пятница, 27 апреля 2018 г.

NASA’s SOFIA Expanding New Frontiers in the Solar System and Beyond

NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, will soon be studying Neptune’s giant moon, Triton, and following-up on Hubble’s recent sighting of water plumes on Jupiter’s moon Europa. According to recently completed plans for the 2017 observing campaign, about half of the research time for SOFIA will run the gamut from studies of planets to observations of comets and asteroids orbiting other stars and supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies beyond our own. The other half will focus on star formation and the interstellar medium, the areas of dust and gas in the universe, including a vast turbulent region encircling the center of our Milky Way galaxy.


A total of 535 observing hours have been awarded for SOFIA’s Science Cycle 5, which runs from February 2017 through January 2018, and the selected programs span the entire field of astronomy from planetary science to extragalactic investigations. Triton will be one of the closest objects studied by NASA’s flying observatory while the farthest observation will study a supermassive black hole approximately 12 billion light years away.


SOFIA is a is a joint program between NASA and the German Aerospace Center and is a Boeing 747SP jetliner modified to carry a 100-inch diameter telescope that uses eight instruments to study the universe at infrared wavelengths that cannot be detected from ground-based observatories. Cycle 5 provides 455 research hours to U.S. programs and 80 hours to German programs.


“Four very highly rated programs were selected to investigate the galactic center region using the upGREAT high-resolution far-infrared spectrometer,” said Harold Yorke SOFIA Science Mission Director of the Universities Space Research Association.


“Three of those programs are aimed at understanding the Central Molecular Zone, a vast, turbulent region encircling the Milky Way’s nucleus that contains a large fraction of the galaxy’s dense molecular clouds and star forming regions, Yorke explained. “The fourth program is focused on material surrounding, and perhaps feeding into, the supermassive black hole at the very heart of our galaxy.”


To study celestial objects that are best viewed from the Southern Hemisphere, planning is underway for an eight-week deployment to Christchurch, New Zealand, from late June to late August 2017, employing three instruments: the spectrometer known as the upgraded German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies, or upGREAT, The Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope, or FORCAST, a combined mid-infrared camera and spectrometer, and the Far Infrared Field-Imaging Line Spectrometer, or FIFI-LS, a far-infrared imaging spectrometer.


Closer to home, the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph, or EXES, a mid-infrared spectrometer, will take advantage of that instrument’s great sensitivity and high spectral resolution to make an ambitious search for previously unobserved molecules in the Orion star forming region, looking for rare molecular species like acetylene, ethylene, and ethane. These observations will provide information about the production of organic compounds and water in a region where stars and planets are currently forming.


SOFIA’s High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera-plus, known as HAWC+, a far-infrared polarimeter camera, now being commissioned, is slated for a joint project with the most powerful telescope on Earth, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, ALMA, to understand how the galaxy’s magnetic fields resist the collapse of gas clouds that form stars thereby affecting the star formation process.


A challenging planetary science investigation will use SOFIA to observe Triton when it passes in front of a bright background star in October 2017. This would require a mini-deployment to the U.S. East Coast where the shadow of Triton will briefly be cast, allowing a look at that moon’s thin atmosphere.


“This project is quite comparable to SOFIA’s study of Pluto and its atmosphere during a stellar occultation observed from near New Zealand in 2015, and in fact was proposed by the same investigator team,” Yorke said. “This type of research demonstrates the virtues of a mobile observatory that can go wherever on Earth is required to view transient celestial phenomena.”


SOFIA’s ability to change instruments and adapt new technologies enables the rapid development and deployment of new sensors. To that end, NASA plans to solicit proposals for SOFIA’s next generation instrumentation in 2017.


SOFIA is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center, DLR. NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley manages the SOFIA program along with science and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association headquartered in Columbia, Maryland, and the German SOFIA Institute (DSI) at the University of Stuttgart. The aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center’s Hangar 703, in Palmdale, California.


A list of SOFIA’s approved science programs for 2017 is on line at: https://www.sofia.usra.edu/science/proposing-and-observing/sofia-cycle-5-results


Unknown object on ground – Oslo, Norway – 1943

This post continues with material drawn from audio recordings made by James E McDonald, during his visit to Australia in 1967.

One of the individuals whom McDonald interviewed, was a Mrs I Palmer, of Melbourne, Victoria. She told McDonald about a sighting which had occurred in December 1943, some 30 kilometres from Oslo, the capital city of Norway. The whole event lasted some twenty minutes, and was observed by Mrs I Palmer; a Captain L Witzke; a Mr O Ortland and some other not named Norwegians.


After I provide the details found in the audio recording, I will add some additional information from an issue of the Australian Flying Saucer Review, published in 1967.


The event – from the audio recording

Two

Norwegian families saw these lights.  It

wasn’t talked about at the time, as the Second World War was taking place

during this time.

Three cars were

travelling down a mountain, in Oslo Fjord, 30 kilometres from Oslo, Norway.  The occupants of the cars saw a, ‘Strange

thing,’ on a clear night.  It was a

moving coloured light.  It was initially

seen as a light, then as an object on the ground.  The object was 18 metres in diameter and on

the ground.  It looked like a big church

bell, but flatter.  They actually saw the

light settle on the ground.











Image courtesy Google maps

It was

first seen as a yellow/orange coloured glow, 500 metres away.  They saw it over the fjord, and coming

towards them.  They thought it was an

explosion and then it came closer.  The

engines of all three cars stalled at a point where they saw the object on the

ground.  They later thought, ‘Magnetism,’

may have caused the cars to stall.  They

all got out of the cars and walked towards the object.  The object then departed straight upwards,

before turning and travelling away horizontally.  The object may have been warm, because the

snow had melted in an 18 metre diameter circle where the object had landed.



Mrs Palmer

said that she had heard of other sightings as follows:

1. Same type of object seen in the north

of Denmark.  Tractors, etc, could not be

started.  Date unknown.

2. Near Hanover, Germany in about 1948,

‘A crop circle,’ was found.  An object

was seen in the cornfield.


The Australian Flying Saucer Review










AFSR 1967 Number 5 front cover

The December 1967 issue of the Victorian edition of the Australian Flying Saucer Review (number 5) on page 17, carried an article titled ‘UFO lands in Norway – in 1943. Witness described first recorded E-M case. By Neville Thornhill.

The former secretary to a Norwegian shipping corporation executive has reported a strange sighting of a UFO with accompanying E-M effects, which she and friends observed on the Oslo Fjord.

The witness (personal particulars on VFSRS file) says the sighting occurred between 10 and 11 o’clock one night in December 1943. Her report is a s follows:

“The sighting occurred as some friends and I were having supper opposite the wharf in Oslo Fjord. Suddenly, we saw a light which appeared to be on the wharf. Fearing sabotage, we hopped into our cars and drove to the wharf. As we drove around the mountain road, we entered an ‘s’ turn. When we were approximately on the inner ‘s’ of the turn we were in a direct line with the object. At this stage all three cars stalled and could not be started again.

