суббота, 14 июля 2018 г.

Azurite & Serpierite & Mimetite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Azurite & Serpierite & Mimetite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Tsumeb Mine, Otavi Highlands, Namibia

Size: 2.5 × 3 × 2.2 cm


Photo Copyright © eShop-minerals /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

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Barite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Location: Cleveland…


Barite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Location: Cleveland Co., Oklahoma, USA

Size: 6.5 x 5.0 x 4.0 cm (small-cabinet)


Photo Copyright © Weinrich Minerals


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Quartz with Microcline var. Amazonite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Quartz with Microcline var. Amazonite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Location: Echo Pocket, Dreamtime Claim, Crystal Peak, Teller Co., Colorado, USA


Size: 13.0 x 11.0 x 8.0 cm (cabinet)


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New species may arise from rapid mitochondrial evolution

Genetic research at Oregon State University has shed new light on how isolated populations of the same species evolve toward reproductive incompatibility and thus become separate species.











New species may arise from rapid mitochondrial evolution
Male tigriopus californicus [Credit: Oregon State University]

Scientists sequenced the entire genome of a Pacific tidepool crustacean, Tigriopus californicus, a model species for differentiation based on geographic separation – an early stage of one species becoming multiple species.


They examined the co-evolution of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Mitochondria act as a cell’s power plant, generating adenosine triphosphate, or ATP – a source of chemical energy.


As in all animals, most of a T. californicus cell’s genes are in its nucleus but some are in the mitochondria.


“The mitochondria organelle contains a small chromosome with only 37 genes, but these genes are absolutely essential for metabolism,” said the study’s corresponding author, Felipe Barreto, assistant professor of integrative biology in OSU’s College of Science. “In order for ATP to be produced properly in a cell, a few hundred other genes encoded in the nucleus must interact directly with the 37 mitochondrial genes. Mutations in the mitochondrial genes may cause these interactions to be subpar and thus cause reductions in metabolic performance.”


T. californicus populations along the Pacific coast of North America have mitochondrial genes that differ widely from one population to the next – there are lots of mutations relative to each other.


“As a result, hybrid offspring between populations suffer from lowered fitness in the form of lower fecundity, slow development and lower ATP production as determined by several previous experiments,” Barreto said.


Barreto and collaborators from the University of California, San Diego, the University of Southern California and the University of North Carolina used molecular statistical models to screen the genomes of eight populations in order to detect which genes might be incompatible between populations.


“Those genes may therefore be candidate genes for understanding how different populations become incompatible and possibly eventually become different species,” he said.


The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution.


Author: Steve Lundeberg | Source: Oregon State University [July 12, 2018]




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International collaboration finds land plant genes in ancient aquatic alga

Land plants, which split from their aquatic relatives 500 million years ago, are an extraordinarily diverse group of living organisms–from tall redwoods to fragrant roses to carpets of moss.











International collaboration finds land plant genes in ancient aquatic alga
Artistic rendition depicts the freshwater alga plant Chara braunii cradling different types of lands plants
(L-R): a moss, a fern, a conifer and a flower [Credit: Melanie Barth and Debbie Maizels]

For plants, survival on dry land required some new evolutionary innovations. For instance, they had to develop root systems that can absorb nutrients from soil. They also needed strong stems that can support their own weight without help from the buoyancy of water. Land plants evolved to deal with these and many other environmental challenges, resulting in their worldwide abundance today.


To better understand the genetic adaptations that made this transition so successful, an international team, which included three University of Maryland researchers, sequenced and analyzed the genome of Chara braunii, a freshwater green alga closely related to land plants. By comparing Chara’s genome to multiple land plant genomes, the team was able to identify many important genes that originated in a common ancestor shared by Chara and land plants.


“It’s great to finally have a genome from an alga closely related to land plants,” said UMD Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics Professor Charles Delwiche, an expert in plant evolution. “This information will help us understand which land plant functions were truly novel.”


