know that the communities of the Great Glen were building burial cairns in line with the winter solstice – as at the nearby Corrimony Cairns and Clava Cairns in Inverness. To have a cemetery built on this site certainly was a deliberate choice for the inhabitants of this part of the Great Glen.”

Further evidence of Bronze Age cemetery at Scotland's Drumnadrochit
Beaker with simple incised geometric decoration discovered at the site in 2017
[Credit: AOC Archaeology]

The archaeological work is being undertaken on behalf of the Glenurquhart Care Project and with the assistance of Compass Building and Construction. The Glenurquhart Care Project is a community-based charity established over 20 years ago to provide support for the elderly and vulnerable in the communities of Glenurquhart and Strathglass.

Susan Clark, Director of Glenurquhart Care, said, “this cist was discovered during some enabling works to construct 12 community houses for the elderly in this area and is an exciting step in the development of the site. Funding for the construction of the houses has recently been granted by SSE Highland Sustainable Communities Fund, the Wolfson Foundation and Scottish Government Rural Housing Fund. To allow the construction to commence, we are continuing to raise funds for the total build cost of £1.6m and hope to secure this during the summer.”

“The archaeological findings are exciting for the Drumnadrochit community– located in one of the most renowned landscapes in the world by the shores of Loch Ness.”

Source: AOC Archaeology [July 18, 2018]




Feline images discovery ‘adds new page to history of art and archaeology in Jordan’

In the middle of a sand desert in southern Jordan, a group of archaeologists has found unique feline representations.

Feline images discovery ‘adds new page to history of art and archaeology in Jordan’
‘Awja1 is a site below the southern escarpment of Al Jafr Basin,
some 300km south of Amman [Credit: Sumio Fujii]

A site is located below the southern escarpment of Al Jafr Basin, some 300km south of Amman. “‘Awja1 is a small site that was pinpointed in 2010 with the clue of ambiguous information from local residents,” said Japanese scholar Sumio Fujii from Kanazawa University.

The research team decided to embark on a full-scale excavation of the remote site due to the slight exposure on the ground surface of an elongated structural complex (reminiscent of the Late Neolithic settlement-shaped open-air sanctuaries previously excavated by them at Qa’ Abu Tulayha and Harrat Juhayra), Fujii recalled.

The first excavation season took place in the summer of 2011, revealing the overall picture of the complex which consists of four rectangular units, he said, adding that the site was entirely empty and devoid of any artifacts. “This makes sense to us, and scholars consider that it was an open sanctuary irrelevant to practical life,” he stated.

“In addition, we found a stone alignment circa 30-cm-long protruding from the southeastern corner of the operation area, but we took it lightly as a part of another unit,” the archaeologist explained, noting that, on the first day of the next field season, the guess turned out to be an utter failure.

“Scholars were surprised when they noticed the tip of the tale of a feline feature and they immediately enlarged the operation area southeastward where they confirmed seven similar features,” he recounted, adding “there is no doubt that the quadrupeds represent feline animals, probably cheetahs or panthers. This is because they have a slender trunk, a relatively small and rounded head without horns, and, among others, a long tail curling only its tip upward.”

Similar iconographies can be found in petroglyphs from other Neolithic sites in the Jafr Basin, suggesting that the feline animal was thought to have some magical power, according to Fujii, who noted that the feline group consisted of four adults and four juveniles.

He continued: “The former were relatively well preserved and circa two to three metres long, while the latter were less preserved and circa one to one-and-a-half metres long.”

As for the adjacent “pseudo-settlement”, they were constructed with upright sandstone slabs up to around 50 cm long arranged in two parallel rows, he said, stressing that neither diagnostic artifacts nor charcoal remains for C-14 dating were recovered. However, the existence of similar features at a few Late Neolithic sites in the Negev Highlands and the Sinai Peninsula suggests a date of circa 5,000 BC for the Awja felines, Fujii explained.

Regarding religious practices related to feline images, they were probably used together with the structural complex, for some open-air ritual of the early pastoral nomads who migrated to south Jordan, but its details still remain unknown, Fujii explained.