Leaving the cars we travelled down a snow-covered hillside towards an object which appeared to be an orange light shaped like a church bell.

As we came out of the trees to some open flat land where the object was stationary on the ground, my three companions wanted to stay behind in case some sort of sabotage was taking place. This I refused to do, and so all four of us approached close to the object from which was emanating a hissing sound like air being released from an air compressor. On hearing this, I threw myself in the snow fearing that someone was going to start shooting at us.

Moments later, the object rose up and hovered some 9 or 18 feet above the water. It then moved off at a fantastic speed without any apparent acceleration. Finally, it turned to a deep blue colour as it disappeared from sight towards the open Oslo Fjord.

As soon as the object had disappeared, my companions and I examined the spot where it had rested and observed a crater-like impression which looked like a saucer from a tea cup. The inner ring of the depression was about four and a half feet in diameter and about three feet deep. Outside this diameter, the snow had melted as though heat had been generated by the object. The heat had caused the snow to melt in such a way that that at a distance of 54 feet the snow had not melted at all, whereas inside this diameter the snow had melted gradually, until at four and a half feet it had melted completely.

The cars stalling, the crater in the ground and the bell like light moving away. What was it at this early stage where only the V-2 rocket had been developed?”


Source Unidentified Aerial Phenomena – scientific research


“Supermoon! The largest full Moon of the year”: online observation – 14 Nov. 2016




Next 14 Nov. 2016 we will have the largest full Moon of the year. No, better: the largest full Moon ever from 1948 to 2034. At Virtual Telescope we will show it live, online and you can join it from the comfort of your home.


Hunting for Hotspots Pressure ulcers, often known as bedsores,…


Hunting for Hotspots


Pressure ulcers, often known as bedsores, are a big problem for people who are bed-bound for long periods of time. Continual pressure can cause painful, inflamed ulcers that quickly become infected and difficult to treat. Inflammation leads to a raised temperature, so carers can keep a look-out for infections by monitoring a patient’s overall body temperature with a thermometer. But it’s a lot harder to measure changes in pressure. As a solution, researchers have developed tiny wireless temperature and pressure sensors, each around the size of a penny, that stick onto the skin and draw their power from a receiver under the bed. Using an array of up to 65 sensors placed all over the body, the researchers can detect any troublesome hotspots (red and orange areas) before they develop into full-blown bedsores. They eventually hope to use the same approach to wirelessly measure heart rate and breathing patterns too.


Written by Kat Arney



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Gypsum With Halite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Gypsum With Halite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Lubin Mine, Lubin District, Lower Silesia, Poland

Size: 6.5 × 5.3 × 3 cm


Photo Copyright © GeoPeak Minerals /e-rocks.com


Geology Page

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Aquamarine With Quartz & Mica | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Aquamarine With Quartz & Mica | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Shigar Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan


Size: 12 × 9 × 5 cm

Largest Crystal: 1.30cm


Photo Copyright © Afghanistan Minerals /e-rocks.com


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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/04/aquamarine-with-quartz-mica-geology-geologypage/

Fluorite with Phantoms, Chalcopyrite | #Geology #GeologyPage…


Fluorite with Phantoms, Chalcopyrite | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Minerva No. 1 Mine, Cave-in-Rock Sub-District, Illinois-Kentucky Fluorspar District, Hardin Co., Illinois, United States


Size: 106mm x 79mm x 47mm


Photo Copyright © Quebul Fine Minerals


Geology Page

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https://xissufotoday.space/2018/04/fluorite-with-phantoms-chalcopyrite-geology-geologypage/

Orpheus Agate | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Locality:…


Orpheus Agate | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Locality: Rhodope Mts, Kardzali (Kurdzhali; Kardjali; Kurdjali) Oblast, Bulgaria


Size: 165mm x 95mm x 10mm


Photo Copyright © Quebul Fine Minerals


Geology Page

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Ukrainian Lawmakers Come to Fisticuffs During Gov’t Meeting

Just another day in Ukrainian Parliament


ukraine politics


Supermoon largest full Moon of the year online observation 14 Nov. 2016

Today’s full Moon is the biggest and brightest in almost 70 years. The best time to look in North America is before sunrise on Monday morning, while in Europe the best time is after sunset on the same day.


Via Gian Masi  14 Nov. 2016 we will have the largest full Moon of the year.


No, better: the largest full Moon ever from 1948 to 2034. At Virtual Telescope we will show it live, online and you can join it from the comfort of your home.



You see a UFO during Supermoon? November 2016


https://xissufotoday.space/2016/11/you-see-a-ufo-during-supermoon-november-2016.html


Разоблачи́тель НЛО 13 ноября 2016 Аризона США


Разоблачи́тель

https://xfilecomander.blogspot.ru/2016/11/2016_15.html


На скрине, Вы можете видеть, как известный мистификатор с сайта ufosightingsdaily.com пытается убедить людей, что обычное насекомое, которое пролетает между камерой и Луной в поле зрения объектива, является НЛО.





Его сайт переправляет пользователей на другой адрес и угрожает занесением вируса в компьютер. Ниже на скрине, Вы можете видеть, что известный мистификатор с сайта ufosightingsdaily.com пытается убедить людей что обычное насекомое, которое пролетает между камерой и луной в поле зрения объектива, является НЛО. Не НЛО на фоне луны Мистификатор и очевидец, сообщают об искажении вокруг объекта.  Соотннося размер пятна по отношению к Луне и скорость, видно, что это насекомое, если бы была птица, то были бы видны крылья.  Камера сфокусирована в бесконечность, то есть на Луну. И все объекты, пролетающие в метре от объектива камеры, будут круглыми размытыми пятнами. Размытость объекта вблизи камеры, вызывает неправильная фокусировка, если сфокусировать видеокамеру правильно на пролетающие насекомое, насекомое будет хорошо видно, без искажений, тогда уже Луна будет искажёно-белым пятном.  Можно ожидать того, что таблоиды и официальные СМИ начнут обозначать объяснимые объекты рядом с суперлунием, как НЛО.





Earth BioGenome Project aims to sequence DNA from all complex life on Earth

An international consortium of scientists is proposing what is arguably the most ambitious project in the history of biology: sequencing the DNA of all known eukaryotic species on Earth.











Earth BioGenome Project aims to sequence DNA from all complex life on Earth
The Earth BioGenome Project aims to sequence the DNA of all known eukaryotic species on Earth, a massive group that
 includes plants, animals, fungi and other organisms [Credit: Juan Carlos Castilla-Rubio of Space Time Ventures]

The benefits of the monumental initiative promise to be a complete transformation of the scientific understanding of life on Earth and a vital new resource for global innovations in medicine, agriculture, conservation, technology and genomics.


