вторник, 10 июля 2018 г.

Remains of pre-Hispanic children left as offerings found in Peru

Recent discoveries in the huaca Mateo Salado provide an insight into the way of life of the ancient inhabitants of the area. They also reveal the rich trade that passed through the area during the Inca period.











Remains of pre-Hispanic children left as offerings found in Peru
Credit: Andina/Luis Iparraguirre

A few years ago, during an archaeological excavation in one of the pyramids of the Lima archaeological complex of Mateo Salado, numerous burial sites were found. They date, according to archaeologists, to the Ychma culture, which belongs to the Late Intermediate period.


Pedro Espinoza, the archaeologist in charge of the work in this huaca, explained to the Andina news agency that it was necessary to study a couple of these funerary bundles. It was discovered that these contained the remains of minors.


Espinoza also noted that the burials had taken place in a tower built by the Lima culture, the predecessor of the Ychma, and that it was no longer in use at the time it was used as a burial site. “The Lima did not bury their dead in buildings, but the Ychma did,” he noted.











Remains of pre-Hispanic children left as offerings found in Peru
Credit: Andina/Luis Iparraguirre

However this is not the only recent finding in the huaca Mateo Salado. One piece of information that the archaeological team of this complex sought to unravel was to ascertain how far the northernmost wall extended.


This is separated from the rest of the site due to the roadways resulting from urban expansion.


Espinoza said a straight line was drawn in an area that almost borders the Bertello Road. While digging there, archaeologists discovered two things.











Remains of pre-Hispanic children left as offerings found in Peru
Credit: Andina/Luis Iparraguirre

First, their suspicions were confirmed that the wall extended beyond, even under the aforementioned road.


Second: the landfill used to build the wall contained the remains of two infants under one year old. He explained that both were not dressed and that one could speculate that they were used as offerings for the construction.


Espinoza said that the projected museum of Mateo Salado’s site will exhibit both the remains of the newborns found in the north wall and the funeral bundles containing children found in the pyramid.











Remains of pre-Hispanic children left as offerings found in Peru
Credit: Andina/Luis Iparraguirre

“In this way it will be possible to compare the different funeral traditions that were practiced in the place”, he said.


Other peculiarities found at Mateo Salado, Espinoza added, were the materials that come from various locations. There is even material of Ecuadorian origin such as the famous spondilus, as well as from northern Chile and southern Peru such as lapis lazuli.


Other items from faraway areas include mercury from Huancavelica and certain seeds from the Amazon.



Espinoza explains that, although during the different periods of Mateo Salado’s occupation, items from faraway places have been found, it is during the Inca occupation that an exponential increase in this variety of raw materials is seen.


“This is undoubtedly due to the importance of Mateo Salado in the Tahuantinsuyo road network”, concludes Espinoza.


Source: Andina [July 06, 2018]



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Medieval games board found in search for Pictish monastery

A medieval gaming board has been found by archaeologists working to find a lost Pictish-era monastery in Aberdeenshire.











Medieval games board found in search for Pictish monastery
The medieval gaming board used to play Norse strategy game Hnefatafl
[Credit: Michael Sharpe/Book of Deer Project]

Archaeologist Ali Cameron said the board found near Old Deer was a “very rare” find with it used to play the Norse strategy game of Hnefatafl.


A date for the board has yet to be established but a similar piece found in Birsay, Orkney, in 1989 was dated to the Late Iron Age/Pictish period from the 5th to 9th Century AD.


Ms Cameron said: “It is a very rare object and only a few have been found in Scotland, mainly on monastic or at least religious sites. These gaming boards are not something everyone would have had access to.”


A Solomon’s Knot, a symbol used to express the union of man with the divine or eternity and immortality, can also be seen on the board.


It may have been a later addition to the piece, Dr Cameron said with the board also possibly altered to a circular shape and used as a pot lid.


The search for the lost Pictish-era monastery in the Old Deer area has been ongoing for several years.


Earlier finds in Aberdeenshire brought archaeologists closer to pinpointing the whereabouts of the Christian site which was home to the Book of Deer, a book of gospels which contains the first written examples of Scottish Gaelic.