Chara braunii belongs to a division of plants called Charophytic algae, which are the closest living relatives of land plants. As one of the first Charophytic algae to have its genome sequenced, Chara has yielded important information on how land plants evolved from their aquatic ancestors.


“Our data show that a number of genes previously considered typical for terrestrial plants can already be found in these algae,” said Stefan Rensing, a professor of cell biology at the University of Marburg who led the collaboration. “This means that some important processes that occur when land plants grow are much more ancient than previously believed. In fact, some of these characteristics evolved before land plants even existed.”


For example, Chara possesses all of the genes required to detect the presence of the plant hormone ethylene. This ability is present in all land plants where ethylene plays a wide variety of roles, from promoting seed germination to signaling when fruit should ripen.


“Given the huge number of roles ethylene has in plants, we want to know when the ethylene signaling pathway originated,” said Caren Chang, a professor in the UMD Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics and an expert in ethylene signaling in plants. “Because we found that Chara has all of the specialized genes for ethylene signaling, it means that this ability is even older than Chara.”


Although Chara can respond to ethylene, the scientists also discovered that Chara lacks key steps of the cellular pathway needed to make the hormone. Chang’s laboratory is currently investigating the evolution and function of the incomplete ethylene-making pathway in Charophytic algae and in some land plants such as mosses, liverworts and ferns.


Some other features that Chara shares with land plants include: egg and sperm cells, which allow plants to make seeds that can disperse over land; tip growth, which allows plants to develop complex roots to get nutrients out of soil; and some of the cellular machinery important for formation of the plant cell wall, which allows plants to support their own weight.


Going forward, Delwiche plans to sequence the genomes of other Charophytic algae that are more distantly related to land plants.


“One really cool thing about having complete genomes is that you can start to understand what bits and pieces and systems are missing,” Delwiche said. “Identifying which genes are missing, and in which species, will give us insights into how plants evolved.”


The research paper was published in the journal Cell.


Source: University of Maryland [July 12, 2018]




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Pyrenean mastodon skull unveiled in France

A French farmer kept quiet for years after stumbling across the skull of an extinct ancestor of the elephant near the Pyrenees mountains, the Natural History Museum of Toulouse has told AFP.











Pyrenean mastodon skull unveiled in France
Paleontologist Pascal Tassy observes the skull of a Pyrenean mastodon during excavation
[Credit: © Musee d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse/AFP] 

The farmer discovered the first-ever skull of a Pyrenean mastodon in 2014 while doing work on his land near the village of L’Isle-en-Dodon, about 70 kilometres (44 miles) southwest of Toulouse.


Worried that the farm would be overrun by hordes of amateur paleontologists he kept the find a secret for two years before eventually contacting the museum.


“It was only when we went there, in 2017, that we realised the significance of the discovery,” the museum’s management said.











Pyrenean mastodon skull unveiled in France
Skull embedded in stone in the museum laboratory [Credit: © Musee d’Histoire
Naturelle de Toulouse/AFP]

The gomphoterium pyrenaicum was “a kind of elephant with four tusks measuring around 80 centimetres, two on the upper jaw and two on the lower jaw,” museum director Francis Duranthon told AFP on Wednesday.


Before that the only evidence that the giant herbivores had roamed the area millions of years ago were four teeth found in the same area in 1857.


“Now we have a full skull which will allow us to get a clearer picture of the anatomy of this species,” Duranthon said.











Pyrenean mastodon skull unveiled in France
Frontal view of the mastodon skull [Credit: © Musee d’Histoire
Naturelle de Toulouse/AFP]

“We’re putting a face on a species which had become almost mythical,” the museum’s curator Pierre Dalous added.


The skull has been unearthed and brought to a laboratory partly encased in rock.


“Now we have to chip away, centimetre by centimetre, to reveal the rest of the skull,” Dalous said, adding that experts were halfway through the work which is expected to be completed within six to nine months.