The central goal of the Earth BioGenome Project is to understand the evolution and organization of life on our planet by sequencing and functionally annotating the genomes of 1.5 million known species of eukaryotes, a massive group that includes plants, animals, fungi and other organisms whose cells have a nucleus that houses their chromosomal DNA. To date, the genomes of less than 0.2 percent of eukaryotic species have been sequenced.


The project also seeks to reveal some of the estimated 10 to 15 million unknown species of eukaryotes, most of which are single cell organisms, insects and small animals in the oceans. The genomic data will be a freely available resource for scientific discovery and the resulting benefits shared with countries and indigenous communities where biodiversity is sourced. Researchers estimate the proposed initiative will take ten years and cost approximately $4.7 billion.


In a perspective paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, twenty-four interdisciplinary experts, who make up the working group of the Earth BioGenome Project, provide a compelling rationale for why the project should go forward and outline a roadmap for how it can be achieved.


Harris A. Lewin, a distinguished professor of evolution and ecology at UC Davis, chairs the working group and is the lead author of the paper. Gene Robinson, director of the Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology at the University of Illinois and W. John Kress, research botanist and curator at the Smithsonian Institution, are co-chairs.


In the paper, the scientists point to the hugely successful precedent of the Human Genome Project. Launched in 1990 and completed in 2003, the United States and funding agencies in other countries invested approximately $3 billion to sequence the entire human genome. The resulting “genomic revolution” has had an enormous impact not only on human medicine but also on veterinary medicine, agricultural bioscience, biotechnology, environmental science, renewable energy, forensics and industrial biotechnology. A 2013 report by the Battelle Memorial Institute estimated the financial benefit of the Human Genome Project to the US economy to be nearly $1 trillion.


Lewin sees the Earth BioGenome Project as providing even greater opportunities for generating scientific and societal benefits.


“The EBP will lay the scientific foundation for a new bio-economy that has the potential to bring innovative solutions to health, environmental, economic and social problems to people across the globe, especially in under-developed countries that have significant biodiversity assets,” he said.


The project first emerged in 2015 at a meeting organized by Lewin, Robinson and Kress, followed by another meeting organized as part of the Smithsonian Initiative on Biodiversity Genomics. After the completion of the Human Genome Project, many organisms of biomedical, agricultural and industrial importance had their genomes sequenced. The attendees at the 2015 meeting decided that an even more ambitious project was needed to advance biology, one that would sequence DNA from all complex life on Earth.


Advances in technology have made the project feasible. The cost of whole genome sequencing has declined to about $1,000 for a draft-quality sequence of human genome size and about $30,000 for a reference-quality assembly of the chromosomes of an average eukaryotic genome.


With advances in high-performance computing, data storage and bioinformatics, high throughput assembly and characterization of genomes is now feasible, although innovations in algorithms for aligning, interpreting and visualizing the massive amounts of data will be necessary. The completed project is expected to require about one exabyte (one billion gigabytes) of digital storage capacity.


Addressing critical needs


The project also addresses several critical needs. One is the need for better conservation tools for endangered species and ecosystems, particularly those impacted by climate change.


“The Earth BioGenome Project will give us insight into the history and diversity of life and help us better understand how to conserve it,” Robinson said.


The working group also see the project as being essential for developing new drugs for infectious and inherited diseases as well as creating new biological synthetic fuels, biomaterials, and food sources for the anticipated human population of 9.6 billion by 2050.


“Scientists believe that by the end of the century more than half of all species will vanish from the face of the Earth, and with consequences to human life that are unknown, but are potentially catastrophic,” Lewin said.


To help achieve its vision, the Earth BioGenome Project is developing an array of global partnerships and strategies.


The organizational structure of the project will consist of a “global network of communities,” each community contributing to the project and following the project’s protocols and standards. The project has partnered with Global Genome Biodiversity Network, the world’s major resource of tissues and DNA from voucher specimens. It is also forging partnerships with communities of scientists working on different groups of organisms, including the Vertebrate Genomes Project, the Global Invertebrate Genome Alliance, the 10,000 Plant Genomes Project, the 5000 Insect Genomes Project, and others.


Assembling the species will be a massive undertaking, which is why partnerships with institutions that procure and preserve the Earth’s biodiversity, such as natural history museums, botanical gardens, zoos, and aquaria will be crucial for success. The Smithsonian herbarium, for example, contains around 300,000 species.


“Many scientists at the Smithsonian Institution with its 19 museums and nine research institutes are applying genomics technologies in their research to increase our understanding of the natural world. The strength of biodiversity genomics at the Smithsonian is a good indicator of the vital role the institution will play in furthering the goals of the Earth BioGenome Project,” Kress said.


The Earth BioGenome Project also plans to capitalize on the “citizen scientist” movement to collect specimens, modeled after the University of California Conservation Genomic Consortium’s CALeDNA program. The project will likely enable the development of new technologies, such as portable genetic sequencers and instrumented drones that can go out, identify samples in the field, and bring those samples back to the laboratory.


A pilot program has been initiated in conjunction with the Amazon Bank of Codes and the World Economic Forum to create a system that ensures equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources under the Convention on Biological Diversity, Nagoya Protocol. Brazil contains approximately 10 percent of the world’s total biodiversity. The project will offer indigenous and traditional communities in the Amazon Basin an opportunity to reap a fair share of the economic value generated from the use of biological data and natural assets from their local biomes. If successful, the pilot program will serve as the foundation for other countries with rich biodiversity.


Source: UC Davis [April 23, 2018]



TANN



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Did last ice age affect breastfeeding in Native Americans?

The critical role that breast feeding plays in infant survival may have led, during the last ice age, to a common genetic mutation in East Asians and Native Americans that also, surprisingly, affects the shape of their teeth.











Did last ice age affect breastfeeding in Native Americans?
Photograph of human upper incisors with significant “shoveling,” anatomical variation influenced by the EDAR V370A
allele alongside an increase in mammary duct branching [Credit: Christy G. Turner, II, courtesy G. Richard Scott]

The genetic mutation, which probably arose 20,000 years ago, increases the branching density of mammary ducts in the breasts, potentially providing more fat and vitamin D to infants living in the far north where the scarcity of ultraviolet radiation makes it difficult to produce vitamin D in the skin.


If the spread of this genetic mutation is, in fact, due to selection for increased mammary ductal branching, the adaptation would be the first evidence of selection on the human maternal-infant bond.


“This highlights the importance of the mother-infant relationship and how essential it has been for human survival,” said Leslea Hlusko, an associate professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley.


As for the teeth, it just so happens that the gene controlling mammary duct growth also affects the shape of human incisors. Consequently, as the genetic mutation was selected for in an ancestral population living in the far north during the last Ice Age, shovel-shaped incisors became more frequent too. Shoveled incisors are common among Native Americans and northeastern Asian populations but rare in everyone else.