“Though still not very well known except for a limited number of specialists, this unexpected finding added a new page to the history of art and archaeology in Jordan. We had no choice but to backfill the features, but, needless to say, their relocation and reconstruction at an appropriate place such as the forecourt of the Jordan Museum would be more desirable,” the expert concluded.

Author: Saeb Rawashdeh | Source: The Jordan Times [July 18, 2018]




Baby snake preserved in amber is unprecedented find

The first-ever discovery of an ancient snake embryo, preserved in 105-million-year-old amber, provides important new information on the evolution of modern snakes, according to a new study led by University of Alberta paleontologists.

Baby snake preserved in amber is unprecedented find
Remains of the earliest snake hatchling known to science were preserved in amber for nearly
100 million years [Credit: Ming Bai, Chinese Academy of Sciences]

“This snake is linked to ancient snakes from Argentina, Africa, India and Australia,” explained paleontologist Michael Caldwell, lead author and professor in the Department of Biological Sciences. “It is an important—and until now, missing—component of understanding snake evolution from southern continents, that is Gondwana, in the mid-Mesozoic.”

Baby snake preserved in amber is unprecedented find
The snake hatchling’s ribs and vertebrae were preserved and are clearly visible
[Credit: Lida Xing, China University of Geosciences Beijing]

Caldwell and his international team, including collaborators from Australia, China and the United States, have tracked the migration of these ancient Gondwanan snakes beginning 180 million years ago when they were carried by tectonic movements of continents and parts of continents, from Australia and India, to Madagascar and Africa, and finally to Asia, in modern-day India and Myanmar. The amber fragment in which the specimen was found also provided important clues about its environment.

Baby snake preserved in amber is unprecedented find
Researchers used X-ray micro-CT imaging to render a detailed view of the preserved postcranial skeleton
and soft tissues of X. myanmerensis [Credit: Ming Bai, Chinese Academy of Sciences] 

“It is clear that this little snake was living in a forested environment with numerous insects and plants, as these are preserved in the clast,” explained Caldwell. “Not only do we have the first baby snake, we also have the first definitive evidence of a fossil snake living in a forest.”

Baby snake preserved in amber is unprecedented find
Along with the baby snake, researchers studied a second piece of amber with what appears to be a fragment
of shed skin from a larger snake. The degree of preservation allowed the team to model the pigmentation
pattern of the animal in life [Credit: Ryan McKellar, Royal Saskatchewan Museum]

Using CT scans, the scientific team studied the ancient snake and compared it with the young of modern snakes. Their results yielded unexpected insight into the development and embryology of the ancient specimen, including the formation of the vertebrae and notochord.

Baby snake preserved in amber is unprecedented find
Xiaophis myanmarensis snake hatchlings shown emerging from their eggs on the forest floor
100 million years ago. Gobs of tree resin foreshadow their fate [Credit Yi Liu]

“All of these data refine our understanding of early snake evolution, as 100-million year-old snakes are known from only 20 or so relatively complete fossil snake species,” said Caldwell. “There is a great deal of new information preserved in this new fossilized baby snake.”

The finding is published in Science Advances.

Author: Katie Willis | Source: University of Alberta [July 19, 2018]




Newly discovered armoured dinosaur from Utah reveals intriguing family history

Fossils of a new genus and species of an ankylosaurid dinosaur — Akainacephalus johnsoni — have been unearthed in the Kaiparowits Formation of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (GSENM), in Kane County, southern Utah, U.S.A., and are revealing new details about the diversity and evolution of this group of armoured dinosaurs. Expected to look like other North American Late Cretaceous ankylosaurid dinosaurs with smooth bony armour on the skull, the new research suggests just the opposite and indicates that the defining features of Akainacephalus, specifically the spiky bony armour covering the skull and snout, align more closely with Asian ankylosaurids, who also have more pronounced spikes covering their skulls.