Source: AFP [July 12, 2018]




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5,300-year-old Iceman’s last meal revealed

In 1991, German tourists discovered, in the Eastern Italian Alps, a human body that was later determined to be the oldest naturally preserved ice mummy, known as Otzi or the Iceman. Now, researchers reporting in the journal Current Biology who have conducted the first in-depth analysis of the Iceman’s stomach contents offer a rare glimpse of our ancestor’s ancient dietary habits. Among other things, their findings show that the Iceman’s last meal was heavy on the fat.











5,300-year-old Iceman's last meal revealed
This photograph was taken during the stomach content sampling campaign in November 2010 in Bolzano, Italy
[Credit: South Tyrol Archaeology Museum\Eurac\M.Samadelli]

The findings offer important insights into the nutritional habits of European individuals, going back more than 5,000 years to the Copper Age. They also offer clues as to how our ancient ancestors handled food preparation.


“By using a complementary multi-omics approach combined with microscopy, we reconstructed the Iceman’s last meal, showing that he has had a remarkably high proportion of fat in his diet, supplemented with wild meat from ibex and red deer, cereals from einkorn, and with traces of toxic bracken,” says Frank Maixner of the Eurac Research Institute for Mummy Studies in Bolzano, Italy. Bracken is a genus of large ferns.


Maixner and colleagues, including Albert Zink, explains that the analysis hadn’t happened earlier because scientists were initially unable to identify the Iceman’s stomach. That’s because it had moved up during the mummification process. In 2009, his stomach was spotted during a re-investigation of CT scans, and an effort to analyze its contents was launched.











5,300-year-old Iceman's last meal revealed
The Iceman’s gastrointestinal (GI) tract preservation and content texture. The radiographic image shows the completely filled stomach (asterisk) and the intestinal loops ofthe lower GI tract (arrows). Content samples of the stomach (left, asterisk) and of two different sites in the lower GI tract (middle, right) that were re-hydrated in phosphate buffer are shown below the radiographic image. Right [Credit: Institute for Mummy Studies\Eurac Research\Frank Maixner]

“The stomach material was, compared to previously analyzed lower intestine samples, extraordinarily well preserved, and it also contained large amounts of unique biomolecules such as lipids, which opened new methodological opportunities to address our questions about Otzi’s diet,” Maixner says.


The researchers combined classical microscopic and modern molecular approaches to determine the exact composition of the Iceman’s diet prior to his death. The broad-spectrum approach allowed them to make inferences based on ancient DNA, proteins, metabolites, and lipids.


The analysis identified ibex adipose tissue as the most likely fat source. In fact, about half of the stomach contents were composed of adipose fat. While the high-fat diet was unexpected, the researchers say it “totally makes sense” given the extreme alpine environment in which the Iceman lived and where he was found.











5,300-year-old Iceman's last meal revealed
Two large bundles of muscle fibers. Confocal laser scanning microscopy image. The scale bar indicates 1mm.
Magnified image of one muscle fibre bundle. The scale bar indicates 20μm. The long cylindrical unbranched
 muscle cells often appear in bundles and still display striated fiber structures running perpendicular
 to the long fiber axis characteristic for cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue
[Credit: Institute for Mummy Studies\Eurac Research\Frank Maixne]

“The high and cold environment is particularly challenging for the human physiology and requires optimal nutrient supply to avoid rapid starvation and energy loss,” says Albert Zink, also at the Eurac Research Institute for Mummy Studies. “The Iceman seemed to have been fully aware that fat represents an excellent energy source.”


The analysis indicated that the wild meat was eaten fresh or perhaps dried. While the presence of toxic bracken particles is more difficult to explain, the researchers say it’s possible that the Iceman suffered from intestinal problems related to parasites found earlier in his gut and took the bracken as a medicine. On the other hand, he may have used the fern’s leaves to wrap food and ingested toxic spores unintentionally.