The monastery, built to spread Christianity into Pictland, disappeared about 1,000 years ago.


Deer Abbey – the remains which still stand – was then founded nearby in 1219AD.


Excavations unearthed a hearth and a thick layer of charcoal, with carbon testing dating the objects to between 1147 and 1260, which chimes with the later monastic period.


But the discovery of a layer of stone and several post holes also indicate that remnants of a previously undiscovered building lie deep below the earth’s surface.


Ms Cameron has been on site for the past fortnight with volunteers to determine whether the stone and postholes relate to the earlier monastic site.


If the link to the monastery and the Book of Deer can be determined, it will be hailed as a discovery of national importance.


Ms Cameron said: “It’s really, really difficult to say what we have. I can’t call it at the moment. There are also remains of a wooden building and I have sent off samples of charcoal but we won’t know for another three months what the date will be. This has been a fantastic dig and people have been so enthusiastic. We don’t know yet what we have but looking for it is fun. If we don’t have the site of the monastery, then we will continue to look for it.”


Author: Alison Campsie | Source: The Scotsman [July 06, 2018]



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Polish archaeologists find medieval ‘witch’ skeleton

The skeleton of a medieval ‘witch’ has been found with drill holes in her bones so she couldn’t rise from the dead. The chilling discovery was made in a Polish graveyard during excavations carried out by archaeologist Karol Piasecki.











Polish archaeologists find medieval 'witch' skeleton
Archaeologists have discovered the grave of a medieval ‘witch’ whose bones
were drilled with holes so she could be pinned down with stakes
[Credit: Grzegorz Kurka via The Sun]

It is thought locals were afraid that unless she was fixed into the ground and covered with bricks she would rise from the dead.


It was initially believed that the body was that of a suspected vampire, which is why it had been buried away from the main graveyard in a consecrated ground and pinned into the soil.


But now DNA tests of the bones have revealed that the body belonged to a woman who would have been blonde-haired and blue-eyed, and who was tortured.











Polish archaeologists find medieval 'witch' skeleton
The ‘witch’ skeleton was found with drill holes in her bones so she couldn’t
rise from the dead [Credit: Grzegorz Kurka via The Sun]

In Poland, women accused of witchcraft were reportedly typically the lovers or wives of wealthy members of society.


They would suddenly find themselves accused of sorcery when relationships turned sour or when rivals wished for them to be removed.


Piasecki determined that the body had been buried between the 16th and 17th centuries.











Polish archaeologists find medieval 'witch' skeleton
The skeleton is a rare example of the body of a woman accused of being a witch who
had died while being tortured because usually their bodies were burned
[Credit: Grzegorz Kurka via The Sun]

Grzegorz Kurka, the director of the Regional History Museum in Kamien Pomorski  where the skeleton is displayed, said: “For whatever reason, they didn’t burn her, but they placed her in a grave far away from others preventing her from coming back to life.”


Kurka hopes that by the end of the year his team will be able to see what the ‘witch’ looked like thanks to new facial reconstruction technology.


Author: Lauren Fruen | Source: The Sun [July 06, 2018]



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Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

After nearly a year of excavations on Gosposvetska Street in Ljubljana and with the re-opening deadline fast approaching, the archaeologists have stumbled upon yet another surprise as they uncovered an early-Christian church in what was a cemetery on the northern outskirts of the Roman outpost Emona.











Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Credit: Matija Lukič/MMC RTV SLO



Knowing that there was an ancient cemetery south of what is now Slovenska Street, archaeologists expected to find graves and a few sarcophagi, but the finds exceeded their expectations.


More than 350 human remains were found in the area between Kersnikova and Slovenska streets, as well as over 40 sarcophagi, a church and a tomb.


Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia










Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia
Credit: Matija Lukič/MMC RTV SLO

The cemetery is dated to the 4th and 5th century, a time when the then Roman Emona already had a flourishing Christian community.


The archaeologists also found some artefacts in the graves, a common practice of the Romans, which had gradually been abolished at the time this cemetery was used, archaeologist Andrej Gaspari told the STA.


Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia










Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia
Credit: Matija Lukič/MMC RTV SLO

One of the most impressive grave artefacts was a blue glass bowl inscribed with of a toast in Greek. It was found in the sarcophagus of an adult woman, a high-ranking member of the community, likely a nun.


A piece of cloth with golden thread was also found next to the skeleton in what seems to be the most prominent grave in this part of the cemetery.


Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia










Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia
Credit: Matija Lukič/MMC RTV SLO

The most recent find, the church, was adorned with frescos and a mosaic. It is located just outside the walls of Figovec restaurant on Gosposvetska Street.


The high density of graves and the church “indicate that this was truly a special part [of the cemetery], tied closely to the ancient-Christian development of the city,” said Gaspari.


Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia

Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia










Late Roman necropolis with more than 350 buried skeletons discovered in Slovenia
Credit: Matija Lukič/MMC RTV SLO

The archaeologists have made several suggestions on how to present the finds. These could be indicated in the pavement or with a model, according to Gaspari.


Gosposvetska Street has been closed for renovation since August 2017 and is to reopen for traffic in mid-July.


Source: The Slovenia Times [July 07, 2018]



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Russian archaeologists discover ancient Greek musical instruments near Crimea

Researchers from the Institute of Archaeology at the Russian Academy of Sciences have unearthed the remains of ancient Greek musical instruments – a harp and a lyre – on the Taman Peninsula in southern Russia, the Academy said in a statement.











Russian archaeologists discover ancient Greek musical instruments near Crimea
The remains of harp found in the ancient necropolis of the Volna-1 settlement in the Temryuk district
of the Krasnodar Territory [Credit: Institute of Archaeology, RAS]

“Until recently, we had known of only one partially preserved ancient Greek harp found in the Piraeus necropolis in Athens and the tuning pegs of a harp uncovered from a necropolis in Taranto, southern Italy,” the statement says, citing expedition leader Roman Mimokhod.











Russian archaeologists discover ancient Greek musical instruments near Crimea
The burial in which the remains of the harp were found. Necropolis of the settlement ‘Volna-1’
[Credit: Institute of Archaeology, RAS]










Russian archaeologists discover ancient Greek musical instruments near Crimea
Burial of a warrior with cithara. Necropolis of the settlement ‘Volna-1’
[Credit: Institute of Archaeology, RAS]

“The harp found in the Piraeus necropolis dates back to the late fifth century BC and the tuning pegs from Taranto were discovered in a tomb dating back to the third or second centuries BC. Compared to these previous discoveries, the harp unearthed in Taman is one of the most ancient and best-preserved as far as ancient Greek musical instruments are concerned,” the researcher added.











Russian archaeologists discover ancient Greek musical instruments near Crimea
Bone plectrum from the burial in the necropolis of the settlement ‘Volna-1’
[Credit: Institute of Archaeology, RAS]

Russian researchers made this discovery while examining an ancient necropolis located near the Volna settlement. Archaeologists say that a Greek polis existed there from the second quarter of the sixth century BC to the fourth century AD, which belonged to the Bosporan Kingdom, spanning both sides of the Kerch Strait.











Russian archaeologists discover ancient Greek musical instruments near Crimea
Left: Muse of Terpsichore playing the harp. Fragment of red-figured amphora, 440 BC. British museum.
Right: Cithara. Fragment of red-figured amphora, 490 BC. The Metropolitan Museum
[Credit: Institute of Archaeology, RAS]

The Institute of Archaeology’s Sochi expedition has been going on in the area for the third year in a row. Researchers have examined more than 600 tombs and unearthed unique artefacts that prove close links between ancient Greek and local cultures.


Source: TASS [July 09, 2018]



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The best radiocarbon-dated site in all recent Iberian prehistory

Members of the department of Prehistory and Archaeology of the University of Seville have published a study that includes 130 radiocarbon datings, obtained in laboratories in Oxford and Glasgow (United Kingdom) and in the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores — CAN (National Accelerator Centre) — at the University of Seville. Together with the 45 previous datings, with 180 C14 datings, the Archaeological Site in Valencina de la Concepción (Seville) has become the site with currently the most radiocarbon dating in all Recent Iberian Prehistory (which includes the Neolithic period, the Copper Age and the Bronze Age).