Newly discovered armoured dinosaur from Utah reveals intriguing family history
Life reconstruction of the new armoured dinosaur Akainacephalus johnsoni
[Credit: Andrey Atuchin and the Denver Museum of Nature & Science]

Akainacephalus was announced in the open-access scientific journal PeerJ and unveiled on exhibit in the Past Worlds Gallery of the Natural History Museum of Utah at the Rio Tinto Center in Salt Lake City, Utah. The genus name is derived from the Greek words akaina, which means ‘thorn’ or ‘spike’, and cephalus, meaning ‘head.’ The species epithet johnsoni honors Randy Johnson, a dedicated museum volunteer who skillfully prepared its skull. Other talented volunteers helped to prepare the rest of the specimen.

“I’m a retired chemist, but I’ve always been interested in most of the science disciplines. I never thought that I would have the opportunity to actually work on fossils that could be important for paleontologists,” said Randy Johnson. “Now that I’m a museum volunteer, I’m getting the opportunity to work on a large variety of fossils and consult with top paleontologists — it’s like a dream second career. I couldn’t believe it when they told me they are naming the ankylosaur after me, a once in a lifetime honor,” said Johnson.

Ankylosaurids are a group of four-legged herbivorous armoured dinosaurs with imposing bony tail clubs. Though ankylosaurids originated in Asia between 125 — 100 million years ago, they do not appear in the western North American fossil record until ~77 million years ago. The new species Akainacephalus lived 76 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous Period and offers the most complete skeleton of an ankylosaurid dinosaur found in the southwestern US. It includes a complete skull, much of the vertebral column, including a complete tail club, several fore and hind limbs elements, and bony body armour that includes two neck rings and spiked armour plates.

Newly discovered armoured dinosaur from Utah reveals intriguing family history
A Natural History Museum of Utah field crew excavate bones from the skeleton of Akainacephalus johnsoni in 2009
[Credit: Randall Irmis/Natural History Museum of Utah]

The unique arrangement of bony armour in the shape of small cones and pyramids covering the snout and head is the key research finding indicating that Akainacephalus is closely related to the New Mexican ankylosaurid Nodocephalosaurus kirtlandensis. Surprisingly, Akainacephalus and Nodocephalosaurus are more closely related to Asian ankylosaurids such as Saichania and Tarchia than to other Late Cretaceous North American ankylosaurids, including Ankylosaurus and Euoplocephalus. Both of the latter taxa possess flat skull armour.

“A reasonable hypothesis would be that ankylosaurids from Utah are related to those found elsewhere in western North America, so we were really surprised to discover that Akainacephalus was so closely related to species from Asia,” remarked Randall Irmis, co-author of the study.

Though ankylosaurids originated in Asia between 125 — 100 million years ago, they do not appear in the North American fossil record until around 77 million years ago. Akainacephalus once roamed the southern part of Laramidia, a landmass on the western coast of a shallow sea that flooded the central region, splitting the continent of North America in two. This caused isolation along western and eastern portions of the North American continent during the Late Cretaceous Period, between 95-70 million years ago.

Newly discovered armoured dinosaur from Utah reveals intriguing family history
Expert preparator Randy Johnson, spent hundreds of hours removing the Akainacephalus johnsoni skeleton from
 the surrounding rock and debris. The species portion of the dinosaur name was selected in his honour
[Credit: Mark Johnston/Natural History Museum of Utah]

Lead author Jelle Wiersma suggests that the geographic distribution of Late Cretaceous ankylosaurids throughout the Western Interior was the result of several geologically brief intervals of lowered sea level that allowed Asian ankylosaurid dinosaurs to immigrate to North America several times during the Late Cretaceous, resulting in the presence of two separate groups of ankylosaurid dinosaurs. This lowering of sea levels exposed the Beringian land bridge, allowing dinosaurs and other animals to move between Asia and North America.

“It is always exciting to name a new fossil taxon, but it is equally exciting if that taxon also provides additional insights into the bigger picture of its life, such as its diet or aspects of its behavior, and the environment it lived in,” said Wiersma. “Such is exactly the case with Akainacephalus johnsoni; not only is this the first described and named Late Cretaceous ankylosaurid dinosaur from Utah, but this unique animal also strengthens the evidence that distinct northern and southern provincialism existed during the late Campanian stage in Laramidia, because to date, we don’t see this type of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the fossil record of northern Laramidia,” he said.