Their analysis also revealed traces of the original gut bacterial community present in the Iceman’s intestinal contents. The researchers say they plan to conduct further studies aimed to reconstruct the ancient gut microbiomes of the Iceman and other mummified human remains.


Source: Cell Press [July 12, 2018]



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Basel papyrus likely written by the famous Greek physician Galen

Since the 16th century, Basel has been home to a mysterious papyrus. With mirror writing on both sides, it has puzzled generations of researchers. A research team from the University of Basel has now discovered that it is an unknown medical document from late antiquity. The text was likely written by the famous Greek physician Galen.











Basel papyrus likely written by the famous Greek physician Galen
The papyrus after conservation: cleaned, smoothed and consolidated
[Credit: University of Basel]

The Basel papyrus collection comprises 65 papers in five languages, which were purchased by the university in 1900 for the purpose of teaching classical studies – with the exception of two papyri. These arrived in Basel back in the 16th century, and likely formed part of Basilius Amerbach’s art collection.


One of these Amerbach papyri was regarded until now as unique in the world of papyrology. With mirror writing on both sides, it has puzzled generations of researchers. It was only through ultraviolet and infrared images produced by the Basel Digital Humanities Lab that it was possible to determine that this 2,000-year-old document was not a single papyrus at all, but rather several layers of papyrus glued together. A specialist papyrus restorer was brought to Basel to separate the sheets, enabling the Greek document to be decoded for the first time.


A literary papyrus


“This is a sensational discovery,” says Sabine Huebner, Professor of Ancient History at the University of Basel. “The majority of papyri are documents such as letters, contracts and receipts. This is a literary text, however, and they are vastly more valuable.”











Basel papyrus likely written by the famous Greek physician Galen
At the papyrus workshop: the conservation of papyrus requires above all craftsmanship,
expertise and time. [Credit: University of Basel]

What’s more, it contains a previously unknown text from antiquity. “We can now say that it’s a medical text from late antiquity that describes the phenomenon of ‘hysterical apnea’,” says Huebner. “We therefore assume that it is either a text from the [[Greek]] physician Galen, or an unknown commentary on his work.” After Hippocrates, Galen is regarded as the most important physician of antiquity.


The decisive evidence came from Italy – an expert saw parallels to the famous Ravenna papyri from the chancery of the Archdiocese of Ravenna. These include many antique manuscripts from Galen, which were later used as palimpsests and written over. The Basel papyrus could be a similar case of medieval recycling, as it consists of multiple sheets glued together and was probably used as a book binding. The other Basel Amerbach papyrus in Latin script is also thought to have come from the Archdiocese of Ravenna. At the end of the 15th century, it was then stolen from the archive and traded by art collectors as a curiosity.


Utilizing digital opportunities in research


Huebner made the discovery in the course of an editing project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation. For three years, she has been working with an interdisciplinary team in collaboration with the University of Basel’s Digital Humanities Lab to examine the papyrus collection, which in the meantime has been digitalized, transcribed, annotated and translated. The project team has already presented the history of the papyrus collection through an exhibition in the University Library last year. They plan to publish all their findings at the start of 2019.











Basel papyrus likely written by the famous Greek physician Galen
A specialized papyrus conservator was brought to Basel to make this 2,000-year-old
document legible again [Credit: University of Basel]

With the end of the editing project, the research on the Basel papyri will enter into a new phase. Huebner hopes to provide additional impetus to papyrus research, particularly through sharing the digitalized collection with international databases. As papyri frequently only survive in fragments or pieces, exchanges with other papyrus collections are essential. “The papyri are all part of a larger context. People mentioned in a Basel papyrus text may appear again in other papyri, housed for example in Strasbourg, London, Berlin or other locations. It is digital opportunities that enable us to put these mosaic pieces together again to form a larger picture.”