Hlusko and her colleagues outline the many threads of evidence supporting the idea in an article published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


The finding could also have implications for understanding the origins of dense breast tissue and its role in breast cancer.


For the study, Hlusko and her colleagues assessed the occurrence of shovel-shaped incisors in archeological populations in order to estimate the time and place of evolutionary selection for the trait. They found that nearly 100 percent of Native Americans prior to European colonization had shoveled incisors, as do approximately 40 percent of East Asians today.


The team then used the genetic effects that are shared with dental variation as a way to discern the evolutionary history of mammary glands because of their common developmental pathway.


“People have long thought that this shoveling pattern is so strong that there must have been evolutionary selection favoring the trait, but why would there be such strong selection on the shape of your incisors?” Hlusko said. “When you have shared genetic effects across the body, selection for one trait will result in everything else going along for the ride.”


The vitamin D connection


Getting enough vitamin D, which is essential for a robust immune system and proper fat regulation as well as for calcium absorption, is a big problem in northern latitudes because the sun is low on the horizon all year long and, above the Arctic Circle, doesn’t shine at all for part of the year. While humans at lower latitudes can get nearly all the vitamin D they need through exposure of the skin to ultraviolet light, the scarce UV at high latitudes forced northern peoples like the Siberians and Inuit to get their vitamin D from animal fat, hunting large herbivores and sea mammals.


But babies must get their vitamin D from mother’s milk, and Hlusko posits that the increased mammary duct branching may have been a way of delivering more vitamin D and the fat that goes with it.











Did last ice age affect breastfeeding in Native Americans?
Geography of Beringia and levels of UV radiation. (A) Map of Beringia today. Cross-hatching indicates the region
in which levels of UVMED (defined as the amount of UV radiation that will produce minimal erythema) that
 reach the Earth’s surface are too low to promote cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D in humans on a year-by-year
 basis, requiring dietary supplementation. The black and white region marks the Arctic Circle, which has even
less UV-B exposure, as would be expected from the increased latitude. The areas below the Arctic Circle in white
and light blue are shallow seas as discerned from modern bathymetry, indicating land that would have been
exposed during the LGM. (B) Map of Beringia during the Last Glacial Maximum showing the exposure of land
at 117 meters below current sea level and the reconstructed terrestrial environments. The shrub tundra is the
 only area biologically productive enough to support a human population of the size estimated by molecular
data. This population was genetically isolated for 2,500-9,000 years because of the ice to the east and
extensive mesic tundra to the west [Credit: Leslea Hlusko, UC Berkeley]

Hlusko, who specializes in the evolution of teeth among animals, in particular primates and early humans, discovered these connections after being asked to participate in a scientific session on the dispersal of modern humans throughout the Americas at the February 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting. In preparing her talk on what teeth can tell us about the peopling of the New World, she pulled together the genetics of dental variation with the archaeological evidence to re-frame our understanding of selection on incisor shape.


Incisors are called “shovel-shaped” when the tongue-side of the incisors — the cutting teeth in the front of the mouth, four on top, four on the bottom — have ridges along the sides and biting edge. It is distinctive of Native Americans and populations in East Asia — Korea, Japan and northern China — with an increasing incidence as you travel farther north. Unpersuaded by a previously proposed idea that shoveled incisors were selected for use softening animal hides, she looked at explanations unrelated to teeth.


The genetic mutation responsible for shoveling — which occurs in at least one of the two copies, or alleles, of a gene called EDAR, which codes for a protein called the ectodysplasin A receptor — is also involved in determining the density of sweat glands in the skin, the thickness of hair shafts and ductal branching in mammary glands. Previous genetic analysis of living humans concluded that the mutation arose in northern China due to selection for more sweat glands or sebaceous glands during the last ice age.


“Neither of those is a satisfying explanation,” Hlusko said. “There are some really hot parts in the world, and if sweating was so sensitive to selective pressures, I can think of some places where we would have more likely seen selection on that genetic variation instead of in northern China during the Last Glacial Maximum.”


The Beringian standstill


Clues came from a 2007 paper and later a 2015 study by Hlusko’s coauthor Dennis O’Rourke, in which scientists deduced from the DNA of Native Americans that they split off from other Asian groups more than 25,000 years ago, even though they arrived in North American only 15,000 years ago. Their conclusion was that Native American ancestors settled for some 10,000 years in an area between Asia and North America before finally moving into the New World. This so-called Beringian standstill coincided with the height of the Last Glacial Maximum between 18,000 and 28,000 years ago.


According to the Beringian standstill hypothesis, as the climate became drier and cooler as the Last Glacial Maximum began, people who had been living in Siberia moved into Beringia. Gigantic ice sheets to the east prohibited migration into North America. They couldn’t migrate southwest because of a large expanse of a treeless and inhospitable tundra. The area where they found refuge was a biologically productive region thanks to the altered ocean currents associated with the last ice age, a landmass increased in size by to the lower sea levels. Genetic studies of animals and plants from the region suggest there was an isolated refugium in Beringia during that time, where species with locally adaptive traits arose. Such isolation is ripe for selection on genetic variants that make it easier for plants, animals and humans to survive.


“If you take these data from the teeth to interpret the evolutionary history of this EDAR allele, you frame-shift the selective episode to the Beringian standstill population, and that gives you the environmental context,” Hlusko said. “At that high latitude, these people would have been vitamin D deficient. We know they had a diet that was attempting to compensate for it from the archaeological record, and because there is evidence of selection in this population for specific alleles of the genes that influence fatty acid synthesis. But even more specifically, these genes modulate the fatty acid composition of breast milk. It looks like this mutation of the EDAR gene was also selected for in that ancestral population, and EDAR’s effects on mammary glands is the most likely target of the selection.”


The EDAR gene influences the development of many structures derived from the ectoderm in the fetus, including tooth shape, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, mammary glands and hair. As a consequence, selection on one trait leads to coordinated evolution of the others. The late evolutionary biologist and author Steven Jay Gould referred to such byproducts of evolution as spandrels.


“This Beringian population is one example of what has happened thousands of times, over millions of years: Human populations form, exist for a little while and then disperse to form new populations, mixing with other groups of people, all of them leaving traces on modern human variation today,” Hlusko said. “An important take-home message is that human variation today reflects this dynamic process of ephemeral populations, rather than the traditional concept of geographic races with distinct differences between them.”


Author: Robert Sanders | Source: University of California – Berkeley [April 23, 2018]



TANN



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Two pandas are formed by solar panels at the Panda Green Energy…


Two pandas are formed by solar panels at the Panda Green Energy power plant in Datong, Shanxi Province, northern China. Built in cooperation with the United Nations Development Program, this solar farm covers roughly 1,500 acres and includes an education center that teaches children about sustainable and renewable energy.