Wiersma explained that additionally, together with its close relative Nodocephalosaurus from New Mexico, Akainacephalus looks very different compared to other North American ankylosaurids such as Ankylosaurus, but instead, look much more like Asian ankylosaurids including Saichania and Tarchia. From these observations we can conclude that at least two immigration events took place during Late Cretaceous times when lowered sea levels exposed the Beringian land bridge, connecting Asia with western North America.

Newly discovered armoured dinosaur from Utah reveals intriguing family history
Skeleton of the new armoured dinosaur Akainacephalus johnsoni as represented by preserved bones (top) and full
reconstructed skeleton in top-down (middle) and side (bottom) views [Credit: © Jelle Wiersma/PeerJ]

Ankylosaurid dinosaurs, among many other groups of animals, eventually crossed this land bridge, emigrating from Asia into western North America, resulting into two different types of Late Cretaceous ankylosaurid dinosaurs: ones that evolved flatter skull armour like Ankylosaurus and Euoplocephalus, and ones possessing very spiky skull armour such as Akainacephalus and Nodocephalosaurus.

“It is extremely fascinating and important for the science of paleontology that we can read so much information from the fossil record, allowing us to better understand extinct organisms and the ecosystems they were a part of,” concluded Wiersma.

These new findings are part of a study funded in large part by the Bureau of Land Management, as well as the Geological Society of America, and a University of Utah Department of Geology & Geophysics Graduate Student Grant. The project was led by University of Utah M.Sc. student Jelle Wiersma, now a Ph.D. student in the Dept. of Geosciences at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. Wiersma was advised by co-author Dr. Randall Irmis, chief curator and curator of paleontology at the Natural History Museum of Utah, and associate professor in the Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah.

Anklysaurid Dinosaurs on the Lost Continent of Southern Laramidia

Akainacephalus johnsoni was discovered in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (GSENM) which encompasses a large area of high desert terrain in south-central Utah. This vast and rugged region, part of the National Landscape Conservation System administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), was the last major area in the lower 48 states to be formally mapped by cartographers.

During the Late Cretaceous, GSENM was in the southern portion of Laramidia, which stretched from the Arctic Circle to the Gulf of Mexico. Akainacephalus is part of a growing number of new dinosaur discoveries over the past 15 years demonstrating the incredible diversity of animals and plants living on Laramidia between 80-75 million years ago. One of the most exciting conclusions from this work is that nearly every species of dinosaur discovered in GSENM is new to science, and Akainacephalus is no exception. Other recently discovered species include large and small meat-eating dinosaurs (e.g., tyrannosaurs), horned dinosaurs, and duck-billed dinosaurs. “A major long-term goal of our work in southern Utah is to try and understand why the species in GSENM differ from relatives of the same geologic age found in other parts of Laramidia,” said Wiersma. Hypotheses for the differences include changes in sea level, climate differences across latitude, and physical barriers to animal movement such as mountains and large rivers.

Fact Sheet: Major Points of the Paper

(1) Akainacephalus is a remarkable new species of ankylosaurid dinosaur from the upper Campanian Kaiparowits Formation in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Kane County, southern Utah.

(2) Akainacephalus is the most complete Late Cretaceous ankylosaurid dinosaur discovered from Utah and the southwestern U.S., and is distinguished by a number of unique features, including spikes and cones of the bony exterior covering the head and snout.

(3) The spikes and cones of bony armour on the skull of Akainacephalus are similar to those found on the New Mexican ankylosaurid Nodocephelausaurus kirtlandensis but distinct from all other known Late Cretaceous Laramidian ankylosaurids such as Ankylosaurus, Euoplocephalus, and Ziapelta, indicating these two species are more closely related to some Asian ankylosaurids.

(4) The new ankylosaurid Akainacephalus suggests multiple ankylosaurid emigration events from Asia to Laramidia during the Late Cretaceous.

(5) Together with some anklylosaurid dinosaurs from northern Laramidia, including Dyoplosaurus acutossquameus and Scolosaurus cutleri (both ~ 77 Ma), Akainacephalus represents one of the oldest known ankylosaurid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western North America (~76 Ma).