The Basel Papyrus Collection


In 1900, the University of Basel was one of the first German-speaking universities and the first in German-speaking Switzerland to procure a papyrus collection. At that time, papyrology was booming – people hoped to discover more about the development of early Christendom and to rediscover works of ancient authors believed to be lost. The Voluntary Museum Association of Basel provided CHF 500 to purchase the papyri, an amount equivalent to around CHF 5,000 today.


The current value of such a papyrus collection, however, would be in the hundreds of thousands. The Basel collection contains 65 documents in five languages from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods and late antiquity. Most of the collection is made up of documentary papyri, which are primarily of social, cultural and religious historical interest as they record the daily life of ordinary people 2,000 years ago. Most of the Basel papyri have not been published and remained largely ignored by research until now.


Source: University of Basel [July 12, 2018]



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New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic...

More new archaeological sites have been uncovered in Thrace and Macedonia as the construction phase of the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) continues to traverse through Greece.











New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
More than 400 archaeological excavations have been completed along TAP’s path [Credit: TAP]

Thrace, Greece


Archaeological remnants of human activity in Thrace from the Neolithic (4th millennium BC) to the post-Byzantine period have been brought to light from archaeological excavations, carried out in the context of construction works for the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) AG.


This is supported by the findings of archaeologists who are employed in the area by the project and monitored by the local Ephorates of Antiquities (of Evros, Rhodope and Xanthi), as well as the Ministry of Culture and Sports.


– Evros Regional Unit –


Starting from the east, during TAP construction works in Evros a total of 30 locations of archaeological interest were identified, from Kipoi in the Greek-Turkish border, to the area of Sykorrachi in the west. These include cemeteries, architectural remains, artisanal and other findings, dating from the antiquity to the later Byzantine period.











New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Potamos: early Byzantine three-nave basilica [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Potamos: Roman cist grave [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Potamos: Glass unguentarium from the Roman grave [Credit: TAP]

“The findings are associated with already known archaeological sites in the vicinity, as well as new and –up to now unknown– archaeological locations. All findings are kept in the storage facilities of the local Ephorate of Antiquities, and many of them have already been conserved and are being studied by our staff archaeologists,” stated the Head of the Rhodope Ephorate of Antiquities and former head of the respective Ephorate of Evros, Chrysa Karadima. Also participating in the research were archaeologist and project manager, Zoe Miltsakaki, and archaeologist Filoxeni Aitatoglou, who was in charge of coordination of the works.


Archaeological research in Evros mainly focused on four excavations, all in the Municipality of Alexandroupolis. According to the scientists, these locations document the area’s historical significance due to the number and kind of the findings:   


– late antiquity cemetary in Gemisti


– late Byzantine cemetary in Palagia


– architectural remnants of an early Byzantine three-nave basilica in Potamos 


– cist Roman grave with rich grave goods, also in Potamos 


– Rhodope Regional Unit –


Twelve unknown archaeological findings were unearthed and recorded during construction works in Rhodope. From these, according to the Head of the local Ephorate, Chrysa Karadima, and the archaeologist in charge, Marina Tasaklaki, two evolved into large-scale rescue excavations and are now identified as locations of archaeological interest.











New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Arsakeio: building and graves (4th-5th century AD) [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Galini: Roman graves [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Amaxades: stability works on Anastasioupolis Wall [Credit: TAP]

The findings include:


– the Arsakeio area of the Maroneia-Sapes Municipality, where two phases of use were identified,



  • – one belonging to the Roman/late Roman period (4th-5th century AD) and relating to findings such as: kiln, remnants of a rectangular and a circular building, well and large pots. Out of these, the kiln has already been transferred to the courtyard of the Komotini Archaeological Museum, with the intention to use it in the local Ephorate’s educational projects.



  • – and a second one, belonging to the Byzantine period and relating to 55 graves, mainly pit-like and unadorned.


– the Galini area of the Iasmos Municipality, where part of a Roman cemetary was excavated.