Instagram: https://bit.ly/2Hpi6Xn


39°58’23.6″N, 113°29’03.7″E


Source imagery: DigitalGlobe


Archive link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/04/two-pandas-are-formed-by-solar-panels-at-the-panda-green-energy/

Supermoon November 2016: When, Where & How to See It

Supermoon November 2016: When, Where & How to See ItNews, Photos and Videos about Space Discoveries


Вы видите НЛО пролетающее на фоне суперлуния?...


На скрине, Вы можете видеть, как известный мистификатор с сайта ufosightingsdaily.com пытается убедить людей, что обычное насекомое, которое пролетает между камерой и Луной в поле зрения объектива, является НЛО.



Не НЛО на фоне луны



Его сайт переправляет пользователей на другой адрес и угрожает занесением вируса в компьютер.





Видео опубликовано 13 ноября 2016


Снято в штате Аризона, США









Мистификатор и очевидец, сообщают об искажении вокруг объекта.




Соотнося размер пятна по отношению к Луне и скорость,

видно, что это насекомое.

Если бы была птица, то были бы видны крылья.




Камера сфокусирована в бесконечность, то есть на Луну.


И все объекты, пролетающие в метре от объектива камеры, будут круглыми размытыми пятнами. Размытость объекта вблизи камеры, вызывает неправильная фокусировка, если сфокусировать видеокамеру правильно на пролетающие насекомое, насекомое будет хорошо видно, без искажений, тогда уже Луна будет искажёно-белым пятном.




Можно ожидать того, что таблоиды и официальные СМИ начнут обозначать объяснимые объекты рядом с суперлунием, как НЛО.




Прямая трансляция суперлуния 14 ноября 2016





This year, the full moons of October, November and December all…


This year, the full moons of October, November and December all take place when the moon is at its closest point of approach in its orbit around Earth — a so-called supermoon. 


News, Photos and Videos about Space Discoveries


HiPOD (27 April 2018): Contact between an Older Shield Volcano…




HiPOD (27 April 2018): Contact between an Older Shield Volcano and Younger Flows 


   Interested in the geologic contact here between the older shield volcano and the younger flows that enclose it. (255 km above the surface, less than 5 km across.)


NASA/JPL/University of Arizona   


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/04/hipod-27-april-2018-contact-between-an-older-shield-volcano/

ExoMars returns first images from new orbit


ESA & ROSCOSMOS – ExoMars Mission patch.


27 April 2018



ExoMars images Korolev Crater

The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter has returned the first images of the Red Planet from its new orbit.


The spacecraft arrived in a near-circular 400 km altitude orbit a few weeks ago ahead of its primary goal to seek out gases that may be linked to active geological or biological activity on Mars.


The orbiter’s Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System, CaSSIS, took this stunning image, which features part of an impact crater, during the instrument’s test period. The camera was activated on 20 March and was tested for the start of its main mission on 28 April.


“We transmitted new software to the instrument at the start of the test phase and after a couple of minor issues, the instrument is in good health and ready to work,” says the camera’s principal investigator, Nicolas Thomas from the University of Bern in Switzerland.


The image captures a 40 km-long segment of Korolev Crater located high in the northern hemisphere. The bright material on the rim of the crater is ice.


“We were really pleased to see how good this picture was given the lighting conditions,” says Antoine Pommerol, a member of the CaSSIS science team working on the calibration of the data. “It shows that CaSSIS can make a major contribution to studies of the carbon dioxide and water cycles on Mars.”


The image is assembled from three images in different colours that were taken almost simultaneously on 15 April.


“We aim to fully automate the image production process,” says Nick. “Once we achieve this, we can distribute the data quickly to the science community for analysis.”


The team also plans to make regular public releases.


The orbiter’s camera is one of four instruments on the Trace Gas Orbiter, or TGO, which also hosts two spectrometer suites and a neutron detector.


The spectrometers began their science mission on 21 April with the spacecraft taking its first ‘sniff’ of the atmosphere. In reality, the sniffing is the spectrometers looking at how molecules in the atmosphere absorb sunlight: each has a unique fingerprint that reveals its chemical composition.


A long period of data collection will be needed to bring out the details, especially for particularly rare – or not even yet discovered – ingredients in the atmosphere. Trace gases, as hinted at from their name, are only present in very small amounts: that is, less than one percent of the volume of the planet’s atmosphere. In particular, the orbiter will seek evidence of methane and other gases that could be signatures of active biological or geological activity.


The camera will eventually help characterise features on the surface that may be related to trace gas sources.


“We are excited to finally be starting collecting data at Mars with this phenomenal spacecraft,” says Håkan Svedhem, ESA’s TGO project scientist. “The test images we have seen so far certainly set the bar high.”



Trace Gas Orbiter at Mars

The ExoMars programme is a joint endeavour between ESA and Roscosmos. The Trace Gas Orbiter is the first of two missions in the programme: the next is scheduled for launch in 2020 and will comprise a rover and a surface science platform. TGO will act as a communication relay for both. It proved this capability earlier this week in the first of a series of relay communications with NASA’s Curiosity rover, highlighting the cooperation between ESA and NASA to maintain a communications infrastructure around Mars for future missions.


Related links:


ExoMars: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/ExoMars


Robotic exploration of Mars: http://exploration.esa.int/


Roscosmos: http://en.federalspace.ru/


ExoMars at IKI: http://exomars.cosmos.ru/


Thales Alenia Space: https://www.thalesgroup.com/en/worldwide/space/space


NASA In 2016 ExoMars orbiter (Electra radio): http://mars.nasa.gov/programmissions/missions/future/exomarsorbiter2016/


Where on Mars?: http://whereonmars.co/


Images, Text, Credits: ESA/Markus Bauer/Håkan Svedhem/University of Bern/Nicolas Thomas/Roscosmos/CaSSIS/ATG medialab.


Best regards, Orbiter.chArchive link


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/04/exomars-returns-first-images-from-new-orbit/

Разоблачи́тель Иерусалим октябрь 2016



Тайны Мира Богов Я против обмана любого рода


и по этому с радостью разоблачаю подобную подделку

Мистификация странные звуки и кольцо облако в Иерусалиме октябрь 2016








Оригинальное видео от мистификатора специалиста по монтажным эффектам.




Он скрыл свой канал и видео, как только его графическая работа стала вирусным роликом в интернете в октябре 2016.




Все его видео основаны на съёмках с наложением компьютерной графики.


 Сделано в программе adobe after effects наверно ученик вуза компьютерного дизайна развлекается.




Так он решил зарабатывать деньги на этом дуря людей.


Он лицензировал свое видео и теперь получает доход со всех каналов и источников, которые используют его видео, наработал около 5000 долларов.















Jerusalem strange sounds viral fake
Фальшивое кольцо облаков из компьютерных эффектов.