New Dinosaur Name: Akainacephalus johnsoni

– The first part of the name, Akaina, is a Greek word that can be translated to spike or thorn. The second part of the name cephalus means head, and the epithet johnsoni honors Randy Johnson, a dedicated paleontology volunteer at the Natural History Museum of Utah who prepared the specimen’s skull.


– Akainacephalus, is a medium-sized dinosaur, and was 13-16 feet long (4-5 meters) and was 3 ½ feet tall (1 — 1.5 meters) at the hips.


– Akainacephalus belongs to a group of herbivorous armoured dinosaurs called anklosaurids that lived in Asia and western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period (100-66 million years ago). One of the unique features of ankylosaurid dinosaurs is the presence of a characteristic bony tail club.


– Akainacephalus walked on four legs, which were positioned directly underneath his body.

– Akainacephalus was covered in bony armour from head to tail, with various sized and shaped bony plates, called osteoderms, which are thought to provide protection.

– Akainacephalus is characterized by its elaborate covering of spikes and horns on the skull, as well a large bony club at the end of its tail.

– Akainacephalus presumably had small, leaf-shaped teeth for eating plants. These fell out of the jaw after death, but before the skeleton was buried by sediment.

Age and Geography

– Akainacephalus lived during the upper Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, which spanned from approximately 84 million to 72 million years ago. This animal lived about 76 million years ago.

– Akainacephalus was discovered in 76 Ma old rocks of the Kaiparowits Formation, a geological/stratigraphic unit exposed in southern Utah consisting of sedimentary rocks deposited by rivers and streams.

Discovery & Excavation

– Akainacephalus was first discovered in 2008 during a museum-led paleontological expedition in a remote area of BLM-administered Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (GSENM) in Kane County, southern Utah, USA. The site was discovered by BLM employee Scott Richardson.

– The bones of Akainacephalus that were discovered include a complete skull, bony armour that includes neck rings and spiked plates, many vertebrae, forelimb and hindlimb bones, and a near complete tail with tail club.

– Akainacephalus was found together with skeletons of several other animals at the same site, including a duck-bill dinosaur (Gryposaurus), a recently-described species of turtle (Arvinachelys), and a yet unnamed relative of alligators and caimans).

– Akainacephalus is permanently housed in the collections of the Natural History Museum of Utah at the Rio Tinto Center in Salt Lake City and on public display at the museum’s Past Worlds exhibit.

– These discoveries are the result of an ongoing collaboration between the Natural History Museum of Utah and the Bureau of Land Management.


– It required almost four years to fully prepare all of the bones of Akainacephalus.

– Preparation of the skull was done by museum volunteer Randy Johnson, who is honored in the new name, Akainacephalus johnsoni

Source: University of Utah [July 19, 2018]




No Joke for Cancer. Image of the Week – July 23, 2018CIL:39107 -…

No Joke for Cancer. Image of the Week – July 23, 2018


Description: Lung cancer cells.

Author: Anne Weston

Licensing: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 UK)

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Radiation Maps of Jupiter’s Moon Europa: Key to Future Missions

Radiation from Jupiter can destroy molecules on Europa’s surface. Material from Europa’s ocean that ends up on the surface will be bombarded by radiation, possibly destroying any biosignatures, or chemical signs that could imply the presence of life. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.  Large View

Map of Europa’s surface showing the regions that receive the highest radiation dose (pink). Image credit: U.S. Geological Survey, NASA/JPL-Caltech, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Nature Astronomy

New comprehensive mapping of the radiation pummeling Jupiter’s icy moon Europa reveals where scientists should look — and how deep they’ll have to go — when searching for signs of habitability and biosignatures. 

Since NASA’s Galileo mission yielded strong evidence of a global ocean underneath Europa’s icy shell in the 1990s, scientists have considered that moon one of the most promising places in our solar system to look for ingredients to support life. There’s even evidence that the salty water sloshing around the moon’s interior makes its way to the surface.

By studying this material from the interior, scientists developing future missions hope to learn more about the possible habitability of Europa’s ocean.However, Europa’s surface is bombarded by a constant and intense blast of radiation from Jupiter. This radiation can destroy or alter material transported up to the surface, making it more difficult for scientists to know if it actually represents conditions in Europa’s ocean.