Finally, added Ms Karadima and Ms Tasaklaki, “in the Amaxades area of Iasmos, TAP crosses with the Byzantine Wall of Anastasioupolis, dated to the Justinian period and presenting singular scientific interest – regarding both its construction and operation. That’s because the 2.4km wall combined the dual role of aqueduct and fortification. In order to protect the monument, the construction of the pipeline in the area was carried out without trenching, but by the use of the boring method instead – after performing restoration maintenance and fastening works, to ensure stability.”     


– Xanthi Regional Unit –


The most impressive aspect of the rescue excavations carried out in the context of TAP’s construction in Xanthi, is that none of the archaeological locations identified were known beforehand. According to the Head of the local Ephorate, Konstantina Kallintzi, and the archaeologists Maria Chrysafi, Kyriaki Hadjiprokopiou and Despoina Skoulariki, this is very significant, as it enriches both archaeological topography and scientific knowledge.   











New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Sounio: stone tools from an early Bronze Age settlement (3,200-2,000 BC) [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Polysitos: 4th century BC fortress (reign of Philip II) [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Grigoro: glass jewellery-graved goods from middle-Byzantine cemetary (10th-12th century AD) [Credit: TAP]

Antiquities were excavated in several levels compared to today’s ground surface, dating from the Neolithic to the post-Byzantine period. The local Ephorate identifies the following as the most important findings:


– Remnants of an early Bronze Age settlement (3,200-2,000 BC), in Sounio, Avdira Municipality.


– Iron Age ceramic pots and Thracian graves (8th century BC), in Grigoro, Avdira Municipality.


– 4th century BC fortress related to Philip II’s activities in coastal Thrace, Polysitos, Avdira Municipality.


– Remnants of Roman metalwork activities, in Kossos, Topeiros Municipality.


– 3rd-4th century AD settlement, including artisan workshops, ceramic kiln and a location for storing coins and/or metal objects, in Sounio, Avdira Municipality. The selection of the location is linked to the proximity of the Roman Via Egnatia.


– Middle-Byzantine cemetary (10th-12th century AD), in Grigoro, Avdira Municipality: pit-shaped and cist graves were excavated, several of them adorned with glass and bronze jewellery.


– Post-Byzantine aqueducts, in Kossos, Topeiros Municipality, as well as in Tecton, Feloni and Vafeïka in the Avdira Municipality.


Region of Central Macedonia, Greece


Archaeological remnants of human activity in Central Macedonia from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine period have been brought to light in archaeological excavations, carried out in the context of construction works for the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) AG.











New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Karteres: artisan workshops for the processing of leather or wool [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Assiros: early Christian graveyard [Credit: TAP] 










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Pentalofos: pits and hearth in prehistoric settlement [Credit: TAP]

The work has been undertaken by archaeologists, who are employed in the area by the TAP project and monitored by the local Ephorates of Antiquities (of Thessaloniki, Kilkis and Serres), as well as the Ministry of Culture and Sports.


– Thessaloniki Regional Unit –


Starting off from the largest Regional Unit, and specifically the Municipalities of Langadas and Oraiokastro, archaeological works focused on an area extending from the Evangelistria district to Pentalofos and the River Gallikos. Thanks to these excavations, many archaeological sites were unearthed –particularly in the mountainous areas– that had remained unexplored to date. The Ephorate of Antiquities, under its head, Maria Tsiapali, and the archaeologist in charge, Anna Panti, singled out the most significant findings:                                               


– Two ashlar-built graves in Evangelistria (in a poor condition).