The best radiocarbon-dated site in all recent Iberian prehistory
Mylonite arrowheads found in the Montelirio tholos [Credit: Miguel Ángel Blanco de la Rubia/
ATLAS Research Group (University of Seville)]

This project, the result of a five-year collaboration between the Universities of Seville, Huelva, Cardiff and the Museum of Valencina, includes a statistical modelled complex of the radiocarbon datings to give a more precise approximation of the time of use of the Valencina site, and to know in a more detailed manner the social processes and cultural phenomena that occurred there during the near thousand years that it was inhabited, between 3200 and 2300 BCE.


Among the main conclusions that are highlighted by the experts is that the oldest parts of the site, which date from the 32nd century BCE, were funerary in nature, specifically hypogeum cavities that were used for collective sequential burials (for example, this is the case with the hypogea that were found in La Huera, Castilleja de Guzmán, and in Calle Dinamarca, Valencina).


“This data is important in the debate about the nature of this great site during its long history, as it is clear that funerary practices had a determining importance in its genesis,” comments the University of Seville Professor of Prehistory Leonardo García Sanjuán.


On the other hand, obtaining a series of C14 dates for four of the great Megalithic monuments of the site has allowed for a first orientative sequence to be established for its construction and use. In this respect, it is necessary to highlight that the oldest monuments, built between the 30th and 28th centuries BCE (Cerro de la Cabeza, Structure 10.042-10.049 and the Montelirio tholos) were characterised by the use of great slabs of slate to line the walls and the chambers, which were probably made of mud dried by the sun, and by their ‘canonical’ solar orientation (to the rising or setting of the sun).











The best radiocarbon-dated site in all recent Iberian prehistory
Artistic reconstruction of the Great Chamber of the Montelirio tholos in the final phase of its use
[Credit: Ana García/ATLAS Research Group (University of Seville)]

After what seems like a long period in the reduction of activity in the 27th century BCE, the tholos of La Pastora was probably built, with very different architectural characteristics: without great slabs of slate, but with a roofed chamber with a false stone dome, an important technical and aesthetic innovation, and with a “heretical” orientation towards the south east, facing away from the sunrise. “It is very probable that these changes in the monumental architecture were due to were due to changes in the social and ideological sphere, including, perhaps, religious “heterodoxies,” the researcher adds.


Thirdly, the experts have shown the end of the occupation of this part of the province of Seville happened between the 24th and 23rd centuries BCE, despite evidence of it being frequented and used in the Bronze Age (c. 2200-850 BCE). “In fact, the abandonment of the site seems rather abrupt, without a gradual transition towards a different social model. The possibility that the end of the Valencina settlement was due to a social crisis has been hinted at by the dates obtained from several human skulls separated from the rest of the skeletons in a pit in a Calle Trabajadores in Valencina,” states the director of the research group.


According to the data obtained from the radiocarbon dating, all these individuals almost died at the same time, which opens the possibility of a violent episode (killing, crime or sacrifice). The fact that several of the skulls were treated in a ritual manner, showing marks of having had the flesh removed and that this ‘special’ mortuary deposit appears to be associated with the greatest collection of pottery beakers found on the site, suggests that the episode had great symbolic significance.


The paleoenvironmental data for the Mediterranean and Europe indicate that between the 24th and 23rd centuries BCE, a period of greater aridity and dryness began globally, which could have had severe consequences for many of the planet’s societies, including droughts. At this time, the Iberian Peninsula saw the end of chalcolithic way of life and the abandonment of some of the most important sites with ditched enclosures, as now seems to be the case with Valencina de la Concepción. In broad strokes, this coincides with the end of the Old Kingdom in the Nile Valley, with a great crisis that brought about the end of the period of construction of the great pyramids.