Мистификация странные звуки и кольцо облако в...


Оригинальное видео от мистификатора специалиста по монтажным эффектам.




Он скрыл свой канал и видео, как только его графическая работа стала вирусным роликом в интернете в октябре 2016.




Все его видео основаны на съёмках с наложением компьютерной графики.


 Сделано в программе adobe after effects наверно ученик вуза компьютерного дизайна развлекается.




Так он решил зарабатывать деньги на этом дуря людей.


Он лицензировал свое видео и теперь получает доход со всех каналов и источников, которые используют его видео, наработал около 5000 долларов.















Jerusalem strange sounds viral fake
Фальшивое кольцо облаков из компьютерных эффектов.




Тайны Мира Богов Я против обмана любого рода


и по этому с радостью разоблачаю подобную подделку


after his video with strange sounds and ring in the sky of Jerusalem became viral.



Случилось бы такое в реальной жизни, то очевидцев было бы миллионы со всеми камерами и красный уровень тревоги в правительстве.


Вот например несколько каналов, которые помогают мистификаторам зарабатывать дуря людей. Так же мистификаторам помогают сайты, очень крупные и не крупные, так как это самый доступный способ для мистификаторов получения трафика.


В основном это российские ресурсы из крупных, всего два, теперь они перешли на английскую версию и распространяют дезинформацию и чистые мистификации для иностранцев.


Такие чёрные сайты с охотой распространяют всякого рода мистификации и почти никогда реальные и редкие аномальные явления.







hoax strange sky in jerusalem 2016


Мне пишут реальные жители Иерусалима, 

израильтянин пишет, что ничего подобного не было 1 октября 2016 в Израиле, так как эту дату указывают мистификаторы. 1 октября 2016 был шаббат, на небе ни облака и всё в норме.








Facebook


Вот такие сообщения получены от Израильтянина на сайте 


Facebook.

.




Как Лошадь нашла метеорит


Frank Hommel был на конной прогулке, когда лошадь захотела пить он начал искать источники воды на своей земле, вдруг лошадь внезапно остановилась перед странным камнем, торчавшим из земли и отказалась идти дальше.










Лошадь из Техаса нашла крупный метеорит
Видна расплавленная часть метеорита со стороны входа в атмосферу.






Фрэнк подумал, что это может быть метеорит.


Находка совершена 6 апреля 2016


Связавшись с экспертами, догадки были подтверждены, это оказался второй по величине каменный метеорит на территории США.


А самый крупный найденный каменный метеорит упал в Арканзасе в 1930 году.












Связавшись с экспертами догадки были подтверждены, это оказался второй по величине каменный метеорит на территории США.
Frank Hommel и его жена DeeDee 


Общая масса метеорита 345 килограмм.







Тайны Мира Богов


Полагаю, лошадь почувствовала некую особую энергию, ведь метеорит чужероден по отношению к Земле.




Он провёл миллионы лет, а возможно и миллиарды лет в космосе.


А может быть лошади были интересны ощущения,😊

которые вызвала энергетика данного метеорита.

https://tamtainimira.blogspot.ru/2015/11/blog-post_5.html

Ведь лошади необычные животные.













Так как метеорит был найден на земле владельца,👇 владелец в праве продать этот редкий экземпляр за хорошую сумму.




Вот так торчал из земли метеорит в день находки.


метеорит в земле нашла лошадь




Тайны Мира Богов Судя по внешним признакам он упал несколько десятилетий назад, когда еще не было современных видеокамер.




Если бы такой метеорит упал сегодня например ночью, вспышка света от взрыва раскалённой плазмы превысила бы яркость луны в полнолуние.


А днём бы такой метеорит, не остался бы не замеченным на небе.











2018 April 27 Gaia’s Milky Way Image Credit and…


2018 April 27


Gaia’s Milky Way
Image Credit and Copyright: ESA, Gaia, DPAC


Explanation: This grand allsky view of our Milky Way and nearby galaxies is not a photograph. It’s a map based on individual measurements for nearly 1.7 billion stars. The astronomically rich data set used to create it, the sky-scanning Gaia satellite’s second data release, includes remarkably precise determinations of position, brightness, colour, and parallax distance for 1.3 billion stars. Of course, that’s about 1 percent of the total number of stars in the Milky Way. Still, the flat plane of our galaxy dominates the view. Home to most Milky Way stars it stretches across the center of Gaia’s stellar data map. Voids and rifts along the galactic plane correspond to starlight-obscuring interstellar dust clouds. At lower right are stars of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, neighboring galaxies that lie just beyond the Milky Way.


∞ Source: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180427.html


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/04/2018-april-27-gaias-milky-way-image-credit-and/

Лошадь из Техаса нашла крупный метеорит


Frank Hommel был на конной прогулке, когда лошадь захотела пить он начал искать источники воды на своей земле, вдруг лошадь внезапно остановилась перед странным камнем, торчавшим из земли и отказалась идти дальше.










Лошадь из Техаса нашла крупный метеорит
Видна расплавленная часть метеорита со стороны входа в атмосферу.






Фрэнк подумал, что это может быть метеорит.


Находка совершена 6 апреля 2016


Связавшись с экспертами, догадки были подтверждены, это оказался второй по величине каменный метеорит на территории США.


А самый крупный найденный каменный метеорит упал в Арканзасе в 1930 году.












Связавшись с экспертами догадки были подтверждены, это оказался второй по величине каменный метеорит на территории США.
Frank Hommel и его жена DeeDee 


Общая масса метеорита 345 килограмм.







Тайны Мира Богов


Полагаю, лошадь почувствовала некую особую энергию, ведь метеорит чужероден по отношению к Земле.






Он провёл миллионы лет, а возможно и миллиарды лет в космосе.




А может быть лошади были интересны ощущения😊 которые вызвала энергетика данного метеорита. Ведь лошади необычные животные.









Так как метеорит был найден на земле владельца,👇 владелец в праве продать этот редкий экземпляр за хорошую сумму.




Вот так торчал из земли метеорит в день находки.


метеорит в земле нашла лошадь




Тайны Мира Богов Судя по внешним признакам он упал несколько десятилетий назад, когда еще не было современных видеокамер.




Если бы такой метеорит упал сегодня например ночью, вспышка света от взрыва раскалённой плазмы превысила бы яркость луны в полнолуние.


А днём бы такой метеорит, не остался бы не замеченным на небе.









Valerian and the City of a Thousand Planets – Official Teaser Trailer

Rooted in the classic graphic novel series, Valerian and Laureline- visionary writer/director Luc Besson advances this iconic source material into a contemporary, unique and epic science fiction saga.


Valerian and the City of a Thousand Planets


Valerian (Dane DeHaan) and Laureline (Cara Delevingne) are special operatives for the government of the human territories charged with maintaining order throughout the universe.