– Ruins of a Roman building, between Lachanas and Evangelistria


– Two unadorned graves in the Karteres area


– Remnants of Roman artisan workshops for the processing of leather or wool, north-west of Karteres


Findings in the Assiros area:


– a waste-disposal pit dating from the late Bronze Age (ca. 1,600-1,125)


– pit from the Hellenistic period (4th-1st century BC)


– part of a late Roman building


– early Christian graveyard (4th-7th century AD)


– Part of a late-Roman graveyard in the Drymos area


– Prehistoric settlement with two phases of habitation in Pentalofos​


– Kilkis Regional Unit –


Anastasios Keramaris, archaeologist at the Ministry of Culture and Sports in charge of the excavations carried out in Kilkis, described the unearthing of sites of archaeological interest during the preliminary construction works for TAP as “unexpected”. Excavations in the area focused on the “Theodosia” and “Isoma” sites, where parts of two organised Roman gravesites were found, as well as traces of buildings – possibly from the same chronological period.   











New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Isoma: Roman cemetery [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Isoma: grave findings [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Grave findings from excavations in the Kilkis Regional Unit [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Theodosia: bronze coins as grave goods [Credit: TAP]

In total, 48 burial sites were investigated in “Theodosia” and another 43 in “Isoma.” Several grave goods, accompanying the deceased on their final journey, also came to light in the context of these excavations. These include ceramic and glass pots, clay lamps, bronze coins and some jewellery. All findings are expected to be conserved and exhibited, so as to tell the long story of the place in which they were found. 


– Serres Regional Unity –


Several sites and antiquities, dating from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine period, were excavated in the Serres Regional Unit. The excavations were monitored by the archaeologists Penelope Malama, former head of the local Ephorate of Antiquities, and Nicoletta Pylarinou.











New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Symvoli: Roman-Late Roman cemetery [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Messorachi: Neolithic potsherds [Credit: TAP]










New archaeological sites unearthed in Greece during construction of Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Kefalochori: settlement and cemetery from the Bronze Age and the Hellenistic period [Credit: TAP]

According to their research “the findings have enriched the area’s archaeological map with new data and confirmed our knowledge for already noted sites.” Some of these are:


– A Roman-late Roman (2nd-5th century AD) cemetery in Symvoli, west of the Aggitis River, with 74 graves


– Prehistoric settlements in Mandili and Messorachi. In the known archaeological site of Mandili, in use until the Byzantine period, remnants of buildings and waste-disposal pits were found. Relevant findings were also unearthed in Messorachi, as well as adorned potsherds dating to the Neolithic period (ca. 5,300-3,200 BC). Figurines, bone jewellery and chipped stone tools were also excavated.


– More than 40 artificial trenches (waste-disposal pits) in Nea Zichni, containing ceramics from the Archaïc and Classical period (8th-4th century BC). Interestingly, pots imported from Ionia, Attica and Corinth were found along products of local workshops.


– A child’s cist grave from the Archaïc period (late 6th century BC) in Neos Skopos, containing significant goods, such as a small Corinthian pot for storing essential oils with floral designs and golden trim.


– Late-Roman (3rd-4th century AD) gravesite in Peristeria, containing pottery, bronze jewellery and coins.


– Three burial sites in Kefalochori. The first regards a prehistoric settlement, the second a settlement and cemetery dating from the Iron Age (11th-8th century) to the Hellenistic period, and the third a cemetery with grave circles. The extent and density of the findings in the second site, led TAP to re-route in this location.


In February 2017, TAP was awarded a grant of €14,018,347 to fund archaeological trial trench investigations and rescue excavations uncovered during the construction of the pipeline in Greece from Kavala to Kastoria.


Source: Trans Adriatic Pipeline [July 12, 2018]



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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/new-archaeological-sites-unearthed-in-greece-during-construction-of-trans-adriatic-pipeline/

HiPOD (14 July 2018): Down in Proctor Crater   – Proctor Crater…



HiPOD (14 July 2018): Down in Proctor Crater


   – Proctor Crater is 168 kilometers in diameter, and its massive dune field has been imaged by us for several years to track changes over time.