As scientists plan for upcoming exploration of Europa, they have grappled with many unknowns: Where is the radiation most intense? How deep do the energetic particles go? How does radiation affect what’s on the surface and beneath – including potential chemical signs, or biosignatures, that could imply the presence of life.

A new scientific study, published today in Nature Astronomy, represents the most complete modeling and mapping of radiation at Europa and offers key pieces to the puzzle. The lead author is Tom Nordheim, research scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. 

“If we want to understand what’s going on at the surface of Europa and how that links to the ocean underneath, we need to understand the radiation,” Nordheim said. “When we examine materials that have come up from the subsurface, what are we looking at? Does this tell us what is in the ocean, or is this what happened to the materials after they have been radiated?” 

Using data from Galileo’s flybys of Europa two decades ago and electron measurements from NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft, Nordheim and his team looked closely at the electrons blasting the moon’s surface. They found that the radiation doses vary by location. The harshest radiation is concentrated in zones around the equator, and the radiation lessens closer to the poles. 

Mapped out, the harsh radiation zones appear as oval-shaped regions, connected at the narrow ends, that cover more than half of the moon. 

“This is the first prediction of radiation levels at each point on Europa’s surface and is important information for future Europa missions,” said Chris Paranicas, a co-author from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland. 

Now scientists know where to find regions least altered by radiation, which could be crucial information for the JPL-led Europa Clipper, NASA’s mission to orbit Jupiter and monitor Europa with about 45 close flybys. The spacecraft may launch as early as 2022 and will carry cameras, spectrometers, plasma and radar instruments to investigate the composition of the moon’s surface, its ocean, and material that has been ejected from the surface. 

In his new paper, Nordheim didn’t stop with a two-dimensional map. He went deeper, gauging how far below the surface the radiation penetrates, and building 3D models of the most intense radiation on Europa. The results tell us how deep scientists need to dig or drill, during a potential future Europa lander mission, to find any biosignatures that might be preserved. 

The answer varies, from 4 to 8 inches (10 to 20 centimeters) in the highest-radiation zones – down to less than 0.4 inches (1 centimeter) deep in regions of Europa at middle- and high-latitudes, toward the moon’s poles.

To reach that conclusion, Nordheim tested the effect of radiation on amino acids, basic building blocks for proteins, to figure out how Europa’s radiation would affect potential biosignatures. Amino acids are among the simplest molecules that qualify as a potential biosignature, the paper notes.

“The radiation that bombards Europa’s surface leaves a fingerprint,” said Kevin Hand, co-author of the new research and projectscientist for the potential Europa Lander mission. “If we know what that fingerprint looks like, we can better understand the nature of any organics and possible biosignatures that might be detected with future missions, be they spacecraft that fly by or land on Europa. 

Europa Clipper’s mission team is examining possible orbit paths, and proposed routes pass over many regions of Europa that experience lower levels of radiation, Hand said. “That’s good news for looking at potentially fresh ocean material that has not been heavily modified by the fingerprint of radiation.”

JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Europa Clipper mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

For more information about NASA’s Europa Clipper mission, visit:  https://www.nasa.gov/europa

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Gretchen McCartney
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

Dwayne Brown / JoAnna Wendel
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1726 / 202-358-1003
dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov / joanna.r.wendel@nasa.gov

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Movers and Shapers Most of your cells are like restless…

Movers and Shapers

Most of your cells are like restless toddlers, unable to sit still. They shuffle around, constantly adjusting their position and shape. And this guides how they achieve their essential tasks. This moulding and movement relies on the coordinated action of actin (thin fibres that provide structure and direction, pink in the morphing cell pictured) and focal adhesions (blue). Like tiny suction pads, these adhesions grab hold to, and push off from, the surface cells sit on. Focal adhesions are essential to everyday cells, but are known to be enhanced in cancer cells spreading around the body. How adhesions form during initial cell spreading is not well known, but new research has revealed that they assemble in groups which then split into separate, mature units. The dynamic interactions between these units control their morphology, and understanding these mechanics may be the key to stopping wickedly wandering cells in their tracks.