This project has been published in Journal of World Prehistory, whose cover is dedicated to the stone arrow heads from the Montelirio tholos. It is the second time in less than a year that the work of this research group in the Archaeological Area of Valencina-Castilleja has been featured on the cover of this prestigious review.


Source: University of Seville [July 09, 2018]



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Angry Cells Some of the earliest insights into which areas of…


Angry Cells


Some of the earliest insights into which areas of the brain control human behaviour came from studies of patients with psychosocial problems who had damage to one part of their brain. For example, injury to the front of the brain typically results in increased levels of aggression. While neuroscience has come a long way since these early days, with more sophisticated tools available to study how the brain works, we still know very little about how it controls aggression. However, a recent study in rats has found a group of cells in the prefrontal cortex that form connections (shown here in green) with cells in the hypothalamus (shown in white), a brain area responsible for controlling emotions. The team found that the rats began to violently bite each other when these connections were stimulated. Such insights begin to unravel the complex cellular mechanisms underlying the control of aggressive behaviour.


Written by Gaëlle Coullon



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Captioned Image Spotlight (10 July 2018): Jamming with the…


Captioned Image Spotlight (10 July 2018): Jamming with the “Spiders” from Mars


During winter at the South Pole of Mars, a carbon dioxide ice cap covers the region and as the sun returns in the spring, “spiders” begin to emerge from the landscape.


But these aren’t actual spiders. We call it “araneiform terrain,” to describe the spider-like radiating channels that form when carbon dioxide ice below the surface heats up and releases. This is an active seasonal process we don’t see on Earth. Like dry ice on Earth, the carbon dioxide ice on Mars sublimates as it warms (changes from solid to gas) and the gas becomes trapped below the surface.


Over time the trapped carbon dioxide gas builds in pressure and is eventually strong enough to break through the ice as a jet that erupts dust. The gas is released into the atmosphere and darker dust may be deposited around the vent or transported by winds to produce streaks. The loss of the sublimated carbon dioxide leaves behind these spider-like features etched into the surface.


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona (247 km above the surface, less than 1 km across)


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/captioned-image-spotlight-10-july-2018-jamming-with-the/

HiPOD (10 July 2018): Cliffs and Stratified Features in Central…



HiPOD (10 July 2018): Cliffs and Stratified Features in Central Arabia Terra


   – Sedimentary rock? Layered materials looked as if mantled by dust. The goal of this observation is to capture some of the variety of erosional expressions  and stratigraphy. 


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona (288 km above the surface. Black and white is less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km.)


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/hipod-10-july-2018-cliffs-and-stratified-features-in-central/

2018 July 10 Noctilucent Clouds over Paris Fireworks Video…


2018 July 10


Noctilucent Clouds over Paris Fireworks
Video Credit & Copyright: Jean-Luc Dauvergne (Ciel et Espace);


Explanation: It’s northern noctilucent cloud season – perhaps a time to celebrate! Composed of small ice crystals forming only during specific conditions in the upper atmosphere, noctilucent clouds may become visible at sunset during late summer when illuminated by sunlight from below. Noctilucent clouds are the highest clouds known and now established to be polar mesospheric clouds observed from the ground. Although observed with NASA’s AIM satellite since 2007, much about noctilucent clouds remains unknown and so a topic of active research. The featured time-lapse video shows expansive and rippled noctilucent clouds wafting over Paris, France, during a post-sunset fireworks celebration on Bastille Day in 2009 July. This year, several locations are already reporting especially vivid displays of noctilucent clouds.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180710.html


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/2018-july-10-noctilucent-clouds-over-paris-fireworks-video/

Uranus Giant Impacts: Low Angular Momentum


Image credit: NASA/JPL/STScI


Scientists have always wondered how Uranus got tilted so much that it spins on its side, and now research on the planet’s early formation gives us new insight. Four billion years ago, scientists believe a young proto-planet of rock and ice collided with Uranus, causing its extreme tilt. Instead of rotating like a top spinning nearly upright, as Earth does, the planet “rolls” on its side as it circles the sun.