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona (255 km above the surface. Black and white less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km)


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/hipod-14-july-2018-down-in-proctor-crater-proctor-crater/

Enchanted Well, Chapada Diamantina National Park, Brazil |…


Enchanted Well, Chapada Diamantina National Park, Brazil | #Geology #GeologyPage #Brazil


Poço Encantado, or Enchanted Well, is located in the Chapada Diamantina National Park in Bahia state, approximately 400 kilometres inland from Salvador, the capital city of Bahia.


This giant sunken pool is 120 feet deep and the water is so transparent the rocks and ancient tree trunks are visible on the bottom.


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/enchanted-well-chapada-diamantina-national-park-brazil/

Azurite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Location: Bou Bekker,…


Azurite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Location: Bou Bekker, Touissit, Oriental, Morocco


Size: 4.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 cm (miniature)


Photo Copyright © Weinrich Minerals


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/azurite-geology-geologypage-mineral-location-bou-bekker/

Shattuckite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Katanga…


Shattuckite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Katanga Copper Crescent, Katanga, Congo – Kinshasa

Size: 32mm x 23mm x 14mm


Photo Copyright © Quebul Fine Minerals


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/shattuckite-geology-geologypage-mineral-locality-katanga/

Eye of the Sahara “Richat Structure” | #Geology…


Eye of the Sahara “Richat Structure” | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mauritania


The Richat Structure, also known as the Eye of the Sahara and Guelb er Richat, is a prominent circular feature in the Sahara near Ouadane, west–central Mauritania.


The Richat Structure is a deeply eroded, slightly elliptical dome with a diameter of 40 km. The sedimentary rock exposed in this dome ranges in age from Late Proterozoic within the center of the dome to Ordovician sandstone around its edges. The sedimentary rocks comprising this structure dip outward at 10°–20°. Differential erosion of resistant layers of quartzite has created high-relief circular cuestas. Its center consists of a siliceous breccia covering an area that is at least 30 km in diameter.


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/eye-of-the-sahara-richat-structure-geology/

Gem Blue Lazulite crystals with Siderite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Gem Blue Lazulite crystals with Siderite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Rapid Creek, Dawson Mining District, Yukon Territory, Canada

Size: 37mm x 33mm x 19mm


Photo Copyright © Quebul Fine Minerals


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/gem-blue-lazulite-crystals-with-siderite-geology-geologypage/

Tourmaline | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality: Barra do…


Tourmaline | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Barra do Salinas, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Size: 4 × 1.3 × 0.9 cm

Largest Crystal: 4.00cm


Photo Copyright © Wittig-Minerals /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/tourmaline-geology-geologypage-mineral-locality-barra-do/

Ormaig Prehistoric Rock Art, Argyll, 14.7.18. This is a new…


Ormaig Prehistoric Rock Art, Argyll, 14.7.18.


This is a new site for me. Was it worth the three mile walk? Definitely. Markings include cups, rings and rosettes.


Source link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/ormaig-prehistoric-rock-art-argyll-14-7-18-this-is-a-new/

2018 July 14 A Nibble on the Sun Image Credit & Copyright:…


2018 July 14


A Nibble on the Sun
Image Credit & Copyright: Padraic Koen, Adelaide, South Australia


Explanation: The smallest of the three partial solar eclipses during 2018 was just yesterday, Friday, July 13. It was mostly visible over the open ocean between Australia and Antarctica. Still, this video frame of a tiny nibble on the Sun was captured through a hydrogen-alpha filter from Port Elliott, South Australia, during the maximum eclipse visible from that location. There, the New Moon covered about 0.16 percent of the solar disk. The greatest eclipse, about one-third of the Sun’s diameter blocked by the New Moon, could be seen from East Antarctica near Peterson Bank, where the local emperor penguin colony likely had the best view. During this prolific eclipse season, the coming Full Moon will bring a total lunar eclipse on July 27, followed by yet another partial solar eclipse at the next New Moon on August 11.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180714.html


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/2018-july-14-a-nibble-on-the-sun-image-credit-copyright/

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