Written by Anthony Lewis

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Eight hundred year old Norwegian skeleton found to have traces of Salmonella

Genome research conducted by the University of Warwick suggests that enteric fever, a potentially lethal disease more commonly found in hot countries, was present in medieval Europe.

Eight hundred year old Norwegian skeleton found to have traces of Salmonella
The skeleton, teeth and bones discovered in Trondheim, Norway
[Credit: University of Warwick]

Salmonella Paratyphi C causes enteric fever, a life-threatening infection, and has been detected in a 800 year old human skeleton discovered in Trondheim, Norway. Now scientists are speculating that the evolution of enteric fever could be linked to the domestication of pigs across northern Europe.

The research was conducted by a team of international collaborators led by Professor Mark Achtman of the University’s Warwick Medical School and their paper Pan-genome Analysis of Ancient and Modern Salmonella enterica Demonstrates Genomic Stability of the Invasive Para C Lineage for Millennia has been published in the journal Current Biology.

He and his team analysed bacterial DNA found in the teeth and bones of the skeleton of a young woman who is believed to have migrated to Trondheim from the northernmost areas of Scandinavia or Northwest Russia by her early teens only to die there around the age of 19-24 years.

They reconstructed a genome of Salmonella Paratyphi C which causes enteric fever in areas of poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. Their discovery indicates that the young Norwegian died of this disease and suggests that these bacteria have long caused enteric fever across northern Europe,

Eight hundred year old Norwegian skeleton found to have traces of Salmonella
This is the face reconstruction of the young woman [Credit: Caroline Wilkinson, Mark Roughley,
Ching Liu and Kathryn Smith at the Face Lab at Liverpool John Moores University
 for their different contributions to the production of the facial depiction]

Prof Achtman said: “Paratyphi C is very rare today in Europe and North America except for occasional travellers from South and East Asia or Africa, where the disease is more common. This is the first time that any Salmonella have been found in old human remains in Europe, which is surprising because other Salmonella are more common today, including Salmonella causing typhoid fever, called Typhi, and Salmonella causing food poisoning. Earlier this year, Vågene and co-authors described related Paratyphi C from skeletons in Mexico, who died in 1545 CE, and speculated the Paratyphi C entered the Americas together with Europeans.”

The new results included comparative analyses of the Paratyphi C genome found in the skeleton against modern Salmonella genome sequences from EnteroBase, an online database developed at the University of Warwick and used internationally. This revealed that Paratyphi C represents the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor, or clade, within the Para C lineage. The Para C Lineage includes Choleraesuis, which causes septicaemia in pigs and boar and Typhisuis which causes epidemic swine salmonellosis (chronic paratyphoid) in domestic pigs. These different host specificities likely evolved in Europe over the last 4,000 years and coincide with the timing of pig domestication in Europe.

According to historical records, humans have long been afflicted by bacterial infections, yet genomic analyses of living bacterial pathogens routinely estimate a date for the most recent common ancestor of no more than a few centuries. In general, evolutionary trees contain a stem group, which may include lineages that are now rare or extinct, as well as the crown group of living organisms. Historical reconstructions based only on the crown group ignore the older sub-lineages in the stem group and thereby provide an incomplete picture of the older evolutionary history of the pathogen. In contrast, analyses of ancient DNA such as the Paratyphi C genome can shed light on additional millennia of bacterial pathogen evolution that occurred prior to the origin of the crown group.

Professor Achtman added: “Using EnteroBase we were able to define the Para C lineage from 50,000 modern Salmonella enterica genomes and find that over its 3,000 year history only a few genomic changes occurred within the Para C lineage.

“As well as reshaping our understanding of Salmonella enterica, our research has triggered intriguing speculations about historical host jumps during the Neolithic period between humans and their domesticated animals.”

Source: University of Warwick [July 19, 2018]





https://t.co/hvL60wwELQ — XissUFOtoday Space (@xufospace) August 3, 2021 Жаждущий ежик наслаждается пресной водой после нескольких дней в о...