The research team, led by Durham University, UK, in collaboration with scientists at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, used advanced computing techniques to create the most detailed simulation to date of the suspected impact.


A simulation of the most likely Uranus-impact scenario that caused today’s tilted orbit, according to new, highly detailed simulations. Light gray represents ice materials from Uranus, while dark gray represents rock materials from Uranus. Purple represents ice materials from the impactor, while brown represents rock from the impactor. Light blue represents Uranus’ atmosphere. Credits: Jacob Kegerreis / Durham University



Through more than 50 simulations of impact scenarios using a supercomputer, this research group determined that an object at least twice the mass of Earth likely impacted the young planet with a grazing blow. The collision was so strong it reshaped the entire planet and pushed it onto its side. But, the collision was likely not strong enough to blast the planet’s atmosphere off into space or significantly change its orbit around the Sun. This research was the first of its type to take the planet’s atmosphere into account in its simulations of the impact. This helped the scientists better define what that event might have looked like.


The impact might have left molten ice and lopsided lumps of rock within the planet, perhaps explaining its tilted and off-center magnetic field, too. Rock and ice thrown into orbit would have then clumped together to form the rings and moons around Uranus, now in its newly established rotation.


But this discovery goes beyond explaining how Uranus became what it is today. It helps us on our search to understand other planets outside our solar system – exoplanets. Uranus is a medium-size, gaseous planet with a rocky and icy core. Based on findings from the Kepler space telescope, the more common type of exoplanet is very similar to Uranus. Learning about this impact helps us understand how similar collisions lead to the formation of other planets, and what this means for their ability to support life.


The findings, published in The Astrophysical Journal, paint a riveting picture of Uranus’ early tumultuous years, and gives us the tools to understand planets like it throughout the cosmos.


Author: Frank Tavares


Members of the news media interested in learning more about this research should refer to the NASA Ames Media Contacts page to get in touch.

Editor: Abigail Tabor


Source: NASA/Ames



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Squeeze Me Tight Here’s the moment a skin cancer cell…


Squeeze Me Tight


Here’s the moment a skin cancer cell grabs a tiny gel ball packed with fluorescent nanoparticles, squeezing it tightly with a membrane ‘hand’. This microscopic game of catch has been set up to measure the physical forces generated by cells growing in plastic dishes in the lab as they jostle for space against each other. It’s a major technical challenge: single cells don’t generate forces and will quickly die on their own, but cells grown together in a dish are so tightly packed that it’s hard to measure their might. By throwing these bouncy fluorescent blobs at single cells, researchers can measure how tightly a cell squeezes by seeing how hard it squishes the ball, based on the movement of the fluorescent particles inside. Knowing more about the physical properties of individual cancer cells provides useful insights as to how they might behave as a tumour grows and spreads.


Written by Kat Arney



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Fluorite with Baryte | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Fluorite with Baryte | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Elmwood Mine, Carthage, Smith Co., Tennessee, USA

Size: 7 x 4.8 x 3.7 cm


Photo Copyright © Anton Watzl Minerals


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/fluorite-with-baryte-geology-geologypage-mineral-locality/

Captioned Image Spotlight: Figure 8 Craters on Mars   Impact…


Captioned Image Spotlight: Figure 8 Craters on Mars


   Impact craters are very common on the surface of Mars as well as any other planetary body lacking a significant atmosphere (e.g., the Moon). In the absence of a thick atmosphere and active geologic processes, and if the surface is very old and has not been altered by something like lava flows, it will retain evidence of so many impacts that older and newer craters appear like circles on top of each other. 


When we see a combination of two crater shapes on the ground, the one showing a nearly “full circle” will be the younger crater. In this image, we see the combined shape of two impact craters. However, neither crater displays a continuous circular shape (or rim) in the area connecting them. These two “figure 8” shapes indicate a binary impact where the impactor split apart shortly before hitting the ground, creating both craters at the same time.


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona (307 km above the surface, less than 5 km top to bottom and north is to the left)


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/07/captioned-image-spotlight-figure-8-craters-on-mars-impact/

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