Observation by pilot over Germany – 1945

Hi all,


In 1967, the late James E McDonald visited Australia. During his time here, he interviewed dozens of Australians about their UAP sightings. Audio recordings of these interviews are archived in the Special Collections at the University of Arizona library, in the USA.


In order to listen to these recordings, it is necessary to purchase a copy of them. Purchasers are not permitted to pass on copies to other people. Due to these restrictions, few Australian UAP researchers have ever been able to listen to these original and useful set of recordings.


During the past few months, Sydney based researcher Anthony Clarke of UFO Research (NSW) Incorporated, and I have listened to 58 of these recordings and taken the time to make a summary of the contents of each. Anthony will shortly be making all the summaries available through the UFO Research (NSW) Incorporated website, for anyone to read.


My initiative, is to extract the more interesting and informative summaries, and present them on this blog. I have already commenced this by publishing the Moe, Victoria, sighting by Charles Brew.


An observation over Germany in 1945

At the time of the sighting Kit Francis Williams was an Acting Squadron Leader in the Royal Air Force (RAF), England. Kit was in the 617 Bomber Squadron based at Woodall Spa, East Lincolnshire, England.


The sighting occurred on the 25 April 1945 while on a bombing mission for Bomber Command’s Special Duties Squadron. Kit was the pilot of the Avro Lancaster bomber, that was the wing finder in the flight group. This was the final bombing mission of the Squadron in the Second World War. The mission comprised 25 to 26 aircraft, and had been tasked to bomb, ‘Hitler’s hideout, Berchtesgaden,’ this was Hitler’s mountain retreat and headquarters at Obersalzberg, in the Bavarian Alps, Germany. These headquarters were also known as the Berghof (residence).


The UFO incident occurred at 9.45 GMT just after a turn near Kaiserslautern, Germany on the final approach to Berchtesgaden. The Lancaster was at an altitude of 16,500 feet (5030 metres), the sky was clear below and the there was a solid cloud cover at 18,500 feet (5640 metres). The nearest aircraft would have been two miles (three kilometres) to the port. The main bomber group, referred to as the, ‘Gaggle’ would have been ten to fifteen miles (16 to 24 kilometres) behind.


Kit, who was the pilot, witnessed, without warning, what he described as, ‘Like a great blanket, a woolly blanket,’ that may have been four to five miles wide (six to eight kilometres). Kit explained that it, ‘Seemed to fill the whole of the windscreen,’ and the colour was grey/brown like, ‘An old army type blanket.’


The object appeared to be moving in the vertical direction past the windscreen of the aircraft, and was gone, ‘In an instant.’


Immediately following this sighting, the only bomb in the aircraft broke loose, from its mounting, and, ‘Crashed,’ through the bomb bay door and out of the aircraft. The bomb was a 12,000 pound (5443 kilograms) armour piercing type, known as a, ‘Tallboy.’ Kit could hear and feel the vibration of the bomb crashing through the bomb bay doors.


At the same time as the bomb loss, the electrical power in the aircraft failed. This resulted in the four propeller engines losing power and therefore the aircraft could not be properly trimmed from the lift

caused by the bomb’s weight loss. All four engine revolution counters started to drop and all other electrically powered instruments ceased to function.


Kit said during the interview that it was, ‘Obvious that my electrics had gone,’ and they were losing height.


The emergency action plan was commenced where the inboard port engine was, ‘Feathered,’ the other three engines continued, ‘Windmilling.’ The, ‘Feathered,’ engine was locked in its starting position and then started using the backup battery power system on the aircraft. The three other engines were successfully started using the same technique since, ’Windmilling,’ engines could not be started without first being, ‘Feathered.’ The aircraft had dropped 4000 feet (1220 metres) to an altitude of 12,000 feet (3658 metres) due to the power loss.


At the same time as Kit was working on starting the first engine when he, ‘Thought he had hit his head on something,’ and a, ‘Sudden sensation of a pounding headache,’ this sensation continued.

Due to the damage caused by the detached bomb, the bomb bay door could not be closed, apart from that there appeared to be no other damage to the aircraft. The other aircraft in the group continued with their bombing mission. Kit’s aircraft returned to the base in England, since they were now without a bomb. Another aircraft in the group apparently saw the bomb being dropped from Kit’s aircraft and the loss of altitude, they did not see anything else, such as, the unidentified object.


Since the headache occurred, Kit was having difficulty getting his reflexes working normally and having to think about an action before its execution. Kit noticed that the Engineer and the Bomber appeared to be having the same experience, of a headache. Kit commented that the Bomber, ‘Gave the impression that someone had walked up behind him, and slapped him hard, between the shoulder blades,’ adding that the Engineer had the same expression. After taking to all the crew he confirmed that they all had the same type of headache. The headaches were so debilitating that they were all taking a variety of pain relief medication that were in the emergency kits in the aircraft.


Because of the condition caused by the headache, Kit had not been able to land the aircraft successfully and ran off the runway at the end, and onto a grass verge. After landing their Lancaster in England an ambulance was waiting for them.


At the time of the incident, Kit was 19 years old, the eldest of the flight crew, the Navigator, was 26 years old.


After effects

Kit told McDonald that after landing the crew and himself were taken for medical treatment and interrogation, over a period of eleven days. They were first transferred to the base hospital then to Wokingham, England. Following this, to the ‘Guinea Pigs,’ hospital at Rauceby RAF, where all the medical specialists were located. They were finally moved to High Wycombe, Bomber Command headquarters and then to the MI9 Enemy Intelligence and Interrogation Centre. The medical treatment consisted of various tests and the taking of medications to mitigate the headache, none of these treatments were successful. Kit commented that he was in a poor state of health because of the incident.


Kit said on the eleventh day is, ‘When the headache dispersed.’ Kit had found out that all the air crew, except the rear gunner, had ceased having headaches on the same day, within 12 hours of each other. The Rear Gunner took three weeks for the headache to dissipate.


The seven crew in the Lancaster were all different physical builds, and apparently that they were all equally effected by the headache. Kit commented to McDonald that he suspected that the unidentified object had caused the power loss in the aircraft, the headaches and loss of physical co-ordination.


Kit explained to McDonald that he knew of a similar event that occurred just after Christmas 1944 when a Hawker Tempest, piloted by John Dunk, lost power over the English Channel. The pilot had bailed out of the aircraft. Another similar event occurred in Nine Squadron during August 1944, when an aircraft lost power and the crew bailed out in the same area as Kit had lost power.


Kit claimed that there were other bomber crews at High Wycombe Bomber Command, at the same time he was there. He noticed that these crews were taken to the same sections in the Command buildings and he therefore speculated that they may have been there because they had similar experiences while flying.


Kit witnesses one other sighting on the 1 January 1955 in the central highlands of Malaysia. He, ‘Was advised that there was a peculiar aircraft flying around the area.’ Therefore, he climbed, with others, at ‘Frasers Hill,’ to observe the unidentified object. He was the Field Security Officer. He did not initially notice anything, but the Tamil who had seen the object previously, climbed a tree to get a better view. Kit said that the Tamil, ‘Right out of the blue he started screaming has head off,’ and came down the tree to point, and he observed, ‘There was a puff, looked like a puff of green like smoke, like you would see from a smoke bomb.’ The, ‘Puff,’ was six to seven hundred feet (180 to 210 metres) above the tops of the mountains.


As it expanded Kit took several photographs until it dispersed over a period of six or seven minutes. The colour of the, ‘Puff,’ was described by Kit as being, ‘Bright sea green.’ Apparently, the Tamil has seen a flash of light before the, ‘Puff.’ At that time, he had the same feeling that the headache may reoccur, like the one he had in 1945. This discomfort lasted for about an hour and then dissipated. The Tamil had previously sighted the, ‘Peculiar aircraft,’ and described it as being like a flat shinny ball and without any noise.


Kit told Mc Donald that he resided at, Ortolan Avenue, Broadmeadows, Victoria. His telephone number was 309 2468.


Kit said that he had no lasting disability because of the incident in 1944. After leaving the hospital he commenced flying two weeks later with a doctor and another pilot on board to access his ability for flying. He later joined the Tiger Force, in Burma, and after that he worked at London University. He went to Japan after their surrender, at the end of the Second World War, and eventually moved to Australia.


When he had the second headache in 1955 he, ‘Had the impression that one was around,’ referring to the unidentified object.


Kit thought, at the meetings with other air crew, that talk of UFO activity is, ‘Conspicuous by absence.’ He also claimed that religious people are not comfortable with discussing the reality of UFOs. Source Unidentified Aerial Phenomena – scientific research


Listen to what SIA says about…


Listen to what SIA says about aliens………..interesting


Source Space Invaders


The building blocks for DNA could have been generated or…


The building blocks for DNA could have been generated or combined within these interstellar clouds of the amazing Bubble Nebula!


News, Photos and Videos about Space Discoveries


“Daytime” asteroids will see Russian satellite

Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences of the Outer Space agreed on the parameters of the project to create a monitoring system of celestial bodies approaching the Earth. Scientific research work “day asteroid detection system” (SODA) and “SODA-detection” will begin in 2017. It is assumed that the built system will detect celestial bodies with a diameter greater than 10 m for four hours before the estimated time of entry into the atmosphere.


SODA -
Russian SODA – “detection system daytime asteroids”

The minutes of the RAS Council on space solutions states that the purpose of research SODA – detection and monitoring of hazardous celestial bodies approaching the Earth from the sun. The budget for the year 2017 – 10 million rubles. As part of the research “SODA-detection” is planned to mathematical modeling of the space complex SODA, the budget of the project – 2.5 million rubles. The prime contractor of this work stands the Institute of Astronomy (russian INASAN).


The mystery of the Sintashta people

During the Middle to Late Bronze Age, the steppes southeast of the Ural Mountains, in what is now Russia, were home to communities of metallurgists who buried their warriors with horses and the earliest examples of the spoked-wheel battle chariot.
We don’t know what they called themselves, because they didn’t leave any written texts, but their archaeological culture is commonly known as Sintashta. It was named after a river near one of their main settlements; an elaborate fortified town that has also been described as an ancient metallurgical industrial center. Another of their well known settlements, very similar to Sintashta, is Arkaim, pictured below courtesy of Wikipedia.



Sintashta is arguably one of the coolest ancient cultures ever discovered by archaeologists. It’s also generally accepted to be the Proto-Indo-Iranian culture, and thus linguistically ancestral to a myriad of present-day peoples of Asia, including Indo-Aryans and Persians. No wonder then, that its origin, and that of its population, have been hotly debated issues.
The leading hypothesis based on archaeological data is that Sintashta is largely derived from the more westerly and warlike Abashevo culture, which occupied much of the forest steppe north of the Black and Caspian Seas. In turn, Abashevo is usually described as an eastern offshoot of the Late Neolithic Corded Ware Culture (CWC), which is generally seen as the first Indo-European archaeological culture in Northern Europe (see here).
Below is a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) featuring 38 Sintashta individuals from the recent Narasimhan et al. 2018 preprint. Note that the main Sintashta cluster overlaps almost perfectly with the main CWC cluster. The relevant datasheet is available here.



Moreover, many ancient and present-day South and Central Asians, particularly those identified with or speaking Indo-Iranian languages, appear to be strongly attracted to the main Sintashta cluster, forming an almost perfect cline between this cluster and the likely Indus Valley diaspora individuals who show no evidence of steppe ancestry.
This is in line with mixture models based on formal statistics showing significant Sintashta-related ancestry in Indo-Iranian-speakers (for instance, see here), and high frequencies of Y-haplogroup R1a-Z93 in both the Sintashta and many Indo-Iranian-speaking populations.
Some of the Sintashta samples are outliers from the main Sintashta cluster, and that’s because they harbor elevated levels of ancestry related to the Mesolithic and Neolithic foragers of Eastern Europe and/or Western Siberia. This is especially true of a pair of individuals who belong to Y-haplogroup Q. However, this doesn’t contradict archaeological data, which suggest that the Sintashta community may have been multi-cultural and multi-lingual. Indeed, it’s generally accepted based on historical linguistics data that there were fairly intense contacts in North Eurasia between the speakers of Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Uralic and Yeniseian languages.
Thus, it appears that there’s not much left to debate because ancient DNA has seemingly backed up the most widely accepted hypotheses about the origin of Sintashta, its people, and their identification mainly as Proto-Indo-Iranian-speakers.
However, a sample from a Sredny Stog II culture burial on the North Pontic steppe, in what is now eastern Ukraine, has complicated matters somewhat. This individual, known as Ukraine_Eneolithic I6561, not only clusters very strongly with the most typical Sintashta samples, but also belongs to Y-haplogroup R1a-Z93. On the other hand, none of the CWC remains sequenced to date belong to this particular subclade of R1a (although, obviously, they do belong to a host of near and far related R1a subclades).
I’ve never seen anyone worth reading propose that Sintashta might derive from Sredny Stog II instead of Abashevo. And no wonder, because Sredny Stog II was long gone when Sintashta appeared in the archaeological record.
However, if CWC remains continue to fail to produce R1a-Z93, while, at the same time, the steppes of eastern Ukraine and surrounds are shown to be a hotbed of R1a-Z93 from the Sredny Stog to the Sintashta periods, which I think is possible, then ancient DNA might well force a serious re-examination of how the awesome Sintashta culture and people came to be.
See also…
On the doorstep of India
The beast among Y-haplogroups

Source


https://xissufotoday.space/2018/04/the-mystery-of-the-sintashta-people/

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